necator americanus

Summary

Summary: A common parasite of humans in the moist tropics and subtropics. These organisms attach to villi in the small intestine and suck blood causing diarrhea, anorexia, and anemia.

Top Publications

  1. Pearson M, Bethony J, Pickering D, de Oliveira L, Jariwala A, Santiago H, et al. An enzymatically inactivated hemoglobinase from Necator americanus induces neutralizing antibodies against multiple hookworm species and protects dogs against heterologous hookworm infection. FASEB J. 2009;23:3007-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Na-APR-1(mut)-mutagenesis of the catalytic aspartic acids) forms of Na-APR-1 from the human hookworm, Necator americanus. Refolded Na-APR-1(wt) was catalytically active, and Na-APR-1(mut) was catalytically inactive but still ..
  2. Brooker S, Jardim Botelho A, Quinnell R, Geiger S, Caldas I, Fleming F, et al. Age-related changes in hookworm infection, anaemia and iron deficiency in an area of high Necator americanus hookworm transmission in south-eastern Brazil. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2007;101:146-54 pubmed
    ..Sixty-eight percent of individuals were infected with the human hookworm Necator americanus. The force of infection (lambda=0...
  3. Basuni M, Muhi J, Othman N, Verweij J, Ahmad M, Miswan N, et al. A pentaplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of four species of soil-transmitted helminths. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011;84:338-43 pubmed publisher
    ..real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was evaluated for the simultaneous detection of Ancylostoma, Necator americanus, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Strongyloides stercoralis...
  4. Reddy S, Vega K. Endoscopic diagnosis of chronic severe upper GI bleeding due to helminthic infection. Gastrointest Endosc. 2008;67:990-2 pubmed publisher
  5. Gunawardena G, Karunaweera N, Ismail M. Effects of climatic, socio-economic and behavioural factors on the transmission of hookworm (Necator americanus) on two low-country plantations in Sri Lanka. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2005;99:601-9 pubmed
    The climatic, socio-economic and behavioural factors influencing hookworm (Necator americanus) infection in Sri Lanka were explored between February 2000 and June 2001...
  6. Croese J, Gaze S, Loukas A. Changed gluten immunity in celiac disease by Necator americanus provides new insights into autoimmunity. Int J Parasitol. 2013;43:275-82 pubmed publisher
    ..people with diet-treated celiac disease who were purposefully infected with the ubiquitous human hookworm, Necator americanus. Hookworm infection elicited not only parasite-specific immunity but also modified the host's immune ..
  7. Geiger S, Alexander N, Fujiwara R, Brooker S, Cundill B, Diemert D, et al. Necator americanus and helminth co-infections: further down-modulation of hookworm-specific type 1 immune responses. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1280 pubmed publisher
    ..of soil-transmitted helminths such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and the hookworms Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale as well as other helminths such as Schistosoma mansoni often occur simultaneously.
  8. Pearson M, Pickering D, Tribolet L, Cooper L, Mulvenna J, Oliveira L, et al. Neutralizing antibodies to the hookworm hemoglobinase Na-APR-1: implications for a multivalent vaccine against hookworm infection and schistosomiasis. J Infect Dis. 2010;201:1561-9 pubmed publisher
    The aspartic protease of Necator americanus, Na-APR-1, is a vaccine antigen that induces antibodies that neutralize hemoglobin proteolysis in the gut of the worm...
  9. Goud G, Bottazzi M, Zhan B, Mendez S, Deumic V, Plieskatt J, et al. Expression of the Necator americanus hookworm larval antigen Na-ASP-2 in Pichia pastoris and purification of the recombinant protein for use in human clinical trials. Vaccine. 2005;23:4754-64 pubmed
    The ASP-2 protein secreted by infective larvae of the human hookworm, Necator americanus, is under development as a recombinant vaccine. Recombinant Na-ASP-2 was expressed in Pichia pastoris, and the purified protein was characterized...

More Information

Publications71

  1. Girod N, Brown A, Pritchard D, Billett E. Successful vaccination of BALB/c mice against human hookworm (Necator americanus): the immunological phenotype of the protective response. Int J Parasitol. 2003;33:71-80 pubmed
    In this murine (BALB/c) model of necatoriasis, high levels of protection against challenge infection by Necator americanus larvae (n=300) were afforded by successive vaccinations at 14-day intervals, either subcutaneously or ..
  2. Blaxter M. Genes and genomes of Necator americanus and related hookworms. Int J Parasitol. 2000;30:347-55 pubmed
    The human hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale) infect over one billion people. The phylogenetic relationships of the human hookworms suggest independent acquisition of the human host...
  3. Mabaso M, Appleton C, Hughes J, Gouws E. Hookworm (Necator americanus) transmission in inland areas of sandy soils in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Trop Med Int Health. 2004;9:471-6 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that particle size distribution of sand fractions, organic matter and clay content in the soil influence the survival of hookworm larvae and hence the parasite's transmission...
  4. Hu M, Chilton N, Abs EL Osta Y, Gasser R. Comparative analysis of mitochondrial genome data for Necator americanus from two endemic regions reveals substantial genetic variation. Int J Parasitol. 2003;33:955-63 pubmed
    b>Necator americanus is a blood-sucking, intestinal nematode of major human health importance in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world...
  5. Wu J, Holmes E, Xue J, Xiao S, Singer B, Tang H, et al. Metabolic alterations in the hamster co-infected with Schistosoma japonicum and Necator americanus. Int J Parasitol. 2010;40:695-703 pubmed publisher
    ..Urine and serum samples were obtained from hamsters experimentally infected with 250 Necator americanus infective L(3) and 100 Schistosoma japonicum cercariae simultaneously...
  6. Cantacessi C, Mitreva M, Jex A, Young N, Campbell B, Hall R, et al. Massively parallel sequencing and analysis of the Necator americanus transcriptome. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e684 pubmed publisher
    The blood-feeding hookworm Necator americanus infects hundreds of millions of people worldwide...
  7. Xue J, Hui Qing Q, Jun Ming Y, Fujiwara R, Zhan B, Hotez P, et al. Necator americanus: optimization of the golden hamster model for testing anthelmintic drugs. Exp Parasitol. 2005;111:219-23 pubmed
    Laboratory golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) were infected with Necator americanus under several different parasite and host conditions to optimize the model for testing anthelminthic drugs...
  8. Pit D, Polderman A, Baeta S, Schulz Key H, Soboslay P. Parasite-specific antibody and cellular immune responses in human infected with Necator americanus and Oesophagostomum bifurcum. Parasitol Res. 2001;87:722-9 pubmed
    ..and Thl-type or Th2-type cytokine responses were investigated in humans concurrently infected with Necator americanus and Oesophagostomum bifurcum. The prospects for O...
  9. Croese J, O Neil J, Masson J, Cooke S, Melrose W, Pritchard D, et al. A proof of concept study establishing Necator americanus in Crohn's patients and reservoir donors. Gut. 2006;55:136-7 pubmed
  10. Ye X, Wu Z, Sun F. The population biology and control of Necator americanus in a village community in south-eastern China. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1994;88:635-43 pubmed
    The population dynamic parameters of Necator americanus infections were estimated from longitudinal intensity and prevalence data from a village in south-eastern China...
  11. Palmer D, Bradley M, Bundy D. IgG4 responses to antigens of adult Necator americanus: potential for use in large-scale epidemiological studies. Bull World Health Organ. 1996;74:381-6 pubmed
    Described is an epidemiological investigation of hookworm infections in a rural community in Zimbabwe, where Necator americanus is the only human helminth species present...
  12. Bethony J, Loukas A, Smout M, Brooker S, Mendez S, Plieskatt J, et al. Antibodies against a secreted protein from hookworm larvae reduce the intensity of hookworm infection in humans and vaccinated laboratory animals. FASEB J. 2005;19:1743-5 pubmed
    ..These findings provide strong support for the development of an effective recombinant vaccine against hookworm infection in humans...
  13. de Gruijter J, van Lieshout L, Gasser R, Verweij J, Brienen E, Ziem J, et al. Polymerase chain reaction-based differential diagnosis of Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus infections in humans in northern Ghana. Trop Med Int Health. 2005;10:574-80 pubmed
    ..results were compared with those obtained using a previously established PCR for the specific detection of Necator americanus DNA in human faeces. Infection with A. duodenale was recorded in 74 (19.6%) samples and N...
  14. Xiao S, Zhan B, Xue J, Goud G, Loukas A, Liu Y, et al. The evaluation of recombinant hookworm antigens as vaccines in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) challenged with human hookworm, Necator americanus. Exp Parasitol. 2008;118:32-40 pubmed
    We have previously reported the successful adaptation of human hookworm Necator americanus in the golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. This animal model was used to test a battery of hookworm (N...
  15. Culley F, Brown A, Conroy D, Sabroe I, Pritchard D, Williams T. Eotaxin is specifically cleaved by hookworm metalloproteases preventing its action in vitro and in vivo. J Immunol. 2000;165:6447-53 pubmed
    ..We observed that the excretory/secretory products of the hookworm Necator americanus inhibited eosinophil recruitment in vivo in response to eotaxin, but not leukotriene B(4), a phenomenon that ..
  16. Mendez S, D Samuel A, Antoine A, Ahn S, Hotez P. Use of the air pouch model to investigate immune responses to a hookworm vaccine containing the Na-ASP-2 protein in rats. Parasite Immunol. 2008;30:53-6 pubmed
    ..Following vaccination, rats were inoculated 100 Necator americanus L3 into the air pouch, and the exudates and cell infiltrates were collected from the pouch 24 h later...
  17. Taniuchi M, Verweij J, Noor Z, Sobuz S, Lieshout L, Petri W, et al. High throughput multiplex PCR and probe-based detection with Luminex beads for seven intestinal parasites. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011;84:332-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Ancylostoma duodenale, Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, and Strongyloides stercoralis-were adapted into a high throughput protocol...
  18. Rabelo E, Hall R, Loukas A, Cooper L, Hu M, Ranganathan S, et al. Improved insights into the transcriptomes of the human hookworm Necator americanus--fundamental and biotechnological implications. Biotechnol Adv. 2009;27:122-32 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Necator americanus is the most widely distributed hookworm of humans and is a leading cause of iron deficiency anaemia, which ..
  19. Gandhi N, Jizhang C, Khoshnood K, Fuying X, Shanwen L, Yaoruo L, et al. Epidemiology of Necator americanus hookworm infections in Xiulongkan Village, Hainan Province, China: high prevalence and intensity among middle-aged and elderly residents. J Parasitol. 2001;87:739-43 pubmed
    ..b>Necator americanus was the predominant species of hookworm in this population...
  20. Haas W, Haberl B, Syafruddin -, Idris I, Kersten S. Infective larvae of the human hookworms Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale differ in their orientation behaviour when crawling on surfaces. Parasitol Res. 2005;95:25-9 pubmed
    ..Here we analyse the orientation of the infective larvae of the human hookworms Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale when crawling on surfaces...
  21. Geiger S, Caldas I, Mc Glone B, Campi Azevedo A, de Oliveira L, Brooker S, et al. Stage-specific immune responses in human Necator americanus infection. Parasite Immunol. 2007;29:347-58 pubmed
    ..responses, and cytokine and chemokine secretion patterns in adults who are either mono-infected with Necator americanus or egg-negative controls resident in an area of high transmission in Brazil...
  22. Asojo O, Loukas A, Inan M, Barent R, Huang J, Plantz B, et al. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Na-ASP-1, a multi-domain pathogenesis-related-1 protein from the human hookworm parasite Necator americanus. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2005;61:391-4 pubmed
    ..Na-ASP-1 is a 406-amino-acid multi-domain ASP from the prevalent human hookworm parasite Necator americanus. Useful X-ray data to 2...
  23. Bethony J, Chen J, Lin S, Xiao S, Zhan B, Li S, et al. Emerging patterns of hookworm infection: influence of aging on the intensity of Necator infection in Hainan Province, People's Republic of China. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;35:1336-44 pubmed
    We examined risk factors associated with Necator americanus infection among persons aged > or =50 years in Hainan Province, People's Republic of China...
  24. Hotez P, Bethony J, Diemert D, Pearson M, Loukas A. Developing vaccines to combat hookworm infection and intestinal schistosomiasis. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2010;8:814-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In sub-Saharan Africa and Brazil, co-infections with the hookworm, Necator americanus, and the intestinal schistosome, Schistosoma mansoni, are common...
  25. De Clercq D, Sacko M, Behnke J, Gilbert F, Dorny P, Vercruysse J. Failure of mebendazole in treatment of human hookworm infections in the southern region of Mali. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1997;57:25-30 pubmed
    ..that single-dose (500 mg) mebendazole gave disappointing results in the treatment of hookworm infections (Necator americanus) in Mali...
  26. Li T, Guo X, Xue J, Hu L, Qiang H, Xue H, et al. Comparison of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 DNA sequences from Necator americanus hookworms maintained for 100 generations in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) and hookworms from natural human infections. Acta Trop. 2004;92:71-5 pubmed
    The human hookworm Necator americanus was maintained through one hundred generations in the golden hamsters...
  27. Kasper G, Brown A, Eberl M, Vallar L, Kieffer N, Berry C, et al. A calreticulin-like molecule from the human hookworm Necator americanus interacts with C1q and the cytoplasmic signalling domains of some integrins. Parasite Immunol. 2001;23:141-52 pubmed
    Calreticulin was recently identified as a hookworm (Necator americanus) allergen, implying secretion, and contact with cells of the immune system, or significant worm attrition in the tissues of the host...
  28. Fujiwara R, Geiger S, Bethony J, Mendez S. Comparative immunology of human and animal models of hookworm infection. Parasite Immunol. 2006;28:285-93 pubmed
    ..In this article, we will summarize the essential features of the immune response in the two major animal models of hookworm infections (dog and hamster) and then consider its implication for the human immune response...
  29. Ranjit N, Jones M, Stenzel D, Gasser R, Loukas A. A survey of the intestinal transcriptomes of the hookworms, Necator americanus and Ancylostoma caninum, using tissues isolated by laser microdissection microscopy. Int J Parasitol. 2006;36:701-10 pubmed
    ..gut have shown efficacy, so we explored the intestinal transcriptomes of the human and canine hookworms, Necator americanus and Ancylostoma caninum, respectively...
  30. Diemert D, Bethony J, Hotez P. Hookworm vaccines. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46:282-8 pubmed publisher
    Hookworm infection caused by the soil-transmitted nematodes Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale is one of the most common parasitic infections worldwide...
  31. Jian X, Sen L, Hui Qin Q, Hai Nan R, Tie Hua L, Hai Chou X, et al. Necator americanus: maintenance through one hundred generations in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). I. Host sex-associated differences in hookworm burden and fecundity. Exp Parasitol. 2003;104:62-6 pubmed
    The human hookworm Necator americanus was maintained through one hundred generations in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)...
  32. Ranjit N, Zhan B, Hamilton B, Stenzel D, Lowther J, Pearson M, et al. Proteolytic degradation of hemoglobin in the intestine of the human hookworm Necator americanus. J Infect Dis. 2009;199:904-12 pubmed
    ..We investigated the roles played by 3 distinct proteases from adults of the human hookworm Necator americanus. The aspartic protease Na-APR-1 and the cysteine protease Na-CP-3 were expressed in catalytically active ..
  33. Hu M, Rabelo E, Schindler A, Roberts H, Gasser R. Extensive and complex sequence diversity in mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 within Necator americanus from Colombia revealed by SSCP-coupled sequencing. Mol Cell Probes. 2008;22:234-7 pubmed publisher
    ..health importance of hookworms, there has been only a small number of studies of genetic variability within Necator americanus, and none in South America...
  34. Teixeira Carvalho A, Fujiwara R, Stemmy E, Olive D, Damsker J, Loukas A, et al. Binding of excreted and/or secreted products of adult hookworms to human NK cells in Necator americanus-infected individuals from Brazil. Infect Immun. 2008;76:5810-6 pubmed publisher
    The impact of the interaction between excreted and/or secreted (ES) Necator americanus products and NK cells from Necator-infected individuals was analyzed...
  35. Falcone F, Telford G, Hooi D, Brown A, Seabra R, Feary J, et al. Antigen-driven basophil activation is indicative of early Necator americanus infection in IgE-seronegative patients. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;124:1343-50.e7 pubmed publisher
    ..The kinetics of gastrointestinal nematode-induced T(H)2-type responses, especially in the context of primary infection, have been extensively studied in experimental infection models but not in human subjects...
  36. Ranjit N, Zhan B, Stenzel D, Mulvenna J, Fujiwara R, Hotez P, et al. A family of cathepsin B cysteine proteases expressed in the gut of the human hookworm, Necator americanus. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2008;160:90-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We recently described a family of four distinct CatBs (Na-CP-2, -3, -4, -5) from the human hookworm, Necator americanus. Here we show that these N...
  37. Viaene A, Crab A, Meiring M, Pritchard D, Deckmyn H. Identification of a collagen-binding protein from Necator americanus by using a cDNA-expression phage display library. J Parasitol. 2001;87:619-25 pubmed
    A phage display library was made starting from a cDNA library from the hematophagous human parasite Necator americanus. The cDNA library was transferred by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) cloning into phage display vectors (phagemids), ..
  38. Hu M, Chilton N, Gasser R. The mitochondrial genomes of the human hookworms, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus (Nematoda: Secernentea). Int J Parasitol. 2002;32:145-58 pubmed
    ..genome sequences were determined for two species of human hookworms, Ancylostoma duodenale (13,721 bp) and Necator americanus (13,604 bp)...
  39. Behnke J, Rose R, Garside P. Sensitivity to ivermectin and pyrantel of Ancylostoma ceylanicum and Necator americanus. Int J Parasitol. 1993;23:945-52 pubmed
    Experiments were carried out in the hamster to compare the relative susceptibility of Necator americanus and Ancylostoma ceylanicum to treatment with ivermectin. A...
  40. Kotze A, Coleman G, Mai A, McCarthy J. Field evaluation of anthelmintic drug sensitivity using in vitro egg hatch and larval motility assays with Necator americanus recovered from human clinical isolates. Int J Parasitol. 2005;35:445-53 pubmed
    ..three in vitro assay systems to define drug sensitivity of clinical isolates of the human hookworm parasite Necator americanus recovered from children resident in a village in Madang Province, Papua New Guinea...
  41. Schneider B, Jariwala A, Periago M, Gazzinelli M, Bose S, Hotez P, et al. A history of hookworm vaccine development. Hum Vaccin. 2011;7:1234-44 pubmed publisher
    The human hookworms Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale remain among the most common infections of humans in areas of rural poverty in the developing regions of the world, with an estimated 1 billion people infected with one or ..
  42. Williamson A, Brindley P, Abbenante G, Datu B, Prociv P, Berry C, et al. Hookworm aspartic protease, Na-APR-2, cleaves human hemoglobin and serum proteins in a host-specific fashion. J Infect Dis. 2003;187:484-94 pubmed
    ..The cloning and functional expression of an aspartic protease, Na-APR-2, from the human hookworm Necator americanus are described here...
  43. Bennett A, Guyatt H. Reducing intestinal nematode infection: efficacy of albendazole and mebendazole. Parasitol Today. 2000;16:71-4 pubmed
  44. Zhan B, Perally S, Brophy P, Xue J, Goud G, Liu S, et al. Molecular cloning, biochemical characterization, and partial protective immunity of the heme-binding glutathione S-transferases from the human hookworm Necator americanus. Infect Immun. 2010;78:1552-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Three cDNAs, each encoding a full-length GST protein from the human hookworm Necator americanus (and designated Na-GST-1, Na-GST-2, and Na-GST-3, respectively) were isolated from cDNA based on their ..
  45. Blount D, Hooi D, Feary J, Venn A, Telford G, Brown A, et al. Immunologic profiles of persons recruited for a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of hookworm infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;81:911-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding may indicate that the level of infection or the frequency of infection may have to be altered in future trials to induce a therapeutically conducive immunologic phenotype...
  46. Jian X, Shu Hua X, Hui Qing Q, Sen L, Hotez P, Bing Gui S, et al. Necator americanus: maintenance through one hundred generations in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). II. Morphological development of the adult and its comparison with humans. Exp Parasitol. 2003;105:192-200 pubmed
    Through 100 passages, the human hookworm Necator americanus was adapted to the golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus, without either the requirement for exogenous steroids or other immunosuppressive agents, nor the requirement to infect ..
  47. Verweij J, Pit D, van Lieshout L, Baeta S, Dery G, Gasser R, et al. Determining the prevalence of Oesophagostomum bifurcum and Necator americanus infections using specific PCR amplification of DNA from faecal samples. Trop Med Int Health. 2001;6:726-31 pubmed
    ..bifurcum are morphologically identical to those of the hookworm Necator americanus. Stools have to be cultured for 7 days to allow eggs to hatch to the characteristic third-stage (L3) larvae...
  48. Pritchard D, Hooi D, Brown A, Bockarie M, Caddick R, Quinnell R. Basophil competence during hookworm (Necator americanus) infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;77:860-5 pubmed
    ..This would suggest that this effector arm of the T helper 2 phenotype remains operative in infected populations...
  49. Hamm D, Agossou A, Gantin R, Kocherscheidt L, Banla M, Dietz K, et al. Coinfections with Schistosoma haematobium, Necator americanus, and Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar in children: chemokine and cytokine responses and changes after antiparasite treatment. J Infect Dis. 2009;199:1583-91 pubmed publisher
    ..haematobium/Schistosoma mansoni, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, and Necator americanus (the G3+ group)...
  50. Quinnell R, Pritchard D, Raiko A, Brown A, Shaw M. Immune responses in human necatoriasis: association between interleukin-5 responses and resistance to reinfection. J Infect Dis. 2004;190:430-8 pubmed
    Cytokine and proliferative responses to Necator americanus infection were measured in a treatment-reinfection study of infected subjects from an area of Papua New Guinea where N. americanus is highly endemic...
  51. Hsieh G, Loukas A, Wahl A, Bhatia M, Wang Y, Williamson A, et al. A secreted protein from the human hookworm necator americanus binds selectively to NK cells and induces IFN-gamma production. J Immunol. 2004;173:2699-704 pubmed
    ..One exception is infection with the human hookworm, Necator americanus, where virtually no protection ensues over time...
  52. Albonico M, Allen H, Chitsulo L, Engels D, Gabrielli A, Savioli L. Controlling soil-transmitted helminthiasis in pre-school-age children through preventive chemotherapy. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2008;2:e126 pubmed publisher
    ..STHs): Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm), Trichuris trichiura (whipworm), and Ancylostoma duodenale/Necator americanus (hookworms)...
  53. Wang Y, Xiao S, Xue J, Singer B, Utzinger J, Holmes E. Systems metabolic effects of a necator americanus infection in Syrian hamster. J Proteome Res. 2009;8:5442-50 pubmed publisher
    Hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus) are blood-feeding intestinal nematodes that infect approximately 700 million people worldwide...
  54. Williamson A, Brindley P, Loukas A. Hookworm cathepsin D aspartic proteases: contributing roles in the host-specific degradation of serum proteins and skin macromolecules. Parasitology. 2003;126:179-85 pubmed
    ..Ac-APR-1 from the dog hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum and Na-APR-1 from the human hookworm, Necator americanus, were shown to be expressed in the infective larval stage (L3) as well as adult worms...
  55. Fujiwara R, Cançado G, Freitas P, Santiago H, Massara C, dos Santos Carvalho O, et al. Necator americanus infection: a possible cause of altered dendritic cell differentiation and eosinophil profile in chronically infected individuals. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2009;3:e399 pubmed publisher
    ..g., dendritic cells and eosinophils) has received less attention and remains to be clearly elucidated...
  56. Bungiro R, Cappello M. Hookworm infection: new developments and prospects for control. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2004;17:421-6 pubmed
    ..This review summarizes recent advances in each of these fields, and discusses ongoing efforts to develop vaccines against hookworm anemia and growth delay...
  57. Zhan B, Li T, Xiao S, Zheng F, Hawdon J. Species-specific identification of human hookworms by PCR of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene. J Parasitol. 2001;87:1227-9 pubmed
    Significant differences in the life histories of the human hookworms Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus necessitate their differentiation for epidemiological studies and the design of control programs...
  58. Asojo O, Goud G, Dhar K, Loukas A, Zhan B, Deumic V, et al. X-ray structure of Na-ASP-2, a pathogenesis-related-1 protein from the nematode parasite, Necator americanus, and a vaccine antigen for human hookworm infection. J Mol Biol. 2005;346:801-14 pubmed
    ..A novel crystal structure of Na-ASP-2, a PR-1 protein secreted by infective larvae of the human hookworm Necator americanus, has been solved to resolution limits of 1...
  59. Pritchard D, Brown A. Is Necator americanus approaching a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with humans?. Trends Parasitol. 2001;17:169-72 pubmed
    The hookworm Necator americanus establishes infections of impressive longevity in the immunologically hostile environment of its human host...
  60. Geiger S, Massara C, Bethony J, Soboslay P, Correa Oliveira R. Cellular responses and cytokine production in post-treatment hookworm patients from an endemic area in Brazil. Clin Exp Immunol. 2004;136:334-40 pubmed
    ..the cellular responsiveness and cytokine production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from Necator americanus-infected schoolchildren who had recently received chemotherapy, and compared them with non-infected endemic ..
  61. Loukas A, Constant S, Bethony J. Immunobiology of hookworm infection. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2005;43:115-24 pubmed
    ..Significant progress has been made in the development of anti-hookworm recombinant vaccines, and clinical trials are expected to begin in the near future...
  62. Wright V, Bickle Q. Immune responses following experimental human hookworm infection. Clin Exp Immunol. 2005;142:398-403 pubmed
    ..response following primary human hookworm infection, an adult volunteer was infected with 50 L3 larvae of Necator americanus, reinfected 27 months later and followed for a further 6 months...