echinococcus

Summary

Summary: A genus of very small TAPEWORMS, in the family Taeniidae. The adult form is found in various CARNIVORA but not humans. The larval form is seen in humans under certain epidemiologic circumstances.

Top Publications

  1. Lahmar S, Debbek H, Zhang L, McManus D, Souissi A, Chelly S, et al. Transmission dynamics of the Echinococcus granulosus sheep-dog strain (G1 genotype) in camels in Tunisia. Vet Parasitol. 2004;121:151-6 pubmed
    Cystic echinococcosis, caused by Echinococcus granulosus, is highly endemic in North Africa and the Middle East. This paper examines the abundance and prevalence of infection of E. granulosus in camels in Tunisia...
  2. Manfras B, Reuter S, Wendland T, Boehm B, Kern P. Impeded Th1 CD4 memory T cell generation in chronic-persisting liver infection with Echinococcus multilocularis. Int Immunol. 2004;16:43-50 pubmed
    ..It is unknown to what extent cellular immunity can be induced by Echinococcus multilocularis infection...
  3. Danson F, Graham A, Pleydell D, Campos Ponce M, Giraudoux P, Craig P. Multi-scale spatial analysis of human alveolar echinococcosis risk in China. Parasitology. 2003;127 Suppl:S133-41 pubmed
    Risk factors for the transmission of Echinococcus multilocularis to humans operate at a range of spatial scales...
  4. Ito A, Nakao M, Sako Y. Echinococcosis: serological detection of patients and molecular identification of parasites. Future Microbiol. 2007;2:439-49 pubmed
    ..Novel aspects of molecular phylogenetic studies on the genus Echinococcus will also be addressed, including the description of Echinococcus shiquicus as a new sister-species of ..
  5. Nakao M, Yanagida T, Konyaev S, Lavikainen A, Odnokurtsev V, Zaikov V, et al. Mitochondrial phylogeny of the genus Echinococcus (Cestoda: Taeniidae) with emphasis on relationships among Echinococcus canadensis genotypes. Parasitology. 2013;140:1625-36 pubmed publisher
    The mitochondrial genomes of the genus Echinococcus have already been sequenced for most species and genotypes to reconstruct their phylogeny. However, two important taxa, E. felidis and E...
  6. Craig P, Li T, Qiu J, Zhen R, Wang Q, Giraudoux P, et al. Echinococcosis and Tibetan communities. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:1674-5 pubmed publisher
  7. Huttner M, Romig T. Echinococcus species in African wildlife. Parasitology. 2009;136:1089-95 pubmed publisher
    Cystic echinococcosis, caused by different species of the Echinococcus granulosus complex, is an important zoonotic disease with a particular impact on pastoralist societies...
  8. Ahmed M, Eltom K, Musa N, Ali I, Elamin F, Grobusch M, et al. First report on circulation of Echinococcus ortleppi in the one humped camel (Camelus dromedaries), Sudan. BMC Vet Res. 2013;9:127 pubmed publisher
    b>Echinococcus granulosus (EG) complex, the cause of cystic echinococcosis (CE), infects humans and several other animal species worldwide and hence the disease is of public health importance...
  9. Gonzalez L, Ferrer E, Spickett A, Michael L, Vatta A, Garate T, et al. The Taenia saginata homologue of the major surface antigen of Echinococcus spp. is immunogenic and 97% identical to its Taenia solium homologue. Parasitol Res. 2007;101:1541-9 pubmed
    The TEG-Tsag gene of Taenia saginata is homologous to the genes expressing the two major surface antigens of Echinococcus spp. (EM10 and EG10)...

More Information

Publications90

  1. Schneider R, Gollackner B, Edel B, Schmid K, Wrba F, Tucek G, et al. Development of a new PCR protocol for the detection of species and genotypes (strains) of Echinococcus in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Int J Parasitol. 2008;38:1065-71 pubmed publisher
    The aim of our study was to establish a new PCR protocol for the detection and discrimination of Echinococcus granulosus complex on one hand and Echinococcus multilocularis in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues (FFPTs) on the other...
  2. Ito A, Chuluunbaatar G, Yanagida T, Davaasuren A, Sumiya B, Asakawa M, et al. Echinococcus species from red foxes, corsac foxes, and wolves in Mongolia. Parasitology. 2013;140:1648-54 pubmed publisher
    ..111 corsac foxes, 191 red foxes and 118 wolves) from Mongolia, were examined for adult worms of the genus Echinococcus. The Mongolian genotype of Echinococcus multilocularis was found in fifteen red foxes and four wolves, whereas ..
  3. Nakao M, Li T, Han X, Ma X, Xiao N, Qiu J, et al. Genetic polymorphisms of Echinococcus tapeworms in China as determined by mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Int J Parasitol. 2010;40:379-85 pubmed publisher
    The genetic polymorphisms of Echinococcus spp...
  4. Huang Y, Yang W, Qiu J, Chen X, Yang Y, Qiu D, et al. A modified coproantigen test used for surveillance of Echinococcus spp. in Tibetan dogs. Vet Parasitol. 2007;149:229-38 pubmed
    Recently an immunological test for Echinococcus spp. antigens in dog faeces has been developed. The antigens appear to be carbohydrates, which survive proteolytic digestion and environmental degradation...
  5. Jiang W, Liu N, Zhang G, Renqing P, Xie F, Li T, et al. Specific detection of Echinococcus spp. from the Tibetan fox (Vulpes ferrilata) and the red fox (V. vulpes) using copro-DNA PCR analysis. Parasitol Res. 2012;111:1531-9 pubmed
    There are three Echinococcus species, Echinococcus granulosus, E. multilocularis, and E. shiquicus, which are distributed on the vast area of pastureland on the eastern Tibetan plateau in China...
  6. Zhang W, Ross A, McManus D. Mechanisms of immunity in hydatid disease: implications for vaccine development. J Immunol. 2008;181:6679-85 pubmed
    The Echinococcus organisms, the cause of echinococcosis (hydatid disease), are parasitic helminths with life cycles involving a carnivorous definitive host (usually dog or fox) and an intermediate host (human, ungulate, or rodent)...
  7. Hüttner M, Siefert L, Mackenstedt U, Romig T. A survey of Echinococcus species in wild carnivores and livestock in East Africa. Int J Parasitol. 2009;39:1269-76 pubmed publisher
    We examined 71 faecal samples of carnivores from Queen Elizabeth National Park (QENP), Uganda, for eggs of Echinococcus species. Thirty-nine faecal samples contained taeniid eggs...
  8. Martin R, Colebrook A, Gasser R, Lightowlers M. Antibody responses of patients with cystic hydatid disease to recombinant myophilin of Echinococcus granulosus. Acta Trop. 1996;61:307-14 pubmed
    Hydatid patients were investigated for the presence of specific serum antibodies against a recombinant Echinococcus granulosus antigen, designated myophilin...
  9. Soares M, Moreira Silva C, Alves M, Nunes H, Amaral I, Moia L, et al. [Polycystic echinococcosis in the Eastern Brazilian Amazon: an update]. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2004;37 Suppl 2:75-83 pubmed
    ..5% belonged to the masculine sex. The liver was the attacked organ (82.5% of the cases). The Echinococcus vogeli (Rausch and Bernstein, 1972), comes as the main agent involved...
  10. Tappe D, Stich A, Frosch M. Emergence of polycystic neotropical echinococcosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:292-7 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the parasites responsible, Echinococcus oligarthrus, had been discovered in its adult strobilar stage before 1850...
  11. Thompson R. The taxonomy, phylogeny and transmission of Echinococcus. Exp Parasitol. 2008;119:439-46 pubmed publisher
    ..A revised taxonomy for species in the genus Echinococcus has been proposed and widely accepted, particularly with respect to forms maintained in transmission cycles ..
  12. Allan J, Craig P. Coproantigens in taeniasis and echinococcosis. Parasitol Int. 2006;55 Suppl:S75-80 pubmed
    ..For Echinococcus species, there is a broad positive correlation between test sensitivity and worm burden with a reliable ..
  13. Siles Lucas M, Merli M, Gottstein B. 14-3-3 proteins in Echinococcus: their role and potential as protective antigens. Exp Parasitol. 2008;119:516-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The 14-3-3 proteins have been described and characterized in several parasites, and mostly studied in Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis...
  14. Galindo M, Paredes R, Marchant C, Mino V, Galanti N. Regionalization of DNA and protein synthesis in developing stages of the parasitic platyhelminth Echinococcus granulosus. J Cell Biochem. 2003;90:294-303 pubmed
    b>Echinococcus granulosus is a parasitic platyhelminth, which causes cystid hydatid disease, a major zoonosis involving canids as definitive hosts, and both human and herbivorous domestic animals as intermediate hosts...
  15. Somocurcio J, Sánchez E, Naquira C, Schilder J, Rojas F, Chacón P, et al. First report of a human case of polycystic echinococcosis due to Echinococcus vogeli from neotropical area of Peru, South America. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2004;46:41-2 pubmed
    We report a human case of polycystic hidatidosis due to Echinococcus vogeli from Contamana (Department of Loreto) village located in the central jungle of Peru...
  16. McManus D. Current status of the genetics and molecular taxonomy of Echinococcus species. Parasitology. 2013;140:1617-23 pubmed publisher
    The taxonomy of Echinococcus has long been controversial. Based mainly on differences in morphology and host-parasite specificity characteristics, 16 species and 13 subspecies were originally described...
  17. Moro P, Schantz P. Echinococcosis: a review. Int J Infect Dis. 2009;13:125-33 pubmed publisher
    Echinococcosis in humans occurs as a result of infection by the larval stages of taeniid cestodes of the genus Echinococcus. In this review we discuss aspects of the biology, life cycle, etiology, distribution, and transmission of the ..
  18. Lavikainen A, Lehtinen M, Meri T, Hirvelä Koski V, Meri S. Molecular genetic characterization of the Fennoscandian cervid strain, a new genotypic group (G10) of Echinococcus granulosus. Parasitology. 2003;127:207-15 pubmed
    The northern biotype of Echinococcus granulosus occurs in North America and northern Eurasia in life-cycles involving cervids. Previously, cervid isolates of E...
  19. Ishikawa H, Ohga Y, Doi R. A model for the transmission of Echinococcus multilocularis in Hokkaido, Japan. Parasitol Res. 2003;91:444-51 pubmed
    A mathematical model for Echinococcus multilocularis transmission would be useful for estimating its prevalence and determining control strategies. We propose a mathematical model which quantitatively describes the transmission of E...
  20. Deplazes P, Dinkel A, Mathis A. Molecular tools for studies on the transmission biology of Echinococcus multilocularis. Parasitology. 2003;127 Suppl:S53-61 pubmed
    Two novel approaches for diagnosis of intestinal Echinococcus multilocularis infection, the detection of E. multilocularis-specific coproantigens in ELISA and of copro-DNA by PCR, have been successfully implemented...
  21. Omer R, Dinkel A, Romig T, Mackenstedt U, Elnahas A, Aradaib I, et al. A molecular survey of cystic echinococcosis in Sudan. Vet Parasitol. 2010;169:340-6 pubmed publisher
    ..532 of these cysts were examined by PCR and could be overwhelmingly (98.7%) allocated to Echinococcus canadensis G6/7 (all of 215 cysts from camels, 112 of 114 cysts from cattle, 134 of 138 cysts from sheep, and ..
  22. Abbasi I, Branzburg A, Campos Ponce M, Abdel Hafez S, Raoul F, Craig P, et al. Copro-diagnosis of Echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs by amplification of a newly identified repeated DNA sequence. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003;69:324-30 pubmed
    Diagnosis of Echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs by detecting adult worms recovered post mortem or purged from the intestines after treatment with arecoline is not suitable for mass screening...
  23. Bart J, Bardonnet K, Elfegoun M, Dumon H, Dia L, Vuitton D, et al. Echinococcus granulosus strain typing in North Africa: comparison of eight nuclear and mitochondrial DNA fragments. Parasitology. 2004;128:229-34 pubmed
    Recent studies of Echinococcus granulosus molecular strain typing have enabled a better understanding of the transmission cycle of cystic echinococcosis...
  24. Schantz P, Wang H, Qiu J, Liu F, Saito E, Emshoff A, et al. Echinococcosis on the Tibetan Plateau: prevalence and risk factors for cystic and alveolar echinococcosis in Tibetan populations in Qinghai Province, China. Parasitology. 2003;127 Suppl:S109-20 pubmed
    Infections by larval stages of tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus (echinococcosis or hydatid disease) are zoonotic infections of major public health importance throughout much of the world...
  25. Fraize M, Sarciron M, Saboulard D, Azzouz S, Debard A, Bosquet G, et al. An in vitro model to evaluate the cytokine response in Echinococcus infections. Parasitol Res. 2004;92:506-12 pubmed
    ..The antigens tested, EgA31, EgTrp, and FABP1, are candidates for vaccines in infections caused by Echinococcus spp. in the gut...
  26. Turceková L, Šnábel V, D Amelio S, Busi M, Dubinsky P. Morphological and genetic characterization of Echinococcus granulosus in the Slovak Republic. Acta Trop. 2003;85:223-9 pubmed
    ..striking morphological variability, a low degree of the intra-strain variability was found in the Slovak Echinococcus granulosus isolates with the genetic methods used...
  27. Hegglin D, Ward P, Deplazes P. Anthelmintic baiting of foxes against urban contamination with Echinococcus multilocularis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:1266-72 pubmed
  28. Dinkel A, Njoroge E, Zimmermann A, Wälz M, Zeyhle E, Elmahdi I, et al. A PCR system for detection of species and genotypes of the Echinococcus granulosus-complex, with reference to the epidemiological situation in eastern Africa. Int J Parasitol. 2004;34:645-53 pubmed
    We describe the development of a specific and sensitive PCR/semi-nested PCR system for the rapid diagnosis of Echinococcus granulosus genotype G1, E. granulosus genotype G6/7, and Echinococcus ortleppi (G5)...
  29. Breyer I, Georgieva D, Kurdova R, Gottstein B. Echinococcus granulosus strain typing in Bulgaria: the G1 genotype is predominant in intermediate and definitive wild hosts. Parasitol Res. 2004;93:127-30 pubmed
    Addressing the genetic variability in Echinococcus granulosus is epidemiologically important, as strain characteristics may influence the local transmission patterns of zoonotic cystic echinococcosis...
  30. Ahmadi N. Using morphometry of the larval rostellar hooks to distinguish Iranian strains of Echinococcus granulosus. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2004;98:211-20 pubmed
    ..It appears that morphometry of the rostellar hooks on the protoscoleces of the causative parasite, Echinococcus granulosus, can be used to separate the strains or variants of the parasite to be found in humans and livestock ..
  31. Torgerson P, Shaikenov B, Rysmukhambetova A, Ussenbayev A, Abdybekova A, Burtisurnov K. Modelling the transmission dynamics of Echinococcus granulosus in dogs in rural Kazakhstan. Parasitology. 2003;126:417-24 pubmed
    Cystic echinococcosis, caused by Echinococcus granulosus, is an emerging disease in many parts of the world and, in particular, in eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. This paper examines the abundance of infection of E...
  32. Malczewski A, Borecka A, Malczewska M, Gawor J. [An attempt to determine intermediate hosts of the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in Poland]. Wiad Parazytol. 2008;54:137-41 pubmed
    b>Echinococcus multilocularis, a tiny tapeworm (2-3 mm in length) occurs in the small intestine of red foxes and raccoon dogs in Poland...
  33. Myjak P, Nahorski W, Pietkiewicz H, von Nickisch Rosenegk M, Stolarczyk J, Kacprzak E, et al. Molecular confirmation of human alveolar echinococcosis in Poland. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;37:e121-5 pubmed
    Infections of humans with Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis (AE), a zoonosis, have been described with increasing frequency in Poland since 1994...
  34. Walker M, Baz A, Dematteis S, Stettler M, Gottstein B, Schaller J, et al. Isolation and characterization of a secretory component of Echinococcus multilocularis metacestodes potentially involved in modulating the host-parasite interface. Infect Immun. 2004;72:527-36 pubmed
    b>Echinococcus multilocularis metacestodes are fluid-filled, vesicle-like organisms, which are characterized by continuous asexual proliferation via external budding of daughter vesicles, predominantly in the livers of infected individuals...
  35. Hansen F, Tackmann K, Jeltsch F, Wissel C, Thulke H. Controlling Echinococcus multilocularis-ecological implications of field trials. Prev Vet Med. 2003;60:91-105 pubmed
    Two field trials to reduce the prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in foxes have been conducted in recent years. Although both trials reduced prevalence considerably, they failed to eradicate the parasite in the study region...
  36. van der Giessen J, Rombout Y, Teunis P. Base line prevalence and spatial distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis in a newly recognized endemic area in the Netherlands. Vet Parasitol. 2004;119:27-35 pubmed
    The base line prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in foxes was determined in the eastern part of the province of Groningen in the Netherlands adjacent to the German border...
  37. Elayoubi F, Craig P. Echinococcus granulosus coproantigens: chromatographic fractionation and characterization. Parasitology. 2004;128:455-65 pubmed
    Dogs infected with adult tapeworms of Echinococcus granulosus release antigens (coproantigens) in faeces which can be detected by a capture ELISA. Supernatants prepared from E...
  38. Jakobsson E, Alvite G, Bergfors T, Esteves A, Kleywegt G. The crystal structure of Echinococcus granulosus fatty-acid-binding protein 1. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003;1649:40-50 pubmed
    ..6 A crystal structure of the fatty-acid-binding protein EgFABP1 from the parasitic platyhelminth Echinococcus granulosus. E. granulosus causes hydatid disease, which is a major zoonosis...
  39. Losson B, Kervyn T, Detry J, Pastoret P, Mignon B, Brochier B. Prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in southern Belgium. Vet Parasitol. 2003;117:23-8 pubmed
    ..The identification of Echinococcus multilocularis was based on morphological data. E. multilocularis adults were observed in 20.2% of the animals...
  40. Moro P, Garcia H, Gonzales A, Bonilla J, Verastegui M, Gilman R. Screening for cystic echinococcosis in an endemic region of Peru using portable ultrasonography and the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay. Parasitol Res. 2005;96:242-6 pubmed
    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by the larval form of Echinococcus granulosus is a major public health problem in sheep-raising regions of the World...
  41. Jenkins D, Romig T, Thompson R. Emergence/re-emergence of Echinococcus spp.--a global update. Int J Parasitol. 2005;35:1205-19 pubmed
    This review provides an update of the biological aspects of the genus Echinococcus and focuses on newly recognized endemic areas...
  42. Thompson R, Boxell A, Ralston B, Constantine C, Hobbs R, Shury T, et al. Molecular and morphological characterization of Echinococcus in cervids from North America. Parasitology. 2006;132:439-47 pubmed
    Many issues concerning the taxonomy of Echinococcus have been resolved in recent years with the application of molecular tools...
  43. Yang Y, Clements A, Gray D, Atkinson J, Williams G, Barnes T, et al. Impact of anthropogenic and natural environmental changes on Echinococcus transmission in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, the People's Republic of China. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:146 pubmed publisher
    b>Echinococcus transmission is known to be affected by various environmental factors, which may be modified by human influence or natural events including global warming...
  44. Kang M, Lee S, Kim S, Chei Y, Park J, Park D, et al. [A case of multiple intraperitoneal cysts from ruptured hepatic hydatid cysts]. Korean J Gastroenterol. 2007;50:203-6 pubmed
    Hydatid disease is a parasitic infestation caused by the larval form of the cestode worms Echinococcus. In humans, the most commonly affected organs are liver and lung...
  45. Monteiro D, Botton S, Tonin A, Azevedo M, Graichen D, Noal C, et al. Echinococcus canadensis (G7) and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1) in swine of southern Brazil. Vet Parasitol. 2014;202:335-8 pubmed publisher
    The cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important zoonotic disease caused by the parasite Echinococcus spp...
  46. Li J, Zhang W, Wilson M, Ito A, McManus D. A novel recombinant antigen for immunodiagnosis of human cystic echinococcosis. J Infect Dis. 2003;188:1951-60 pubmed
    A pool of serum samples from mice infected with oncospheres (eggs) of Echinococcus granulosus was used to screen a cDNA library constructed with RNA extracted from protoscolex larvae from sheep hydatid cysts...
  47. Devi C, Parija S. A new serum hydatid antigen detection test for diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003;69:525-8 pubmed
    ..The present study is the first report of the LAT for the detection of hydatid antigen in serum in the diagnosis of CE...
  48. Joly D, Messier F. The distribution of Echinococcus granulosus in moose: evidence for parasite-induced vulnerability to predation by wolves?. Oecologia. 2004;140:586-90 pubmed
    ..b>Echinococcus granulosus is a tapeworm that relies on the predator-prey relationship between the definitive host (wolf, Canis ..
  49. Kamenetzky L, Gutierrez A, Canova S, Haag K, Guarnera E, Parra A, et al. Several strains of Echinococcus granulosus infect livestock and humans in Argentina. Infect Genet Evol. 2002;2:129-36 pubmed
    ..region of the cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (MDH) gene were used to determine the extent and distribution of Echinococcus granulosus genetic variation in Argentina. Five distinct strains of E...
  50. Chow C, Gauci C, Cowman A, Lightowlers M. Echinococcus granulosus: oncosphere-specific transcription of genes encoding a host-protective antigen. Exp Parasitol. 2004;106:183-6 pubmed
    A recombinant antigen vaccine has been developed which is effective in preventing the hydatid parasite, Echinococcus granulosus from infecting its animal intermediate hosts...
  51. Virginio V, Hernandez A, Rott M, Monteiro K, Zandonai A, Nieto A, et al. A set of recombinant antigens from Echinococcus granulosus with potential for use in the immunodiagnosis of human cystic hydatid disease. Clin Exp Immunol. 2003;132:309-15 pubmed
    Several recombinant clones expressing antigens from Echinococcus granulosus were isolated previously from a parasite cDNA library using cystic hydatid disease (CHD) patients' sera or rabbit hyperimmune antiserum against a lipoproteic ..
  52. Gonzalez Sapienza G, Cachau R. Identification of critical residues of an immunodominant region of Echinococcus granulosus antigen B. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:20179-84 pubmed
    ..We recently found that the N-terminal extension of the major subunit of Echinococcus granulosus antigen B (AgB), the causative agent of hydatid disease, concentrates the immunoreactive B cell ..
  53. Soriano S, Pierangeli N, Pianciola L, Mazzeo M, Lazzarini L, Saiz M, et al. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus isolates indicates goats as reservoir for Echinococcus canadensis G6 genotype in Neuquén, Patagonia Argentina. Parasitol Int. 2010;59:626-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Human infection due to Echinococcus canadensis (G6 genotype) is frequent in Neuquén...
  54. de la Rue M, Takano K, Brochado J, Costa C, Soares A, Yamano K, et al. Infection of humans and animals with Echinococcus granulosus (G1 and G3 strains) and E. ortleppi in Southern Brazil. Vet Parasitol. 2011;177:97-103 pubmed publisher
    ..The sheep strain (G1) of Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus ortleppi (also known as cattle strain G5) have been reported before to infect ..
  55. Raoul F, Michelat D, Ordinaire M, Décoté Y, Aubert M, Delattre P, et al. Echinococcus multilocularis: secondary poisoning of fox population during a vole outbreak reduces environmental contamination in a high endemicity area. Int J Parasitol. 2003;33:945-54 pubmed
    This paper describes the role of fox population level on Echinococcus multilocularis infection in foxes in a highly endemic area in eastern France...
  56. Stefanic S, Shaikenov B, Deplazes P, Dinkel A, Torgerson P, Mathis A. Polymerase chain reaction for detection of patent infections of Echinococcus granulosus ("sheep strain") in naturally infected dogs. Parasitol Res. 2004;92:347-51 pubmed
    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the identification of eggs of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus ("sheep strain") was evaluated with primers derived from mitochondrial sequences...
  57. Konyaev S, Yanagida T, Nakao M, Ingovatova G, Shoykhet Y, Bondarev A, et al. Genetic diversity of Echinococcus spp. in Russia. Parasitology. 2013;140:1637-47 pubmed publisher
    ..study aimed to identify the aetiological agents of the diseases and to investigate the distribution of each Echinococcus species in Russia. A total of 75 Echinococcus specimens were collected from 14 host species from 2010 to 2012...
  58. Jenkins D, Morris B. Echinococcus granulosus in wildlife in and around the Kosciuszko National Park, south-eastern Australia. Aust Vet J. 2003;81:81-5 pubmed
    To investigate the distribution of Echinococcus granulosus in wild dogs and foxes and hydatidosis in wildlife coexisting with foxes and wild dogs in and around Kosciuszko National Park.
  59. Deplazes P, Hegglin D, Gloor S, Romig T. Wilderness in the city: the urbanization of Echinococcus multilocularis. Trends Parasitol. 2004;20:77-84 pubmed
    ..This is of particular concern in endemic regions of the small fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, the aetiological agent of human alveolar echinococcosis...
  60. Esteves A, Señorale M, Ehrlich R. A tropomyosin gene is differentially expressed in the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. Parasitol Res. 2003;89:501-2 pubmed
  61. Pleydell D, Raoul F, Tourneux F, Danson F, Graham A, Craig P, et al. Modelling the spatial distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis infection in foxes. Acta Trop. 2004;91:253-65 pubmed
    Alveolar echinococcosis is a rare but fatal disease in humans and is caused by the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. The densities of fox and grassland rodent populations and the interactions between them influence E...
  62. Nakao M, McManus D, Schantz P, Craig P, Ito A. A molecular phylogeny of the genus Echinococcus inferred from complete mitochondrial genomes. Parasitology. 2007;134:713-22 pubmed
    Taxonomic revision by molecular phylogeny is needed to categorize members of the genus Echinococcus (Cestoda: Taeniidae). We have reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships of E. oligarthrus, E. vogeli, E. multilocularis, E...
  63. Ma J, Wang H, Lin G, Craig P, Ito A, Cai Z, et al. Molecular identification of Echinococcus species from eastern and southern Qinghai, China, based on the mitochondrial cox1 gene. Parasitol Res. 2012;111:179-84 pubmed publisher
    ..QTP, in western China), which is the largest and highest plateau on Earth, is a highly epidemic region for Echinococcus spp...
  64. Knapp J, Chirica M, Simonnet C, Grenouillet F, Bart J, Sako Y, et al. Echinococcus vogeli infection in a hunter, French Guiana. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:2029-31 pubmed publisher
    b>Echinococcus vogeli infection in a hunter from the rain forest of French Guiana was confirmed by imaging and mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis. Serologic examination showed typical patterns for both alveolar and cystic echinococcosis...
  65. Tang C, Wang Y, Peng W, Tang L, Chen D. Alveolar Echinococcus species from Vulpes corsac in Hulunbeier, Inner Mongolia, China, and differential development of the metacestodes in experimental rodents. J Parasitol. 2006;92:719-24 pubmed
    Adults of alveolar Echinococcus species with different uterine structures were collected from Vulpes corsac in the Hulunbeier Pasture of Northeastern China in 2001. They were Echinococcus multilocularis Leuckart, 1863 (type No...
  66. Gonzalez L, Daniel Mwambete K, Montero E, Rosenzvit M, McManus D, Garate T, et al. Further molecular discrimination of Spanish strains of Echinococcus granulosus. Exp Parasitol. 2002;102:46-56 pubmed
    ..sets (PEg9F1-PEg9R1 and PEg16F1-PEg16R1) and two PCR protocols (Eg9-PCR and Eg16-PCR) for discrimination of Echinococcus granulosus genotypes. The oligonucleotide sequences originate from two E...
  67. Nakao M, Lavikainen A, Yanagida T, Ito A. Phylogenetic systematics of the genus Echinococcus (Cestoda: Taeniidae). Int J Parasitol. 2013;43:1017-29 pubmed publisher
    ..The pathogenic organisms are members of the genus Echinococcus (Cestoda: Taeniidae). Life cycles of Echinococcus spp...
  68. Sréter T, Széll Z, Egyed Z, Varga I. Echinococcus multilocularis: an emerging pathogen in Hungary and Central Eastern Europe?. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:384-6 pubmed
    b>Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of human alveolar echinococcosis, is reported for the first time in Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Hungary...
  69. Dematteis S, Rottenberg M, Baz A. Cytokine response and outcome of infection depends on the infective dose of parasites in experimental infection by Echinococcus granulosus. Parasite Immunol. 2003;25:189-97 pubmed
    We here analysed whether the cytokine responses in early and late experimental infection with Echinococcus granulosus depend on the dose of parasites to which the host is exposed...
  70. Smego R, Bhatti S, Khaliq A, Beg M. Percutaneous aspiration-injection-reaspiration drainage plus albendazole or mebendazole for hepatic cystic echinococcosis: a meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;37:1073-83 pubmed
    ..0 days for group 2 (P<.001). Compared with surgery, PAIR plus chemotherapy is associated with greater clinical and parasitologic efficacy; lower rates of morbidity, mortality, and disease recurrence; and shorter hospital stays...
  71. Haag K, Gottstein B, Ayala F. The EG95 antigen of Echinococcus spp. contains positively selected amino acids, which may influence host specificity and vaccine efficacy. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5362 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, a vaccine was developed showing high levels of protection against one parasite haplotype (G1) of Echinococcus granulosus, and its potential efficacy against distinct parasite variants or species is still unclear...
  72. Eckert J, Deplazes P. Biological, epidemiological, and clinical aspects of echinococcosis, a zoonosis of increasing concern. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2004;17:107-35 pubmed
    ..in humans is a zoonotic infection caused by larval stages (metacestodes) of cestode species of the genus Echinococcus. Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is caused by Echinococcus granulosus, alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is caused by E...
  73. Macpherson C, Bartholomot B, Frider B. Application of ultrasound in diagnosis, treatment, epidemiology, public health and control of Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis. Parasitology. 2003;127 Suppl:S21-35 pubmed
    ..is being increasingly applied to a wide variety of parasitic infections including the cestode zoonoses Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis...
  74. Wang Q, Vuitton D, Qiu J, Giraudoux P, Xiao Y, Schantz P, et al. Fenced pasture: a possible risk factor for human alveolar echinococcosis in Tibetan pastoralist communities of Sichuan, China. Acta Trop. 2004;90:285-93 pubmed
    Alveolar echinococcosis, infection caused by the parasitic helminth Echinococcus multilocularis, is a zoonosis strongly linked to climatic and ecological factors...
  75. Carmena D, Martinez J, Benito A, Guisantes J. Characterization of excretory-secretory products from protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus and evaluation of their potential for immunodiagnosis of human cystic echinococcosis. Parasitology. 2004;129:371-8 pubmed
    This study describes, for the first time, the characterization of excretory-secretory antigens (ES-Ag) from Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces, evaluating their usefulness in the immunodiagnosis of human cystic echinococcosis...
  76. Lavikainen A, Lehtinen M, Laaksonen S, Agren E, Oksanen A, Meri S. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus isolates of cervid origin from Finland and Sweden. Parasitology. 2006;133:565-70 pubmed
    The species Echinococcus granulosus is made up of several genotypic strain groups, whose taxonomical classification is still undetermined. Genotypes in the cervid-wolf life-cycle are poorly known, especially in Europe...
  77. Nakao M, Yanagida T, Okamoto M, Knapp J, Nkouawa A, Sako Y, et al. State-of-the-art Echinococcus and Taenia: phylogenetic taxonomy of human-pathogenic tapeworms and its application to molecular diagnosis. Infect Genet Evol. 2010;10:444-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The family consists of the medically important two genera Echinococcus and Taenia, which are closely related to each other...
  78. Mogoye B, Menezes C, Wong M, Stacey S, von Delft D, Wahlers K, et al. First insights into species and genotypes of Echinococcus in South Africa. Vet Parasitol. 2013;196:427-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Effective control of the disease is based on understanding the variability of Echinococcus granulosus (sensu lato), as genotypic characteristics may influence lifecycle patterns, development rate, and ..
  79. Vuitton D, Zhou H, Bresson Hadni S, Wang Q, Piarroux M, Raoul F, et al. Epidemiology of alveolar echinococcosis with particular reference to China and Europe. Parasitology. 2003;127 Suppl:S87-107 pubmed
    Human alveolar echinococcosis (AE), caused by the metacestode of the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, is the most pathogenic zoonosis in temperate and arctic regions of the northern hemisphere...
  80. RiganO R, Buttari B, De Falco E, Profumo E, Ortona E, Margutti P, et al. Echinococcus granulosus-specific T-cell lines derived from patients at various clinical stages of cystic echinococcosis. Parasite Immunol. 2004;26:45-52 pubmed
    To investigate the role of T lymphocytes in the immune response to Echinococcus granulosus, using sheep hydatid fluid (SHF) and antigen B (AgB), we generated T-cell lines from patients with active, transitional and inactive hydatid cysts...
  81. Xiao N, Qiu J, Nakao M, Li T, Yang W, Chen X, et al. Echinococcus shiquicus, a new species from the Qinghai-Tibet plateau region of China: discovery and epidemiological implications. Parasitol Int. 2006;55 Suppl:S233-6 pubmed
    ..County of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, many wild and domestic mammals are involved in the transmission cycles of Echinococcus spp...