platyhelminths

Summary

Summary: A phylum of acoelomate, bilaterally symmetrical flatworms, without a definite anus. It includes three classes: Cestoda, Turbellaria, and Trematoda.

Top Publications

  1. Baguna J, Martinez P, Paps J, Riutort M. Back in time: a new systematic proposal for the Bilateria. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2008;363:1481-91 pubmed publisher
    ..A new systematic scheme for the Bilateria that includes the Cnidaria is suggested and its main implications discussed...
  2. Morris J, Ladurner P, Rieger R, Pfister D, Del Mar De Miguel Bonet M, Jacobs D, et al. The Macrostomum lignano EST database as a molecular resource for studying platyhelminth development and phylogeny. Dev Genes Evol. 2006;216:695-707 pubmed
    ..Expression of these genes is shown in the context of the neuropile/muscle system...
  3. Kuusela J, Zietara M, Lumme J. Hybrid origin of Baltic salmon-specific parasite Gyrodactylus salaris: a model for speciation by host switch for hemiclonal organisms. Mol Ecol. 2007;16:5234-45 pubmed
    ..Strains having a separate divergent mtDNA observed on farmed rainbow trout, and on salmon in Russian lake Kuito were suggested to be clones derived from secondary and tertiary recombination events...
  4. Bonilla M, Denicola A, Novoselov S, Turanov A, Protasio A, Izmendi D, et al. Platyhelminth mitochondrial and cytosolic redox homeostasis is controlled by a single thioredoxin glutathione reductase and dependent on selenium and glutathione. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:17898-907 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies establish the selenium- and glutathione-dependent regulation of cytosolic and mitochondrial redox homeostasis through a single TGR enzyme in platyhelminths.
  5. Bode A, Salvenmoser W, Nimeth K, Mahlknecht M, Adamski Z, Rieger R, et al. Immunogold-labeled S-phase neoblasts, total neoblast number, their distribution, and evidence for arrested neoblasts in Macrostomum lignano (Platyhelminthes, Rhabditophora). Cell Tissue Res. 2006;325:577-87 pubmed
    ..Immunogold-labeled sections showed that nearly 70% of S-phase cells were in direct contact or within 5 microm from nerve cords...
  6. Willems M, Leroux F, Claeys M, Boone M, Mouton S, Artois T, et al. Ontogeny of the complex sperm in the macrostomid flatworm Macrostomum lignano (Macrostomorpha, Rhabditophora). J Morphol. 2009;270:162-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The implications of the development of this bristle complex on both sperm maturation and the evolution and function of the bristles are discussed. The assumed homology between bristles and flagellae questioned...
  7. Justine J, Briand M. Three new species, Lamellodiscus tubulicornis n. sp., L. magnicornis n. sp. and L. parvicornis n. sp. (Monogenea: Diplectanidae) from Gymnocranius spp. (Lethrinidae: Monotaxinae) off New Caledonia, with the proposal of the new morphological group 'tu. Syst Parasitol. 2010;75:159-79 pubmed publisher
    ..The generic diagnosis of Lamellodiscus given by Amine & Euzet (2005) is amended to include species with elongate eggs...
  8. Zietara M, Kuusela J, Lumme J. Escape from an evolutionary dead end: a triploid clone of Gyrodactylus salaris is able to revert to sex and switch host (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea, Gyrodactylidae). Hereditas. 2006;143:84-90 pubmed
    ..Liberalism in ploidy level may significantly add to the evolutionary options available for a parasite in ever-changing environments...
  9. Egger B, Gschwentner R, Rieger R. Free-living flatworms under the knife: past and present. Dev Genes Evol. 2007;217:89-104 pubmed
    ..The role of the nervous system and especially the brain for regeneration is discussed, and similarities as well as particularities in regeneration among free-living flatworms are pointed out...

More Information

Publications69

  1. Beukeboom L. Sporadic sexual reproduction: sex to some degree. Heredity (Edinb). 2007;98:123-4 pubmed
  2. Hejnol A, Martindale M. Coordinated spatial and temporal expression of Hox genes during embryogenesis in the acoel Convolutriloba longifissura. BMC Biol. 2009;7:65 pubmed publisher
    ..As acoels appear to represent the sister group to the remaining Bilateria (Nephrozoa), investigating Hox gene expression will provide an insight into the ancestral features of the Hox genes in metazoan evolution...
  3. King T, Cable J. Experimental infections of the monogenean Gyrodactylus turnbulli indicate that it is not a strict specialist. Int J Parasitol. 2007;37:663-72 pubmed
    ..In view of the potential importance of host switching under artificial conditions, we propose to describe this as 'artificial ecological transfer' as opposed to 'natural ecological transfer', host switching under natural conditions...
  4. Plaisance L, Huyse T, Littlewood D, Bakke T, Bachmann L. The complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the monogenean Gyrodactylus thymalli (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea), a parasite of grayling (Thymallus thymallus). Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2007;154:190-4 pubmed
    ..Compared to the recently described mt DNA of the closely related G. salaris from Atlantic salmon from Signaldalselva, Norway, the mitochondrial genome of G. thymalli from Hnilec, Slovakia, differs on average by 2.2%...
  5. Hansen H, Bakke T, Bachmann L. DNA taxonomy and barcoding of monogenean parasites: lessons from Gyrodactylus. Trends Parasitol. 2007;23:363-7 pubmed
  6. Hirose E, Hirose M. Body colors and algal distribution in the acoel flatworm Convolutriloba longifissura: histology and ultrastructure. Zoolog Sci. 2007;24:1241-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The ultrastructural features of these cells suggest a close relationship with Tetraselmis spp. The morphology of sagittocysts within the mantle is also described by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy...
  7. Huyse T, Buchmann K, Littlewood D. The mitochondrial genome of Gyrodactylus derjavinoides (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea)--a mitogenomic approach for Gyrodactylus species and strain identification. Gene. 2008;417:27-34 pubmed publisher
  8. De Mulder K, Pfister D, Kuales G, Egger B, Salvenmoser W, Willems M, et al. Stem cells are differentially regulated during development, regeneration and homeostasis in flatworms. Dev Biol. 2009;334:198-212 pubmed publisher
    ..Fourth, piwi expression in hatchlings further supports an embryonic formation of the germline in M. lignano. Our findings address new questions in flatworm stem cell research and provide a basis for comparison with higher organisms...
  9. Kotikova E, Raĭĭkova O. [Architectonics of the central nervous system in Acoela, Plathelminthes, and Rotifera]. Zh Evol Biokhim Fiziol. 2008;44:83-93 pubmed
    ..A special attention will be paid to the Acoela phylogenesis, based on molecular-biology data and results of study of their nervous system...
  10. Van Oosterhout C, Potter R, Wright H, Cable J. Gyro-scope: an individual-based computer model to forecast gyrodactylid infections on fish hosts. Int J Parasitol. 2008;38:541-8 pubmed
    ..The model is a useful tool to forecast the development of gyrodactylid infections on single hosts and make predictions about optimal life history strategies of parasites...
  11. Jimenez Guri E, Paps J, Garcia Fernandez J, Salo E. Hox and ParaHox genes in Nemertodermatida, a basal bilaterian clade. Int J Dev Biol. 2006;50:675-9 pubmed
  12. Boudaya L, Neifar L, Euzet L. Diplectanid parasites of Lithognathus mormyrus (L.) (Teleostei: Sparidae) from the Mediterranean Sea, with the description of Lamellodiscus flagellatus n. sp. (Monogenea: Diplectanidae). Syst Parasitol. 2009;74:149-59 pubmed publisher
    ..The status of L. ignoratus Palombi, 1943, another species from Lithognathus mormyrus, is discussed. A possible scenario for the synxenic speciation of these congeneric parasites of L. mormyrus is proposed...
  13. Dirks U, Gruber Vodicka H, Leisch N, Bulgheresi S, Egger B, Ladurner P, et al. Bacterial symbiosis maintenance in the asexually reproducing and regenerating flatworm Paracatenula galateia. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34709 pubmed publisher
    ..This would justify both the codiversification between Paracatenula hosts and their Candidatus Riegeria symbionts, and the slow evolutionary rates observed for several symbiont genes. ..
  14. King S, Cone D. Morphological and molecular taxonomy of a new species of Fundulotrema and comments on Gyrodactylus stephanus (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) from Fundulus heteroclitus (Actinopterygii: Cyprinodontiformes) in Nova Scotia, Canada. J Parasitol. 2009;95:846-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This new material provides previously unrecorded information on the attributes of the ventral bar, marginal hooks, and also clarifies the structure of the male copulatory organ (MCO)...
  15. Riutort M, Alvarez Presas M, Lázaro E, Solà E, Paps J. Evolutionary history of the Tricladida and the Platyhelminthes: an up-to-date phylogenetic and systematic account. Int J Dev Biol. 2012;56:5-17 pubmed publisher
    Within the free-living platyhelminths, the triclads, or planarians, are the best-known group, largely as a result of long-standing and intensive research on regeneration, pattern formation and Hox gene expression...
  16. Li M, Shi S, Brown C, Yang T. Phylogeographical pattern of Mazocraeoides gonialosae (Monogenea, Mazocraeidae) on the dotted gizzard shad, Konosirus punctatus, along the coast of China. Int J Parasitol. 2011;41:1263-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The limited time to accumulate genetic variation after the last glacial maximum may also account in part for the lack of phylogeographical structure in the studied region...
  17. Moreno E, De Mulder K, Salvenmoser W, Ladurner P, Martinez P. Inferring the ancestral function of the posterior Hox gene within the bilateria: controlling the maintenance of reproductive structures, the musculature and the nervous system in the acoel flatworm Isodiametra pulchra. Evol Dev. 2010;12:258-66 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude, therefore, that the posterior Hox genes were used to specify and maintain defined anatomical regions within the AP axis of animals since the beginning of bilaterian evolution...
  18. Bueno Silva M, Boeger W, Pie M. Choice matters: incipient speciation in Gyrodactylus corydori (Monogenoidea: Gyrodactylidae). Int J Parasitol. 2011;41:657-67 pubmed publisher
    ..ehrhardti and C. paleatus. This may be a common event within the Gyrodactylidae, adding a yet unreported mode of adaptive speciation that helps to understand its rate of diversification...
  19. Rivera Ingraham G, Bickmeyer U, Abele D. The physiological response of the marine platyhelminth Macrostomum lignano to different environmental oxygen concentrations. J Exp Biol. 2013;216:2741-51 pubmed publisher
  20. Bickmeyer U. The alkaloid Ageladine A, originally isolated from marine sponges, used for pH-sensitive imaging of transparent marine animals. Mar Drugs. 2012;10:223-33 pubmed publisher
    ..5), Metridium senile harbours aggregates of high acidity in the tentacles (pH 5) and in Macrostomum lignano, the rhabdoids, the gonads and areas close to the mouth were the most acidic with values down to pH 5...
  21. Gillardin C, Vanhove M, Pariselle A, Huyse T, Volckaert F. Ancyrocephalidae (Monogenea) of Lake Tanganyika: II: description of the first Cichlidogyrus spp. parasites from Tropheini fish hosts (Teleostei, Cichlidae). Parasitol Res. 2012;110:305-13 pubmed publisher
  22. Mendlová M, Pariselle A, Vyskocilova M, Simkova A. Molecular phylogeny of monogeneans parasitizing African freshwater Cichlidae inferred from LSU rDNA sequences. Parasitol Res. 2010;107:1405-13 pubmed publisher
    ..e., the parasite species does not live in cichlids, which suggests that endoparasitism in cichlid monogeneans is not an ancestral feature...
  23. Perkins E, Donnellan S, Bertozzi T, Whittington I. Closing the mitochondrial circle on paraphyly of the Monogenea (Platyhelminthes) infers evolution in the diet of parasitic flatworms. Int J Parasitol. 2010;40:1237-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These improved perspectives on relationships fundamentally enhance our understanding of the evolution of parasitism in the Neodermata and in particular, the evolution of diet...
  24. Mouton S, Willems M, Braeckman B, Egger B, Ladurner P, Scharer L, et al. The free-living flatworm Macrostomum lignano: a new model organism for ageing research. Exp Gerontol. 2009;44:243-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We also give an overview of the available experimental tools that allow a multidisciplinary approach for studying ageing in M. lignano...
  25. Otero L, Bonilla M, Protasio A, Fernandez C, Gladyshev V, Salinas G. Thioredoxin and glutathione systems differ in parasitic and free-living platyhelminths. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:237 pubmed publisher
    ..Little is known regarding the genomic structure of flatworm TGRs, the expression of TGR variants and whether the absence of conventional thioredoxin and glutathione systems is a signature of the entire platyhelminth phylum...
  26. Perkins E, Donnellan S, Bertozzi T, Chisholm L, Whittington I. Looks can deceive: molecular phylogeny of a family of flatworm ectoparasites (Monogenea: Capsalidae) does not reflect current morphological classification. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2009;52:705-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently the current morphological classification shows little correspondence with the phylogenetic relationships within the family...
  27. Moreno E, Nadal M, Baguna J, Martinez P. Tracking the origins of the bilaterian Hox patterning system: insights from the acoel flatworm Symsagittifera roscoffensis. Evol Dev. 2009;11:574-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The basic set of Hox genes in acoels and their coarse nested spatial deployment might be the first indicators of the role of Hox genes in the evolution of bilateral symmetry and AP positional identity from a hypothetical radial ancestor...
  28. Jin X, Lu L, Su H, Lou Z, Wang F, Zheng Y, et al. Comparative analysis of known miRNAs across platyhelminths. FEBS J. 2013;280:3944-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In an attempt to explore the phylogeny of miRNAs across five platyhelminths, we integrated annotated miRNAs and their full genomes...
  29. Philippe H, Brinkmann H, Martinez P, Riutort M, Baguna J. Acoel flatworms are not platyhelminthes: evidence from phylogenomics. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e717 pubmed
  30. Hausdorf B, Helmkampf M, Meyer A, Witek A, Herlyn H, Bruchhaus I, et al. Spiralian phylogenomics supports the resurrection of Bryozoa comprising Ectoprocta and Entoprocta. Mol Biol Evol. 2007;24:2723-9 pubmed
  31. Sempere L, Martinez P, Cole C, Baguna J, Peterson K. Phylogenetic distribution of microRNAs supports the basal position of acoel flatworms and the polyphyly of Platyhelminthes. Evol Dev. 2007;9:409-15 pubmed
    ..Here, we examine another acoel, Symsagittifera roscoffensis, and three other platyhelminths. Our results show that the distribution of miRNAs in S. roscoffensis parallels that of Childia...
  32. Morris J, Cardona A, De Miguel Bonet M, Hartenstein V. Neurobiology of the basal platyhelminth Macrostomum lignano: map and digital 3D model of the juvenile brain neuropile. Dev Genes Evol. 2007;217:569-84 pubmed
    ..This study will aid in the documentation and interpretation of patterns of gene expression, as well as functional studies, in the developing Macrostomum brain...
  33. Mendoza Palmero C, Sereno Uribe A, Salgado Maldonado G. Two new species of Gyrodactylus von Nordmann, 1832 (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) parasitizing Girardinichthys multiradiatus (Cyprinodontiformes: Goodeidae), an endemic freshwater fish from central Mexico. J Parasitol. 2009;95:315-8 pubmed publisher
    ..mexicanus and from other species of Gyrodactylus on the North American continent by having anchors with a sclerite on the superficial root and robust hooks with a straight shaft and a recurved point...
  34. Geyer K, Hoffmann K. Epigenetics: a key regulator of platyhelminth developmental biology?. Int J Parasitol. 2012;42:221-4 pubmed publisher
    ..or as causative agents of aquacultural, veterinary and biomedically-relevant parasitic diseases, the platyhelminths are subject to intensive inter-disciplinary research...
  35. Park J, Kim K, Kang S, Kim W, Eom K, Littlewood D. A common origin of complex life cycles in parasitic flatworms: evidence from the complete mitochondrial genome of Microcotyle sebastis (Monogenea: Platyhelminthes). BMC Evol Biol. 2007;7:11 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional evidence is required from monopisthocotylean monogeneans in order to confirm the monophyly of the group...
  36. Hansen H, Bakke T, Bachmann L. Mitochondrial haplotype diversity of Gyrodactylus thymalli (Platyhelminthes; Monogenea): extended geographic sampling in United Kingdom, Poland, and Norway reveals further lineages. Parasitol Res. 2007;100:1389-94 pubmed
    ..There is currently no reason to suspect that this parasite is a threat to Atlantic salmon in the UK, although its infectivity to salmon stocks in the UK has not been tested...
  37. Huyse T, Plaisance L, Webster B, Mo T, Bakke T, Bachmann L, et al. The mitochondrial genome of Gyrodactylus salaris (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea), a pathogen of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Parasitology. 2007;134:739-47 pubmed publisher
    ..The completion of the mt genome offers the opportunity of defining new molecular markers for studying evolutionary relationships within and among gyrodactylid species...
  38. Paladini G, Cable J, Fioravanti M, Faria P, Shinn A. The description of Gyrodactylus corleonis sp. n. and G. neretum sp. n. (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) with comments on other gyrodactylids parasitising pipefish (Pisces: Syngnathidae). Folia Parasitol (Praha). 2010;57:17-30 pubmed
    ..neretum has a 1:2 hamulus point:shaft ratio and a rectangular-shaped ventral bar. A redescription of the haptoral hard parts of the four species previously recorded on pipefish is also presented...
  39. Forer A, Pickett Heaps J. Precocious (pre-anaphase) cleavage furrows in Mesostoma spermatocytes. Eur J Cell Biol. 2010;89:607-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Furrow positioning thus is sensitive to the positioning of chromosomes in the spindle and furrow positions change in the absence of spindle microtubules...
  40. Zheng Y. Phylogenetic analysis of the Argonaute protein family in platyhelminths. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2013;66:1050-4 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Platyhelminths have been reported to express microRNAs but the diversity of AGOs in the phylum has not been explored...
  41. Diamanka A, Neifar L, Pariselle A, Euzet L. Lamellodiscus (Monogenea: Diplectanidae) parasites of Dentex macrophthalmus (Teleostei: Sparidae) from the North Atlantic coast of Africa, with a redescription of L. dentexi Aljoshkina, 1984, and description of three new species. Folia Parasitol (Praha). 2011;58:17-26 pubmed
    ..dentexi, L. virgula Euzet et Oliver, 1967 and L. obeliae Oliver, 1973 to form the "elongatus" type within the "elegans" group...
  42. Hejnol A, Martindale M. Acoel development supports a simple planula-like urbilaterian. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2008;363:1493-501 pubmed publisher
    ..We also identify the developmental changes related to gastrulation that gave rise to the urbilaterian from a simpler cnidarian-like ancestor...
  43. Karvonen A, Bagge A, Valtonen E. Interspecific and intraspecific interactions in the monogenean communities of fish: a question of study scale?. Parasitology. 2007;134:1237-42 pubmed
  44. Egger B, Steinke D, Tarui H, De Mulder K, Arendt D, Borgonie G, et al. To be or not to be a flatworm: the acoel controversy. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5502 pubmed publisher
    ..By these data, both the inclusion of Acoela within Platyhelminthes, and their separation from flatworms as basal bilaterians are well-supported alternatives...
  45. Jeziorski M, Greenberg R. Voltage-gated calcium channel subunits from platyhelminths: potential role in praziquantel action. Int J Parasitol. 2006;36:625-32 pubmed
    ..We also present evidence that Ca(v)betavar homologs are found in other praziquantel-sensitive platyhelminths such as the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, and that these variant beta subunits may thus represent a ..
  46. Eeckhaut I, McHugh D, Mardulyn P, Tiedemann R, Monteyne D, Jangoux M, et al. Myzostomida: a link between trochozoans and flatworms?. Proc Biol Sci. 2000;267:1383-92 pubmed
  47. Ramachandra N, Gates R, Ladurner P, Jacobs D, Hartenstein V. Embryonic development in the primitive bilaterian Neochildia fusca: normal morphogenesis and isolation of POU genes Brn-1 and Brn-3. Dev Genes Evol. 2002;212:55-69 pubmed
    ..These flatworms, by virtue of their distinct morphology, development and phylogenetically basal placement, are likely to provide key insights into the interpretation of the evolution of metazoan neural architecture. ..
  48. Huyse T, Volckaert F. Comparing host and parasite phylogenies: gyrodactylus flatworms jumping from goby to goby. Syst Biol. 2005;54:710-8 pubmed
    ..This illustrates that phylogenetically conserved host-switching mimics the phylogenetic signature of co-speciation, confounding topology-based programs. ..
  49. Younossi Hartenstein A, Hartenstein V. The embryonic development of the temnocephalid flatworms Craspedella pedum and Diceratocephala boschmai. Cell Tissue Res. 2001;304:295-310 pubmed
    ..Comparison of morphogenesis in temnocephalids with observations in other flatworm taxa suggests a phylotypic stage for this phylum of invertebrates. ..
  50. Le T, Blair D, McManus D. Mitochondrial genomes of parasitic flatworms. Trends Parasitol. 2002;18:206-13 pubmed
    ..Among Schistosoma spp., the long non-coding regions are rich in repeats and length variation among individuals is known. Data from mitochondrial genomes are valuable for studies on species identification, phylogenies and biogeography. ..
  51. Olstad K, Cable J, Robertsen G, Bakke T. Unpredicted transmission strategy of Gyrodactylus salaris (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae): survival and infectivity of parasites on dead hosts. Parasitology. 2006;133:33-41 pubmed
    ..Hence, for G. salaris, dead infected hosts may increase the chances of successful transmission and be a potential important infection source in rivers and hatcheries. ..
  52. Esteves A, Joseph L, Paulino M, Ehrlich R. Remarks on the phylogeny and structure of fatty acid binding proteins from parasitic platyhelminths. Int J Parasitol. 1997;27:1013-23 pubmed
    Four fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) have been described in 4 parasitic platyhelminths: Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma japonicum, Fasciola hepatica and Echinococcus granulosus...
  53. Cable J, Harris P, Bakke T. Population growth of Gyrodactylus salaris (Monogenea) on Norwegian and Baltic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) stocks. Parasitology. 2000;121 Pt 6:621-9 pubmed
    ..salaris infects different salmonid hosts...
  54. Buchmann K, Lindenstrøm T. Interactions between monogenean parasites and their fish hosts. Int J Parasitol. 2002;32:309-19 pubmed
    ..Elevation of the host's production of adaptive and non-adaptive factors following monogenean infections of a certain duration may explain the acquired response...
  55. Egger B, Ladurner P, Nimeth K, Gschwentner R, Rieger R. The regeneration capacity of the flatworm Macrostomum lignano--on repeated regeneration, rejuvenation, and the minimal size needed for regeneration. Dev Genes Evol. 2006;216:565-77 pubmed
    ..In hatchlings only 1,500 cells, including 50 neoblasts, are needed for regeneration. The life span of untreated M. lignano was determined to be about 10 months...
  56. Dalgaard M, Nielsen C, Buchmann K. Comparative susceptibility of two races of Salmo salar (Baltic Lule river and Atlantic Conon river strains) to infection with Gyrodactylus salaris. Dis Aquat Organ. 2003;53:173-6 pubmed
    ..Although the Lule salmon seems more susceptible to infection compared to previous reports on the Neva salmon, the results support the notion that Baltic salmon strains are generally more resistant than East Atlantic salmon...
  57. Hansen H, Bachmann L, Bakke T. Mitochondrial DNA variation of Gyrodactylus spp (Monogenea, Gyrodactylidae) populations infecting Atlantic salmon, grayling, and rainbow trout in Norway and Sweden. Int J Parasitol. 2003;33:1471-8 pubmed
    ..A minimum of three independent introductions of G. salaris and two independent introductions of G. thymalli are supported. This is congruent with earlier hypotheses on the introduction of G. salaris and G. thymalli into Norway...
  58. Morris J, Nallur R, Ladurner P, Egger B, Rieger R, Hartenstein V. The embryonic development of the flatworm Macrostomum sp. Dev Genes Evol. 2004;214:220-39 pubmed
    ..The embryo adopts its final shape during stages 7 and 8, characterized by the morphallactic lengthening of the body into a U-shaped form and the condensation of the nervous system...
  59. Aboobaker A, Blaxter M. Functional genomics for parasitic nematodes and platyhelminths. Trends Parasitol. 2004;20:178-84 pubmed
  60. Ladurner P, Pfister D, Seifarth C, Scharer L, Mahlknecht M, Salvenmoser W, et al. Production and characterisation of cell- and tissue-specific monoclonal antibodies for the flatworm Macrostomum sp. Histochem Cell Biol. 2005;123:89-104 pubmed
    ..as a suitable model organism for comparative analyses within Platyhelminthes and to Drosophila and C. elegans...