Summary: An order of nematodes consisting of many species which are plant parasites. Female worms lay eggs that hatch either in soil or in the host plant.

Top Publications

  1. Zhao L, Wei W, Kang L, Sun J. Chemotaxis of the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, to volatiles associated with host pine, Pinus massoniana, and its vector Monochamus alternatus. J Chem Ecol. 2007;33:1207-16 pubmed
    ..Capture of J(III) with terpene-baited trap tubes deployed for 2 hr in the field was demonstrated. This technique may lead to the development of rapid sampling methodologies for use at either ports-of-entry or in the field...
  2. Shinya R, Morisaka H, Takeuchi Y, Futai K, Ueda M. Making headway in understanding pine wilt disease: what do we perceive in the postgenomic era?. J Biosci Bioeng. 2013;116:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review the recent advances in genomic and proteomic approaches that address some of the longstanding questions behind the pathogenesis of pine wilt disease and have identified future questions and directions in this regard...
  3. Mallez S, Castagnone C, Espada M, Vieira P, Eisenback J, Mota M, et al. First insights into the genetic diversity of the pinewood nematode in its native area using new polymorphic microsatellite loci. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e59165 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of dispersal by the insect vector versus human activities in shaping this structure is discussed. ..
  4. Bert W, Leliaert F, Vierstraete A, Vanfleteren J, Borgonie G. Molecular phylogeny of the Tylenchina and evolution of the female gonoduct (Nematoda: Rhabditida). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2008;48:728-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Ancestral state reconstruction further revealed that the gonoduct of the morphologically and ecologically dissimilar tylenchid and cephalobid nematodes evolved from a common ancestor...
  5. Wang C, Wang Z, Fang Z, Zhang D, Gu L, Liu L, et al. Attraction of pinewood nematode to endoparasitic nematophagous fungus Esteya vermicola. Curr Microbiol. 2010;60:387-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggested that the attractive substances were consisted of avolatile exudative and volatile diffusing compounds...
  6. Karim N, Jones J, Okada H, Kikuchi T. Analysis of expressed sequence tags and identification of genes encoding cell-wall-degrading enzymes from the fungivorous nematode Aphelenchus avenae. BMC Genomics. 2009;10:525 pubmed publisher
    ..Expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis may therefore be useful in providing an initial insight into the poorly understood genetic background of A. avenae...
  7. Jones J, Moens M, Mota M, Li H, Kikuchi T. Bursaphelenchus xylophilus: opportunities in comparative genomics and molecular host-parasite interactions. Mol Plant Pathol. 2008;9:357-68 pubmed publisher
    ..We also examine the potential developments that could be made by more widespread use of genomics tools to understand interactions between B. xylophilus, bacterial pathogens that have been implicated in disease and host trees...
  8. Ye W, Giblin Davis R, Davies K, Purcell M, Scheffer S, Taylor G, et al. Molecular phylogenetics and the evolution of host plant associations in the nematode genus Fergusobia (Tylenchida: Fergusobiinae). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2007;45:123-41 pubmed
    Fergusobia nematodes (Tylenchida: Fergusobiinae) and Fergusonina flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) are putative mutualists that develop together in galls formed in meristematic tissues of many species of the plant family Myrtaceae in ..
  9. Kikuchi T, Cotton J, Dalzell J, Hasegawa K, Kanzaki N, McVeigh P, et al. Genomic insights into the origin of parasitism in the emerging plant pathogen Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002219 pubmed publisher
    ..The genome sequence of B. xylophilus adds to the diversity of genomic data for nematodes, and will be an important resource in understanding the biology of this unusual parasite...

More Information


  1. Kang J, Koh Y, Moon Y, Lee S. Molecular properties of a venom allergen-like protein suggest a parasitic function in the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Int J Parasitol. 2012;42:63-70 pubmed publisher
    ..xylophilus. These results suggest that BxVap-1 is involved in B. xylophilus migration, perhaps by suppressing the pine tree defence mechanism...
  2. Poinar G. Halophilanema prolata n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Allantonematidae), a parasite of the intertidal bug, Saldula laticollis (Reuter)(Hemiptera: Saldidae) on the Oregon coast. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:24 pubmed publisher
    ..This shore bug is adapted to an intertidal environment and can survive short periods of submergence during high tides. The present study describes the nematode parasite and discusses aspects of its development, ecology and evolution...
  3. Zhu L, Ye J, Negi S, Xu X, Wang Z, Ji J. Pathogenicity of aseptic Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38095 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the results indicate that the asepsis of PWN did not cause the loss of pathogenicity...
  4. Mitreva Dautova M, Roze E, Overmars H, de Graaff L, Schots A, Helder J, et al. A symbiont-independent endo-1,4-beta-xylanase from the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2006;19:521-9 pubmed
    ..Including our current data on Mi-xyl1, we show that the endogenous enzyme complex in root-knot nematode secretions targets essentially all major cell wall carbohydrates to facilitate a stealthy intercellular migration in the host plant...
  5. Futai K. Pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Annu Rev Phytopathol. 2013;51:61-83 pubmed publisher
  6. Santos C, Pinheiro M, Silva A, Egas C, Vasconcelos M. Searching for resistance genes to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus using high throughput screening. BMC Genomics. 2012;13:599 pubmed publisher
  7. Tian X, Cheng X, Mao Z, Chen G, Yang J, Xie B. Composition of bacterial communities associated with a plant-parasitic nematode Bursaphelenchus mucronatus. Curr Microbiol. 2011;62:117-25 pubmed publisher
    ..So, we speculated that bacteria could promote the propagation and development of the nematode B. mucronatus...
  8. Lin S, Jian H, Zhao H, Yang D, Liu Q. Cloning and characterization of a venom allergen-like protein gene cluster from the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Exp Parasitol. 2011;127:440-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In situ mRNA hybridization analysis showed that the transcripts of genes vap-1, -2 and -3 accumulated exclusively within the esophageal gland cells of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus...
  9. Holterman M, Karssen G, van den Elsen S, Van Megen H, Bakker J, Helder J. Small subunit rDNA-based phylogeny of the Tylenchida sheds light on relationships among some high-impact plant-parasitic nematodes and the evolution of plant feeding. Phytopathology. 2009;99:227-35 pubmed publisher
    ..and lesion (Pratylenchus spp.) nematodes all belong to a single nematode order, Tylenchida. However, the relationships between and within these economically highly relevant groups, and their relatedness ..
  10. Roriz M, Santos C, Vasconcelos M. Population dynamics of bacteria associated with different strains of the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus after inoculation in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster). Exp Parasitol. 2011;128:357-64 pubmed publisher
    ..P. pinaster, the pine species used in this study, was different from those commonly grown in Japan and China. Furthermore, it was the first time that bacteria were isolated and identified from an avirulent pine wood nematode isolate...
  11. Kwon H, Choi G, Choi Y, Jang K, Sung N, Kang M, et al. Suppression of pine wilt disease by an antibacterial agent, oxolinic acid. Pest Manag Sci. 2010;66:634-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, there is no report on the control of PWD by antibacterial agent. The present study was performed to investigate disease control efficacy of antibacterial agents against PWD...
  12. Cheng X, Cheng F, Xu R, Xie B. Genetic variation in the invasive process of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Aphelenchida: Aphelenchoididae) and its possible spread routes in China. Heredity (Edinb). 2008;100:356-65 pubmed
    ..The results imply that it is important to reinforce both domestic and international quarantine to control the spread of pinewood nematode...
  13. Vicente C, Nascimento F, Espada M, Mota M, Oliveira S. Bacteria associated with the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus collected in Portugal. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2011;100:477-81 pubmed publisher
    ..xylophilus laboratory collection specimens, emphasizing the close bacteria-nematode associations that may contribute to pine wilt disease development...
  14. Kudla U, Qin L, Milac A, Kielak A, Maissen C, Overmars H, et al. Origin, distribution and 3D-modeling of Gr-EXPB1, an expansin from the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:2451-7 pubmed
    ..These results support the hypothesis that a number of pathogenicity factors of cyst nematodes is of procaryotic origin and were acquired by horizontal gene transfer...
  15. Tiwari S, Youngman R, Lewis E, Eisenback J. European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) stalk tunneling on root-knot nematode (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae) fitness on corn. J Econ Entomol. 2009;102:602-9 pubmed
    ..Lepidoptera: Crambidae), and belowground herbivory by root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita Chitwood (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae), on one another at three corn, Zea mays L., growth stages...
  16. Cheng X, Xiang Y, Xie H, Xu C, Xie T, Zhang C, et al. Molecular characterization and functions of fatty acid and retinoid binding protein gene (Ab-far-1) in Aphelenchoides besseyi. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e66011 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus FAR plays important roles in the development and reproduction of nematodes. This study is useful and helpful to figure out a new way to control the plant parasitic nematodes. ..
  17. Debban C, Dyer K. No evidence for behavioural adaptations to nematode parasitism by the fly Drosophila putrida. J Evol Biol. 2013;26:1646-54 pubmed publisher
  18. Cardoso J, Fonseca L, Abrantes I. Genetic diversity of ITS sequences of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Genet Mol Res. 2012;11:4508-15 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the level of sequence variation observed within isolates was about the same as that described among ITS repeats within individuals. ..
  19. Kanzaki N, Maehara N, Aikawa T, Giblin Davis R, Center B. The first report of a putative "entomoparasitic adult form" in Bursaphelenchus. J Parasitol. 2009;95:113-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, no nematode eggs or propagative juveniles were observed in the beetle host, suggesting that more research is needed to confirm the nature of the association (parasitic vs. endophoretic). ..
  20. Ciordia S, Robertson L, Arcos S, González M, Mena M, Zamora P, et al. Protein markers of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus Steiner & Buhrer, 1934 (Nickle, 1970) populations using quantitative proteomics and character compatibility. Proteomics. 2016;16:1006-14 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach makes it easier search for diagnostic tools and phylogenetic inference within species and populations of a pathogen exhibiting a high level of genetic diversity. ..
  21. Meng Q, Shi X, Meng F, Feng X, Sun J. Isolation of an Acremonium sp. from a screening of 52 seawater fungal isolates and preliminary characterization of its growth conditions and nematicidal activity. Biotechnol Lett. 2012;34:1847-50 pubmed publisher
    ..When it was grown at pH 7.0 and 24-26 °C, nematicidal metabolites were produced. These were heat-stable, water-soluble molecules with MWs <6 kDa. Nematicidal activity was highest at neutral pH. ..
  22. Ragsdale E, Crum J, Ellisman M, Baldwin J. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the stomatostylet and anterior epidermis in the nematode Aphelenchus avenae (Nematoda: Aphelenchidae) with implications for the evolution of plant parasitism. J Morphol. 2008;269:1181-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Reconstruction of the stegostom and pharynx will provide further tests of homology and evolution of feeding structure adaptations for plant parasitism. ..
  23. Deng L, Wu X, Ye J, Xue Q. Identification of Autophagy in the Pine Wood Nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and the Molecular Characterization and Functional Analysis of Two Novel Autophagy-Related Genes, BxATG1 and BxATG8. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17:279 pubmed publisher
    ..This study confirmed the molecular characterization and functions of BxATG1 and BxATG8 in B. xylophilus and provided fundamental information between autophagy and B. xylophilus. ..
  24. Vuong T, Sleper D, Shannon J, Nguyen H. Novel quantitative trait loci for broad-based resistance to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) in soybean PI 567516C. Theor Appl Genet. 2010;121:1253-66 pubmed publisher
    ..SSR and SNP markers closely associated with these QTL can be useful for the development of near-isogenic lines for fine-mapping and positional cloning of candidate genes for SCN resistance. ..
  25. Karssen G, van Hoenselaar T, Verkerk Bakker B, Janssen R. Species identification of cyst and root-knot nematodes from potato by electrophoresis of individual females. Electrophoresis. 1995;16:105-9 pubmed
    ..Proteins of young single Meloidogyne females were separated using polyacrylamide gradient gels and stained for the isozymes esterase and malate dehydrogenase. ..
  26. Wang Y, Yang Z, Yu J, Zhang Y, Xue J, Li Z, et al. Comparison between conidia and blastospores of Esteya vermicola, an endoparasitic fungus of the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2013;29:2429-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Comprehensive analysis indicates that the L culture medium is the most optimal medium for mass production relatively. ..
  27. Klink V, Martins V, Alkharouf N, Overall C, MacDonald M, Matthews B. A decline in transcript abundance for Heterodera glycines homologs of Caenorhabditis elegans uncoordinated genes accompanies its sedentary parasitic phase. BMC Dev Biol. 2007;7:35 pubmed
    ..glycines homologs of muscle gene decreases as the nematode becomes sedentary inside the root during its parasitic feeding stages. ..
  28. Elbadri G, Bert W, Geraert E. Tylenchida associated with different crops in Sennar State (Sudan). Meded Rijksuniv Gent Fak Landbouwkd Toegep Biol Wet. 2001;66:633-43 pubmed
    A study was done on the taxonomy and morphology of plant parasitic nematodes (Tylenchida) found in Sennar State (Sudan). Sixty samples of different crops were collected in the sugarcane area...
  29. Popov N, Udovikov A, Eroshenko G, Karavaeva T, Yakovlev S, Porshakov A, et al. [IMPACT OF CASPIAN SEA LEVEL FLUCTUATIONS ON THE EPIZOOTIC ACTIVITY OF THE CASPIAN SANDY NATURAL PLAGUE FOCUS]. Med Parazitol (Mosk). 2016;:12-7 pubmed
    ..The paper considers the possible role of amebae of the genus Acanthamoeba and nematodes, the representatives of the orders Rhabditida and Tylenchida in the microfocal pattern of plague manifestations.
  30. Li Z, Liu X, Chu Y, Wang Y, Zhang Q, Zhou X. Cloning and characterization of a 2-cys peroxiredoxin in the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, a putative genetic factor facilitating the infestation. Int J Biol Sci. 2011;7:823-36 pubmed
    ..In summary, BxPrx is a genetic factor potentially facilitating B. xylophilus infestation. ..
  31. Yun J, Kim J, Park C. Rapid diagnosis of the infection of pine tree with pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) by use of host-tree volatiles. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:7392-7 pubmed publisher
    ..xylophilus . The semiochemical-based tube-trapping method is simple to use, requires minimal labor, and is economical and effective for detecting B. xylophilus living in host pine trees during field sampling. ..
  32. Chałańska A, Łabanowski G, Malewski T. Rapid microscopic and molecular method Aphelenchoides species identification. Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 2011;76:399-402 pubmed
    ..Conditions of execution for quantitative molecular analyses were also qualified. ..
  33. Kang J, Kim E, Lee S, Park I. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterases of the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, by phytochemicals from plant essential oils. Pestic Biochem Physiol. 2013;105:50-6 pubmed publisher
    ..64, 1.41, 8.18, 8.53, 15.28, and 18.03mM, respectively. Coniferyl alcohol showed the strongest inhibition of BxACE-3 followed by (+)-?-pinene and cis-nerolidol. ..
  34. Jaenike J, Unckless R, Cockburn S, Boelio L, Perlman S. Adaptation via symbiosis: recent spread of a Drosophila defensive symbiont. Science. 2010;329:212-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate the profound and potentially rapid effects of defensive symbionts, which are increasingly recognized as major players in the ecology of species interactions...
  35. Subbotin S, Sturhan D, Vovlas N, Castillo P, Tambe J, Moens M, et al. Application of the secondary structure model of rRNA for phylogeny: D2-D3 expansion segments of the LSU gene of plant-parasitic nematodes from the family Hoplolaimidae Filipjev, 1934. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2007;43:881-90 pubmed
    ..for fifteen nematode species of the agriculturally important and diverse family Hoplolaimidae, order Tylenchida. Using secondary structure information we converted the original sequence data into twenty-eight symbol codes ..
  36. Claverie M, Bosselut N, Lecouls A, Voisin R, Lafargue B, Poizat C, et al. Location of independent root-knot nematode resistance genes in plum and peach. Theor Appl Genet. 2004;108:765-73 pubmed
    ..incognita located in this subtelomeric position. We showed that plum and peach genes are independent and, thus, can be pyramided into interspecific hybrid rootstocks based on the plum and peach species. ..
  37. Moraes Filho R, Martins L. In silico comparative analysis of tylenchid nematode pectate lyases. Genet Mol Res. 2016;15: pubmed publisher
    ..These parasites represent the largest source of biotic stress experienced by plants. The order Tylenchida comprises the most important parasitic nematodes, particularly the root-knot and cyst nematodes...
  38. Wang D, Chen L, Duan Y. Description of a new record species of Heterodera from China (Tylenchida, Heteroderidae). Dongwuxue Yanjiu. 2012;33:E57-9 pubmed
    ..2 ?m, vulval bridge mostly broad, underbridge weak, bullae absent; the second-stage larvae stylet knobs rather wide and slightly projecting anteriorly, tail length averaging 43.7 ?m and hyaline region length averaging 22.3 ?m. ..
  39. Zhang Q, Bai G, Yang W, Li H, Xiong H. Pathogenic cellulase assay of pine wilt disease and immunological localization. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2006;70:2727-32 pubmed
    ..These results strongly suggest that the cellulase released by the PWN is one of the pathogenic substances of pine wilt disease and is responsible for the development of the early symptoms of the disease. ..
  40. Hu G, Xu X, Wang Y, Lu G, Feeley K, Yu M. Regeneration of different plant functional types in a Masson pine forest following pine wilt disease. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36432 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we propose management at the functional type level instead of at the population level as a promising approach in ecological restoration and biodiversity conservation. ..
  41. Caetano I, Morris E, Hajek A. Growth of the Sirex-parasitic nematode Deladenus siricidicola on the white rot fungus Amylostereum. J Invertebr Pathol. 2016;134:12-14 pubmed publisher
    ..noctilio in this continent, except for strain BD on which NS produced more offspring than the biological control strain Kamona. Growth of both nematodes was greater on the introduced versus the native A. areolatum isolates. ..
  42. Vovlas N, Troccoli A, Palomares Rius J, De Luca F, Cantalapiedra Navarrete C, Liébanas G, et al. A new stem nematode, Ditylenchus oncogenus n. sp. (Nematoda: Tylenchida), parasitizing sowthistle from Adriatic coast dunes in southern Italy. J Helminthol. 2016;90:152-65 pubmed publisher
  43. Kanzaki N, Maehara N, Aikawa T, Nakamura K. An entomoparasitic adult form in Bursaphelenchus doui (Nematoda: Tylenchomorpha) associated with Acalolepta fraudatrix. J Parasitol. 2013;99:803-15 pubmed publisher
    ..However, these 2 species did not form a clear monophyletic clade within the Bursaphelenchus xylophilus group and, thus, this characteristic parasitic form may occur independently in each species...
  44. Luo H, Li X, Li G, Pan Y, Zhang K. Acanthocytes of Stropharia rugosoannulata function as a nematode-attacking device. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:2982-7 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the growth and nematode-attacking activity of the fungus in soil were also determined, and our results suggest that acanthocytes are functional in soil...
  45. Morris E, Kepler R, Long S, Williams D, Hajek A. Phylogenetic analysis of Deladenus nematodes parasitizing northeastern North American Sirex species. J Invertebr Pathol. 2013;113:177-83 pubmed publisher
    ..nigricornis contained Deladenus normally associated with S. noctilio. We discuss nematode-host fidelity in this system and the potential for non-target impacts of a biological control program using D. siricidicola against S. noctilio...
  46. Chilton N, Hoste H, Hung G, Beveridge I, Gasser R. The 5.8S rDNA sequences of 18 species of bursate nematodes (order Strongylida): comparison with rhabditid and tylenchid nematodes. Int J Parasitol. 1997;27:119-24 pubmed
    ..8S rRNA gene may provide useful phylogenetic information with respect to the relationships of the different orders within the phylum Nematoda...
  47. Kano S, Aimi T, Masumoto S, Kitamoto Y, Morinaga T. Physiology and molecular characteristics of a pine wilt nematode-trapping fungus, Monacrosporium megalosporum. Curr Microbiol. 2004;49:158-64 pubmed
    ..These results strongly suggest that the activity of this fungus is inhibited by acid rain in the field. Therefore, development of pine wilt disease might be a secondary effect of acid rain...
  48. Vicente C, Nascimento F, Ikuyo Y, Cock P, Mota M, Hasegawa K. The genome and genetics of a high oxidative stress tolerant Serratia sp. LCN16 isolated from the plant parasitic nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. BMC Genomics. 2016;17:301 pubmed publisher
    ..LCN16 and its extreme resistance to oxidative stress conditions, encouraging further research on the potential role of this bacterium in interaction with PWN in planta environment. ..
  49. Dong J, Zhou Y, Li R, Zhou W, Li L, Zhu Y, et al. New nematicidal azaphilones from the aquatic fungus Pseudohalonectria adversaria YMF1.01019. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2006;264:65-9 pubmed
    ..This is the first report of secondary metabolites from any member of the genus Pseudohalonectria...
  50. Dong J, Wang L, Song H, Wang L, Shen K, Sun R, et al. Ophiocerol, a novel macrocylic neolignan from the aquatic fungus Ophioceras dolichostomum YMF1.00988. Nat Prod Res. 2010;24:1004-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Compounds 1-3 were assayed for their nematicidal activity against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus as well as their antifungal activity against several plant pathogen fungi...
  51. Hong L, Li G, Zhou W, Wang X, Zhang K. Screening and isolation of a nematicidal sesquiterpene from Magnolia grandiflora L. Pest Manag Sci. 2007;63:301-5 pubmed
    ..The median lethal concentrations (LC50) of the compound against B. xylophilus and P. redivivus were 71 and 46 mg L(-1) respectively at 48 h. This is the first report of Magnoliaceae species with nematicidal activity...
  52. Filipiak A, Hasiów Jaroszewska B. The use of real-time polymerase chain reaction with high resolution melting (real-time PCR-HRM) analysis for the detection and discrimination of nematodes Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Bursaphelenchus mucronatus. Mol Cell Probes. 2016;30:113-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A set of primers was designed to target the ITS region of rDNA. The results have demonstrated that this analysis is a valuable tool for differentiation of these both species. ..
  53. Perlman S, Spicer G, Shoemaker D, Jaenike J. Associations between mycophagous Drosophila and their Howardula nematode parasites: a worldwide phylogenetic shuffle. Mol Ecol. 2003;12:237-49 pubmed
    ..in the quinaria and testacea species groups, and their horizontally transmitted Howardula nematode parasites (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae)...
  54. Castillo A, Infante F, Barrera J, Carta L, Vega F. First field report of a nematode (Tylenchida: Sphaerularioidea) attacking the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in the Americas. J Invertebr Pathol. 2002;79:199-202 pubmed
  55. Nyaku S, Sripathi V, Kantety R, Gu Y, Lawrence K, Sharma G. Characterization of the two intra-individual sequence variants in the 18S rRNA gene in the plant parasitic nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e60891 pubmed publisher
  56. Cockburn S, Haselkorn T, Hamilton P, Landzberg E, Jaenike J, Perlman S. Dynamics of the continent-wide spread of a Drosophila defensive symbiont. Ecol Lett. 2013;16:609-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Because nematode infection is common throughout D. neotestacea's range, we expect Spiroplasma to spread to the Pacific coast...
  57. Kang J, Lee D, Choi J, Je Y, Koh Y, Lee S. Three acetylcholinesterases of the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus: insights into distinct physiological functions. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2011;175:154-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The current findings should provide valuable insights into the evolutionary process and various physiological roles of AChE...
  58. McKay A, Riley I. Sampling ryegrass to assess the risk of annual ryegrass toxicity. Aust Vet J. 1993;70:241-3 pubmed
    ..The proportion of paddocks in which stock were poisoned did not vary significantly between years, was not affected by variation in sample weight, and did not vary between South Australia and Western Australia...
  59. Oliveira A, De Moraes G, Ferraz L. Consumption rate of phytonematodes by Pergalumna sp. (Acari: Oribatida: Galumnidae) under laboratory conditions determined by a new method. Exp Appl Acarol. 2007;41:183-9 pubmed
    ..javanica and 73 P. coffeae. The method showed to be practical, precise and suitable for laboratory studies in which nematophagous mites classified as engulfers are included...
  60. Masler E. In vitro proteolysis of nematode FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs) by preparations from a free-living nematode (Panagrellus redivivus) and two plant-parasitic nematodes (Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita). J Helminthol. 2012;86:77-84 pubmed publisher
    ..incognita differs significantly from P. redivivus and H. glycines in its complement of cysteine proteases, particularly cathepsin L-type protease...
  61. Shibuya H, Kikuchi T. Purification and characterization of recombinant endoglucanases from the pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2008;72:1325-32 pubmed
    ..xylophilus endoglucanases acted on the cellulose-hemicellulose complex in the cell walls, resulting in a weakening of the mechanical strength of the cell walls to facilitate the nematode's feeding on plant cells...
  62. Liu Y, Zhai C, Liu Y, Zhang K. Nematicidal activity of Paecilomyces spp. and isolation of a novel active compound. J Microbiol. 2009;47:248-52 pubmed publisher
    ..YMF1.01761. The LD(50) value of the compound within 24 h against P. redivivus was 50.86 mg/L, against Meloidogyne incognita was 47.1 mg/L, and against B. xylophilus was 167.7 mg/L...
  63. Sultana T, Han H, Park J. Comparison of complete mitochondrial genomes of pine wilt nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Bursaphelenchus mucronatus (Nematoda: Aphelenchoidea) and development of a molecular tool for species identification. Gene. 2013;520:39-46 pubmed publisher
    ..should provide a rich source of genetic information to support the effective control and management (quarantine) of the pine wilt disease caused by pinewood nematodes...
  64. Soto D, Fowler F, Sandelin B, Mullens B. Musca autumnalis (Diptera: Muscidae) and the host-specific nematode Paraiotonchium autumnale (Tylenchida: Iotonchiidae) in southern California. J Med Entomol. 2014;51:288-92 pubmed
    ..This is a possible indication of diapause and should be examined further...
  65. Talavera M, Watanabe T, Mizukubo T. Description of Tylenchorhynchus shimizui n. sp. from Paraguay and notes on T. leviterminalis Siddiqi, Mukherjee & Dasgupta from Japan (Nematoda: Tylenchida: Telotylenchidae). Syst Parasitol. 2002;51:171-7 pubmed
    ..This is the first record for T. leviterminalis in Japan. Spores of a Pasteuria species were observed filling the body-cavity of some specimens of T. leviterminalis...
  66. Shoda Kagaya E. Genetic differentiation of the pine wilt disease vector Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) over a mountain range - revealed from microsatellite DNA markers. Bull Entomol Res. 2007;97:167-74 pubmed
    ..Based on these data, a process linking genetic structure at local (kilometres) and regional spatial scales (hundreds of kilometres) was proposed...
  67. Qiu X, Wu X, Huang L, Ye J. Influence of Bxpel1 Gene Silencing by dsRNA Interference on the Development and Pathogenicity of the Pine Wood Nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17: pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that Bxpel1 gene is a significant pathogenic factor in the PWD process and this basic information may facilitate a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of PWD. ..
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    ..Three different types of parasites from P. atra observed are as follows: Gre-garine (Apicomplexa), Nematode (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae) and larvae of certain parasitoids...
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    ..8-500?g/ml. These results indicate that the proposed two-step screening assay represents an efficient and labor-saving method for screening natural nematicidal products. ..
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    ..similis (1,000 per pot), were used to evaluate the biological control efficiency of B. dolichus. The nematode density decreased by 66 % 10 days after a release of 500 mites per pot...
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    ..Pratylenchus ekrami is close to Pratylenchus vulnus, but the most critical characteristics between the two species were the number of lip annuli, stylet size, and shape of stylet knobs. This species is the first reported in China. ..
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    ..The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential nematicides against the pine wood nematode...
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    ..This suggests that domain shuffling is an important mechanism in the evolution of cell wall-modifying enzymes in nematodes...
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    ..2-70.1% amino acid sequence identity to other calreticulin sequences from nematodes. RNAi, RT-PCR amplification, and southern blot suggest that Bx-crt-1 may be important for the development of B. xylophilus...
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    ..complexus. Knowledge of homologies and connectivity of anterior sensory structures provides a basis for expansion of the experimental behavioral model of C. elegans to the economically important nematodes of Tylenchomorpha...
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    ..These results suggest that B.?xylophilus may change its physiology and morphology to protect itself and to adapt to the host pine wood environment. ..
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    Paraiotonchium autumnale (Nickle) (Tylenchida: Iotonchiidae) causes parasitic sterilization in female Musca autumnalis DeGeer (Diptera: Muscidae). In addition to sterilization, P...
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    ..The correlation analysis suggests that at p < 0.05 level of significance the relative proteinase inhibitor (PI) values show a direct positive correlation vis-à-vis plant height, plant seed weight and also the seed number...