nematospiroides dubius

Summary

Summary: A species of intestinal nematode parasites which occur most commonly in mice. Infection is by ingesting larvae. This particular species is used extensively in immunological research.

Top Publications

  1. Gause W, Chen S, Greenwald R, Halvorson M, Lu P, Zhou X, et al. CD28 dependence of T cell differentiation to IL-4 production varies with the particular type 2 immune response. J Immunol. 1997;158:4082-7 pubmed
    ..polygyrus-inoculated mice, and elevations in both serum IgG1 and IgE levels occur. These results indicate that the specific kind of type 2 immune response determines whether T cell differentiation to IL-4 production is CD28 dependent. ..
  2. Fröhlich A, Marsland B, Sonderegger I, Kurrer M, Hodge M, Harris N, et al. IL-21 receptor signaling is integral to the development of Th2 effector responses in vivo. Blood. 2007;109:2023-31 pubmed
    ..Overall, our data show IL-21 plays a crucial role in supporting polarized Th2 responses in vivo, while appearing superfluous for Th1 and Th17 responses. ..
  3. Reynolds L, Filbey K, Maizels R. Immunity to the model intestinal helminth parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus. Semin Immunopathol. 2012;34:829-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss the balance between resistance and susceptibility in this model system and highlight new themes in innate and adaptive immunity, immunomodulation, and regulation of responsiveness in helminth infection. ..
  4. Reynolds L, Maizels R. Cutting edge: in the absence of TGF-? signaling in T cells, fewer CD103+ regulatory T cells develop, but exuberant IFN-? production renders mice more susceptible to helminth infection. J Immunol. 2012;189:1113-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, overexpression of IFN-? negatively modulates immunity, and the presence of Helios(+) Tregs may maintain susceptibility on the C57BL/6 background. ..
  5. Herbert D, Yang J, Hogan S, Groschwitz K, Khodoun M, Munitz A, et al. Intestinal epithelial cell secretion of RELM-beta protects against gastrointestinal worm infection. J Exp Med. 2009;206:2947-57 pubmed publisher
  6. Donskow Łysoniewska K, Majewski P, Brodaczewska K, Jóźwicka K, Doligalska M. Heligmosmoides polygyrus fourth stages induce protection against DSS-induced colitis and change opioid expression in the intestine. Parasite Immunol. 2012;34:536-46 pubmed publisher
  7. Grainger J, Smith K, Hewitson J, McSorley H, Harcus Y, Filbey K, et al. Helminth secretions induce de novo T cell Foxp3 expression and regulatory function through the TGF-? pathway. J Exp Med. 2010;207:2331-41 pubmed publisher
    ..We have therefore identified a novel pathway through which helminth parasites may stimulate T reg cells, which is likely to be a key part of the parasite's immunological relationship with the host...
  8. Patel N, Kreider T, Urban J, Gause W. Characterisation of effector mechanisms at the host:parasite interface during the immune response to tissue-dwelling intestinal nematode parasites. Int J Parasitol. 2009;39:13-21 pubmed publisher
  9. Cable J, Harris P, Lewis J, Behnke J. Molecular evidence that Heligmosomoides polygyrus from laboratory mice and wood mice are separate species. Parasitology. 2006;133:111-22 pubmed
    ..polygyrus in the recent past following introduction into America. However, we are unable to reject the hypothesis that H. polygyrus and H. bakeri are sister taxa, and it may be that H. polygyrus is polyphyletic or paraphyletic...

More Information

Publications83

  1. King I, Mohrs K, Mohrs M. A nonredundant role for IL-21 receptor signaling in plasma cell differentiation and protective type 2 immunity against gastrointestinal helminth infection. J Immunol. 2010;185:6138-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies demonstrate a selective role for IL-21 in plasma cell differentiation in the context of protective antiparasitic type 2 immunity...
  2. Sutton T, Zhao A, Madden K, Elfrey J, Tuft B, Sullivan C, et al. Anti-Inflammatory mechanisms of enteric Heligmosomoides polygyrus infection against trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in a murine model. Infect Immun. 2008;76:4772-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar response patterns could account for the clinical improvement seen in inflammatory bowel disease with helminthic therapy. ..
  3. Smith K, Harcus Y, Garbi N, Hämmerling G, MacDonald A, Maizels R. Type 2 innate immunity in helminth infection is induced redundantly and acts autonomously following CD11c(+) cell depletion. Infect Immun. 2012;80:3481-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, while CD11c(high) DCs initiate helminth-specific adaptive immunity, innate type 2 cells are able to mount an autonomous response to the challenge of parasite infection. ..
  4. McSorley H, O Gorman M, Blair N, Sutherland T, Filbey K, Maizels R. Suppression of type 2 immunity and allergic airway inflammation by secreted products of the helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus. Eur J Immunol. 2012;42:2667-82 pubmed publisher
  5. Chen C, Louie S, McCormick B, Walker W, Shi H. Helminth-primed dendritic cells alter the host response to enteric bacterial infection. J Immunol. 2006;176:472-83 pubmed
    ..rodentium was detected. Thus, our results provide evidence to indicate that the H. polygyrus-dependent modulation of the host response to concurrent C. rodentium infection involves IL-10-producing DCs. ..
  6. Rzepecka J, Donskow Schmelter K, Doligalska M. Heligmosomoides polygyrus infection down-regulates eotaxin concentration and CCR3 expression on lung eosinophils in murine allergic pulmonary inflammation. Parasite Immunol. 2007;29:405-13 pubmed
    ..We postulate that attenuation of allergic inflammation during H. polygyrus infection is a consequence of the dichotomy of the immune response in the face of concurrent antigenic challenge. ..
  7. Hashimoto K, Uchikawa R, Tegoshi T, Takeda K, Yamada M, Arizono N. Immunity-mediated regulation of fecundity in the nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus--the potential role of mast cells. Parasitology. 2010;137:881-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings raise the interesting possibility that certain activities of mast cells, either directly or indirectly, regulate parasite fecundity during infection...
  8. Setiawan T, Metwali A, Blum A, Ince M, Urban J, Elliott D, et al. Heligmosomoides polygyrus promotes regulatory T-cell cytokine production in the murine normal distal intestine. Infect Immun. 2007;75:4655-63 pubmed
    ..IL-10 is particularly important for limiting the Th1 response. The T-cell origin of these cytokines demonstrates mucosal regulatory T-cell induction. ..
  9. Liu Q, Kreider T, Bowdridge S, Liu Z, Song Y, Gaydo A, et al. B cells have distinct roles in host protection against different nematode parasites. J Immunol. 2010;184:5213-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests variability in the importance of B cells in mediating protection against intestinal nematode parasites, and it indicates an important role for Ab in resistance to tissue-dwelling parasites...
  10. Ince M, Elliott D, Setiawan T, Metwali A, Blum A, Chen H, et al. Role of T cell TGF-beta signaling in intestinal cytokine responses and helminthic immune modulation. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:1870-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, T cell TGF-beta signaling is essential for helminthic stimulation of mucosal IL-10 production, helminthic modulation of intestinal IFN-gamma generation and H. polygyrus-mediated suppression of chronic colitis...
  11. Finney C, Taylor M, Wilson M, Maizels R. Expansion and activation of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells in Heligmosomoides polygyrus infection. Eur J Immunol. 2007;37:1874-86 pubmed
  12. Mohrs K, Harris D, Lund F, Mohrs M. Systemic dissemination and persistence of Th2 and type 2 cells in response to infection with a strictly enteric nematode parasite. J Immunol. 2005;175:5306-13 pubmed
    ..These findings have important implications for the design of vaccination strategies because it may be necessary to establish and maintain memory CD4(+) T cells at the potential future site of infection. ..
  13. Ey P. Heligmosomoides polygyrus: excretory/secretory antigens released in vitro by exsheathed third-stage larvae. Exp Parasitol. 1988;67:210-20 pubmed
  14. Robinson M, Wahid F, Behnke J, Gilbert F. Immunological relationships during primary infection with Heligmosomoides polygyrus (Nematospiroides dubius): dose-dependent expulsion of adult worms. Parasitology. 1989;98 ( Pt 1):115-24 pubmed
    ..In some experiments worm loss was clearly evident by weeks 4 and 6. These hybrid strains showed gene complementation in that adult worms were cleared considerably earlier than in parental strains...
  15. Pleass R, Bianco A. Irradiated larval vaccination and antibody responses evaluated in relation to the expression of immunity to Heligmosomoides polygyrus. Parasitol Res. 1996;82:445-53 pubmed
    ..Moreover, no correlation was found between levels of parasite-specific serum or mucosal IgG, IgG1, IgG2a or IgA and the loss of worms in individual mice...
  16. Smith K, Hochweller K, Hämmerling G, Boon L, MacDonald A, Maizels R. Chronic helminth infection promotes immune regulation in vivo through dominance of CD11cloCD103- dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2011;186:7098-109 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the proregulatory environment of chronic intestinal helminth infection is associated with the in vivo predominance of a newly defined phenotype of CD11c(lo) tolerogenic DCs. ..
  17. Segura M, Su Z, Piccirillo C, Stevenson M. Impairment of dendritic cell function by excretory-secretory products: a potential mechanism for nematode-induced immunosuppression. Eur J Immunol. 2007;37:1887-904 pubmed
    ..Together, these results demonstrate that nematode ES impaired DC function and suppressed both Th1 and Th2 adaptive immune responses possibly by inducing regulatory T cells...
  18. Weng M, Huntley D, Huang I, Foye Jackson O, Wang L, Sarkissian A, et al. Alternatively activated macrophages in intestinal helminth infection: effects on concurrent bacterial colitis. J Immunol. 2007;179:4721-31 pubmed
  19. Rausch S, Huehn J, Kirchhoff D, Rzepecka J, Schnoeller C, Pillai S, et al. Functional analysis of effector and regulatory T cells in a parasitic nematode infection. Infect Immun. 2008;76:1908-19 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our data indicate that small numbers of T(eff) cells have the ability to promote host protective immune responses, even in the presence of T(reg) cells...
  20. Alugupalli K, Abraham D. B cell multitasking is required to control nematode infection. Immunity. 2009;30:317-9 pubmed publisher
    ..2009) demonstrate that in addition to producing antibodies, B cells play pivotal roles in specific-antigen presentation and cytokine production for optimal T helper 2 responses required for protection against Heligmosomoides polygyrus...
  21. Bashir M, Andersen P, Fuss I, Shi H, Nagler Anderson C. An enteric helminth infection protects against an allergic response to dietary antigen. J Immunol. 2002;169:3284-92 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that helminth-dependent protection against allergic disease involves immunoregulatory mechanisms that block production of allergen-specific IgE...
  22. Hashimoto K, Uchikawa R, Tegoshi T, Takeda K, Yamada M, Arizono N. Depleted intestinal goblet cells and severe pathological changes in SCID mice infected with Heligmosomoides polygyrus. Parasite Immunol. 2009;31:457-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that a functional T-cell response, but not a mast cell response, is necessary for anti-parasite responses, goblet cell function, and maintaining normal mucosal architecture...
  23. Harcus Y, Nicoll G, Murray J, Filbey K, Gomez Escobar N, Maizels R. C-type lectins from the nematode parasites Heligmosomoides polygyrus and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Parasitol Int. 2009;58:461-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, live parasites release C-type lectins homologous to some key receptors of the mammalian host immune system, raising the possibility that these products interfere in some manner with immunological recognition or effector function...
  24. Wilson M, Taylor M, Balic A, Finney C, Lamb J, Maizels R. Suppression of allergic airway inflammation by helminth-induced regulatory T cells. J Exp Med. 2005;202:1199-212 pubmed
    ..These data support the contention that helminth infections elicit a regulatory T cell population able to down-regulate allergen induced lung pathology in vivo...
  25. Adams J, East I, Monroy F, Washington E, Dobson C. Stage-specific antigens of Nematospiroides dubius Baylis, 1926 (Nematoda: Heligmosomides). J Parasitol. 1987;73:1164-8 pubmed
    Antigens were identified from Nematospiroides dubius recovered from outbred Quackenbush mice between 4 and 10 days postinoculation (PI)...
  26. Chen C, Louie S, McCormick B, Walker W, Shi H. Concurrent infection with an intestinal helminth parasite impairs host resistance to enteric Citrobacter rodentium and enhances Citrobacter-induced colitis in mice. Infect Immun. 2005;73:5468-81 pubmed
    ..We conclude that H. polygyrus coinfection can promote C. rodentium-associated disease and colitis through a STAT 6-mediated immune mechanism...
  27. Hepworth M, Maurer M, Hartmann S. Regulation of type 2 immunity to helminths by mast cells. Gut Microbes. 2012;3:476-81 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we will discuss these findings in the context of recently described novel innate immune cells, such as type 2 hematopoietic progenitors and type 2 innate lymphoid cells...
  28. Morimoto M, Utsumiya K. Enhanced protection against Heligmosomoides polygyrus in IL-2 receptor ?-chain overexpressed transgenic mice with intestinal mastocytosis. J Vet Med Sci. 2011;73:849-51 pubmed
    ..These results clearly indicated that mast cells have the ability for to protect against H. polygyrus infection. However, additional studies are required to evaluate protective effector mechanisms against H. polygyrus...
  29. Elliott D, Setiawan T, Metwali A, Blum A, Urban J, Weinstock J. Heligmosomoides polygyrus inhibits established colitis in IL-10-deficient mice. Eur J Immunol. 2004;34:2690-8 pubmed
    ..polygyrus inhibits ongoing IL-10(-/-) colitis in part through blocking mucosal Th1 cytokine production. Resolution of inflammation is associated with increased IL-13 production and can be adoptively transferred by MLN T cells...
  30. Hewitson J, Harcus Y, Murray J, van Agtmaal M, Filbey K, Grainger J, et al. Proteomic analysis of secretory products from the model gastrointestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus reveals dominance of venom allergen-like (VAL) proteins. J Proteomics. 2011;74:1573-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, this study shows that the secretions of H. polygyrus closely parallel those of clinically important GI nematodes, confirming the value of this parasite as a model of helminth infection...
  31. Li Z, Liu G, Chen Y, Liu Y, Liu B, Su Z. The phenotype and function of naturally existing regulatory dendritic cells in nematode-infected mice. Int J Parasitol. 2011;41:1129-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The Treg cell responses and immunoregulatory cytokines induced by this regulatory DC subset in turn play an important role in mediation of the nematode-induced immunosuppression...
  32. Robinson M, Behnke J, Williams D. Immunity to adult Heligmosomoides polygyrus (Nematospiroides dubius): survival or rejection of adult worms following transplantation to mice refractory to larval challenge. J Helminthol. 1988;62:221-31 pubmed
  33. Zhao A, McDermott J, Urban J, Gause W, Madden K, Yeung K, et al. Dependence of IL-4, IL-13, and nematode-induced alterations in murine small intestinal smooth muscle contractility on Stat6 and enteric nerves. J Immunol. 2003;171:948-54 pubmed
    ..Differences in these effects correlate with differences in the relative importance of these cytokines in the expulsion of enteric nematode parasites...
  34. Harris N, Spoerri I, Schopfer J, Nembrini C, Merky P, Massacand J, et al. Mechanisms of neonatal mucosal antibody protection. J Immunol. 2006;177:6256-62 pubmed
    ..This immune IgG could either be delivered directly in milk or retrotransported via neonatal Fc receptor from the neonatal serum into the intestinal lumen to exert its protective effect...
  35. Morgan C, LaCourse E, Rushbrook B, Greetham D, Hamilton J, Barrett J, et al. Plasticity demonstrated in the proteome of a parasitic nematode within the intestine of different host strains. Proteomics. 2006;6:4633-45 pubmed
    ..Proteome plasticity has relevance to the efficiency of future vaccine and drug therapy, and the continued failure of defined antigen vaccines in mammalian populations...
  36. Liu Q, Sundar K, Mishra P, Mousavi G, Liu Z, Gaydo A, et al. Helminth infection can reduce insulitis and type 1 diabetes through CD25- and IL-10-independent mechanisms. Infect Immun. 2009;77:5347-58 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that infection with H. polygyrus significantly inhibits T1D in NOD mice through CD25- and IL-10-independent mechanisms and also reduces the severity of T1D when administered late after the onset of insulitis...
  37. Ekkens M, Liu Z, Liu Q, Whitmire J, Xiao S, Foster A, et al. The role of OX40 ligand interactions in the development of the Th2 response to the gastrointestinal nematode parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus. J Immunol. 2003;170:384-93 pubmed
    ..polygyrus. However, OX40L interactions were not required for serum IgG1 elevations, increases in germinal center formation, and Ag-specific Th2 cell expansion and migration to the B cell zone...
  38. Harris D, Goodrich S, Mohrs K, Mohrs M, Lund F. Cutting edge: the development of IL-4-producing B cells (B effector 2 cells) is controlled by IL-4, IL-4 receptor alpha, and Th2 cells. J Immunol. 2005;175:7103-7 pubmed
  39. Hewitson J, Filbey K, Grainger J, Dowle A, Pearson M, Murray J, et al. Heligmosomoides polygyrus elicits a dominant nonprotective antibody response directed against restricted glycan and peptide epitopes. J Immunol. 2011;187:4764-77 pubmed publisher
  40. Kitagaki K, Businga T, Racila D, Elliott D, Weinstock J, Kline J. Intestinal helminths protect in a murine model of asthma. J Immunol. 2006;177:1628-35 pubmed
    ..Helminthic colonization appears to protect against asthma and atopic disorders; the regulatory cytokine, IL-10, may be a critical player...
  41. Behnke J, Lowe A, Clifford S, Wakelin D. Cellular and serological responses in resistant and susceptible mice exposed to repeated infection with Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri. Parasite Immunol. 2003;25:333-40 pubmed
    ..These results reflect the activation of predominantly Th2-driven effector mechanisms, that may be associated with host-protective immunity developing under the trickle infection protocol exploited in these experiments...
  42. Su Z, Dobson C. Genetic and immunological adaptation of Heligmosomoides polygyrus in mice. Int J Parasitol. 1997;27:653-63 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that adaptation of parasites to immunity of the host is associated with reduction of their immunogenicity and is specific to the immune status and genotype of the host to which the parasites have become adapted...
  43. Hartmann S, Schnoeller C, Dahten A, Avagyan A, Rausch S, Lendner M, et al. Gastrointestinal nematode infection interferes with experimental allergic airway inflammation but not atopic dermatitis. Clin Exp Allergy. 2009;39:1585-96 pubmed publisher
  44. Luong L, Perkins S, Grear D, Rizzoli A, Hudson P. The relative importance of host characteristics and co-infection in generating variation in Heligmosomoides polygyrus fecundity. Parasitology. 2010;137:1003-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We concluded that intrinsic differences between hosts, specifically with regard to sex and breeding condition, contribute relatively more to the variation in worm fecundity than parasite co-infection status...
  45. Ben Smith A, Lammas D, Behnke J. The relative involvement of Th1 and Th2 associated immune responses in the expulsion of a primary infection of Heligmosomoides polygyrus in mice of differing response phenotype. J Helminthol. 2003;77:133-46 pubmed
  46. Greenwald R, Urban J, Ekkens M, Chen S, Nguyen D, Fang H, et al. B7-2 is required for the progression but not the initiation of the type 2 immune response to a gastrointestinal nematode parasite. J Immunol. 1999;162:4133-9 pubmed
    ..They further demonstrate that B7-2 interactions are not necessary for the initiation of the type 2 immune response, but are instead required for its progression after the development of effector T cells...
  47. Sukhdeo M, Bansemir A. Critical resources that influence habitat selection decisions by gastrointestinal helminth parasites. Int J Parasitol. 1996;26:483-98 pubmed
  48. Maizels R, Hewitson J, Murray J, Harcus Y, Dayer B, Filbey K, et al. Immune modulation and modulators in Heligmosomoides polygyrus infection. Exp Parasitol. 2012;132:76-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Proteomic and transcriptomic definition of parasite proteins, combined with biochemical identification of immunogenic molecules in resistant mice, will provide new candidate immunomodulators and vaccine antigens for future research...
  49. Morimoto M, Morimoto M, Whitmire J, Xiao S, Anthony R, Mirakami H, et al. Peripheral CD4 T cells rapidly accumulate at the host: parasite interface during an inflammatory Th2 memory response. J Immunol. 2004;172:2424-30 pubmed
  50. Wahid F, Robinson M, Behnke J. Immunological relationships during primary infection with Heligmosomoides polygyrus (Nematospiroides dubius): expulsion of adult worms from fast responder syngeneic and hybrid strains of mice. Parasitology. 1989;98 Pt 3:459-69 pubmed
    ..SJL and SWR mice probably have similar if not identical gene combinations at loci which determine a fast responder phenotype, distinguishing them from the other mouse strains which have been studied...
  51. Ekkens M, Liu Z, Liu Q, Foster A, Whitmire J, Pesce J, et al. Memory Th2 effector cells can develop in the absence of B7-1/B7-2, CD28 interactions, and effector Th cells after priming with an intestinal nematode parasite. J Immunol. 2002;168:6344-51 pubmed
    ..However, humoral immunity is impaired and differentially affected in B7-1/B7-2(-/-) mice and CD28(-/-) mice following H. polygyrus challenge...
  52. Doligalska M, Rzepecka J, Drela N, Donskow K, Gerwel Wronka M. The role of TGF-beta in mice infected with Heligmosomoides polygyrus. Parasite Immunol. 2006;28:387-95 pubmed
    ..We conclude that H. polygyrus infection suppresses the immune response through pathways involving TGF-beta production or activity and that the Th2 related immune response was not affected by neutralization...
  53. Fox J, Beck P, Dangler C, Whary M, Wang T, Shi H, et al. Concurrent enteric helminth infection modulates inflammation and gastric immune responses and reduces helicobacter-induced gastric atrophy. Nat Med. 2000;6:536-42 pubmed
    ..Thus, concurrent enteric helminth infection can attenuate gastric atrophy, a premalignant lesion...
  54. Menge D, Behnke J, Lowe A, Gibson J, Iraqi F, Baker R, et al. Mapping of chromosomal regions influencing immunological responses to gastrointestinal nematode infections in mice. Parasite Immunol. 2003;25:341-9 pubmed
    ..Some of these QTL map to regions known to harbour genes responsible for the induction of immunological responses to intestinal worms...
  55. Doligalska M, Donskow Schmelter K, Rzepecka J, Drela N. Reduced apoptosis in BALB/c mice infected with Heligmosomoides polygyrus. Parasite Immunol. 2007;29:283-91 pubmed
    ..We suggest that immunosuppression provoked by the nematode is not the outcome of parasite-induced apoptosis, but rather results from a hyporesponsiveness experienced by cells during H. polygyrus infection...
  56. Elliott D, Metwali A, Leung J, Setiawan T, Blum A, Ince M, et al. Colonization with Heligmosomoides polygyrus suppresses mucosal IL-17 production. J Immunol. 2008;181:2414-9 pubmed
    ..Ab-mediated blockade of IL-17 improves colitis in IL-10-deficient mice. Thus, helminth-associated inhibition of IL-17 production is most likely an important mechanism mediating protection from inappropriate intestinal inflammation...
  57. Moreno Y, Gros P, Tam M, Segura M, Valanparambil R, Geary T, et al. Proteomic analysis of excretory-secretory products of Heligmosomoides polygyrus assessed with next-generation sequencing transcriptomic information. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1370 pubmed publisher
    ..polygyrus biology. In addition, the methods and analyses presented here are applicable to study biochemical and molecular aspects of the host-parasite relationship in species for which sequence information is not available...
  58. McCoy K, Stoel M, Stettler R, Merky P, Fink K, Senn B, et al. Polyclonal and specific antibodies mediate protective immunity against enteric helminth infection. Cell Host Microbe. 2008;4:362-73 pubmed publisher
  59. Rzepecka J, Rausch S, Klotz C, Schnöller C, Kornprobst T, Hagen J, et al. Calreticulin from the intestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus is a Th2-skewing protein and interacts with murine scavenger receptor-A. Mol Immunol. 2009;46:1109-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, our data imply that nematode calreticulin interacts with a mammalian scavenger receptor and at the same time induces a Th2 response...
  60. Saunders K, Raine T, Cooke A, Lawrence C. Inhibition of autoimmune type 1 diabetes by gastrointestinal helminth infection. Infect Immun. 2007;75:397-407 pubmed
  61. Behnke J, Harris P. Heligmosomoides bakeri: a new name for an old worm?. Trends Parasitol. 2010;26:524-9 pubmed publisher
    ..bakeri is the correct name for the species used widely throughout the world as a laboratory research model. Supporting this claim, key evidence is presented demonstrating that H. bakeri and H. polygyrus are two quite distinct species...
  62. Wilson M, Taylor M, O Gorman M, Balic A, Barr T, Filbey K, et al. Helminth-induced CD19+CD23hi B cells modulate experimental allergic and autoimmune inflammation. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:1682-96 pubmed publisher
    ..These data expand previous observations and highlight the broad regulatory environment that develops during helminth infections that can abate diverse inflammatory disorders in vivo...
  63. Odiere M, Koski K, Weiler H, Scott M. Concurrent nematode infection and pregnancy induce physiological responses that impair linear growth in the murine foetus. Parasitology. 2010;137:991-1002 pubmed publisher
    ..Infection also reduced foetal crown-rump length which was associated with higher amniotic fluid IL-1 beta...
  64. Metwali A, Setiawan T, Blum A, Urban J, Elliott D, Hang L, et al. Induction of CD8+ regulatory T cells in the intestine by Heligmosomoides polygyrus infection. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2006;291:G253-9 pubmed
    ..Thus H. polygyrus induces a regulatory CD8+ lamina propria T cell that inhibits T cell proliferation and that appears to have a role in control of colitis...
  65. Wojciechowski W, Harris D, Sprague F, Mousseau B, Makris M, Kusser K, et al. Cytokine-producing effector B cells regulate type 2 immunity to H. polygyrus. Immunity. 2009;30:421-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that B cells mediate protection from pathogens not only by presenting antigen and secreting antibody but also by producing cytokines that regulate the quality and magnitude of humoral and cellular immune responses...
  66. Behnke J, Mugambi J, Clifford S, Iraqi F, Baker R, Gibson J, et al. Genetic variation in resistance to repeated infections with Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri, in inbred mouse strains selected for the mouse genome project. Parasite Immunol. 2006;28:85-94 pubmed
    ..polygyrus...
  67. Walk S, Blum A, Ewing S, Weinstock J, Young V. Alteration of the murine gut microbiota during infection with the parasitic helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2010;16:1841-9 pubmed publisher
    ..One proposed mechanism is that H. polygyrus infection favors the outgrowth or suppression of certain bacteria, which in turn help modulate host immunity...
  68. Kristan D. Effects of intestinal nematodes during lactation: consequences for host morphology, physiology and offspring mass. J Exp Biol. 2002;205:3955-65 pubmed
    ..Other measures of reproductive output were not affected by parasite infection...
  69. Mohrs K, Wakil A, Killeen N, Locksley R, Mohrs M. A two-step process for cytokine production revealed by IL-4 dual-reporter mice. Immunity. 2005;23:419-29 pubmed
    ..These data reveal a two-step process for cytokine production: the first generating poised cells that disseminate systemically and the second inducing the rapid production of the cytokine in response to local stimulation...
  70. Blum A, Hang L, Setiawan T, Urban J, Stoyanoff K, Leung J, et al. Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri induces tolerogenic dendritic cells that block colitis and prevent antigen-specific gut T cell responses. J Immunol. 2012;189:2512-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This appears to be an important mechanism through which H. polygyrus bakeri suppresses colitis. IFN-? and IL-17 are colitogenic. The capacity of these DC to block a gut Ag-specific IFN-?/IL-17 T cell response also is significant...
  71. Behnke J, Iraqi F, Menge D, Baker R, Gibson J, Wakelin D. Chasing the genes that control resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes. J Helminthol. 2003;77:99-110 pubmed
    ..This information in turn will facilitate targeted breeding to improve resistance in domestic animals and, in human beings, focused application of treatment and control strategies for GI nematodes...
  72. Su Z, Segura M, Morgan K, Loredo Osti J, Stevenson M. Impairment of protective immunity to blood-stage malaria by concurrent nematode infection. Infect Immun. 2005;73:3531-9 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that concurrent nematode infection strongly modulates multiple aspects of immunity to blood-stage malaria and consequently impairs the development of protective antimalarial immunity...
  73. Madden K, Yeung K, Zhao A, Gause W, Finkelman F, Katona I, et al. Enteric nematodes induce stereotypic STAT6-dependent alterations in intestinal epithelial cell function. J Immunol. 2004;172:5616-21 pubmed
    ..These modified responses are dependent on STAT6 and are the result of both direct effects and indirect effects mediated through enteric nerves...
  74. Herbst T, Esser J, Prati M, Kulagin M, Stettler R, Zaiss M, et al. Antibodies and IL-3 support helminth-induced basophil expansion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:14954-9 pubmed publisher
    ..polygyrus bakeri, parasite rejection following challenge infection was impaired. These data reveal a role for isotype-switched antibodies in promoting basophil expansion and effector function following helminth infection. ..