gnathostoma

Summary

Summary: A genus of parasitic nematodes that occurs in mammals including man. Infection in humans is either by larvae penetrating the skin or by ingestion of uncooked fish.

Top Publications

  1. Kuo Y, Wu Y, Su K. Cutaneous larva migrans induced by swallowing live pond loaches. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2011;36:878-81 pubmed publisher
    Freshwater fish, specifically loaches, are potential hosts of Gnathostoma species. Consumption of uncooked freshwater loaches may result in cutaneous larva migrans...
  2. Intapan P, Khotsri P, Kanpittaya J, Chotmongkol V, Sawanyawisuth K, Maleewong W. Immunoblot diagnostic test for neurognathostomiasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;83:927-9 pubmed publisher
    ..All patients were tested for antibodies against Gnathostoma spinigerum by an immunoblotting technique...
  3. Li D, Chen X, Zhou J, Xu Z, Nawa Y, Dekumyoy P. Short report: case of gnathostomiasis in Beijing, China. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;80:185-7 pubmed
    ..Western blot test detected specific antibodies to the larvae of Gnathostoma spinigerum. Cutaneous and visceral larva migrations associated with G. spinigerum were diagnosed...
  4. Anantaphruti M, Nuamtanong S, Dekumyoy P. Diagnostic values of IgG4 in human gnathostomiasis. Trop Med Int Health. 2005;10:1013-21 pubmed
    ..Antigen was prepared from crude extracts of Gnathostoma spinigerum advanced third-stage larvae obtained from naturally infected eels...
  5. Sithinamsuwan P, Chairangsaris P. Images in clinical medicine. Gnathostomiasis - neuroimaging of larval migration. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:188 pubmed
  6. Rojekittikhun W, Chaiyasith T, Butraporn P. Gnathostoma infection in fish caught for local consumption in Nakhon Nayok Province, Thailand. II. Deasonal variation in swamp eels. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2004;35:786-91 pubmed
    ..were purchased from several local markets in Nakhon Nayok Province, Thailand, and examined for the presence of Gnathostoma advanced third-stage larvae. The overall prevalence was 30...
  7. Han E, Lee J, Choi S, Park J, Shin E, Chai J. Surface ultrastructure of the advanced third-stage larvae of Gnathostoma nipponicum. J Parasitol. 2003;89:1245-8 pubmed
    The surface ultrastructure of advanced third-stage larvae (AL3) of Gnathostoma nipponicum was studied using scanning electron microscopy. The larvae were recovered from the grass snake Rhabdophis tigrina in the Republic of Korea...
  8. Rojas Molina N, Pedraza Sanchez S, Torres Bibiano B, Meza Martinez H, Escobar Gutierrez A. Gnathostomosis, an emerging foodborne zoonotic disease in Acapulco, Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5:264-6 pubmed
    ..Larvae were identified in 26 cases, while in 72, final diagnosis was made on the basis of epidemiologic data, food habits, and positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot results...
  9. Janwan P, Intapan P, Yamasaki H, Laummaunwai P, Sawanyawisuth K, Wongkham C, et al. Application of recombinant Gnathostoma spinigerum matrix metalloproteinase-like protein for serodiagnosis of human gnathostomiasis by immunoblotting. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013;89:63-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A cDNA encoding MMP-like protein of Gnathostoma spinigerum larvae was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and was cloned into a ..

More Information

Publications66

  1. Vonghachack Y, Dekumyoy P, Yoonuan T, Sa nguankiat S, Nuamtanong S, Thaenkham U, et al. Sero-epidemiological survey of gnathostomiasis in Lao PDR. Parasitol Int. 2010;59:599-605 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to investigate sero-prevalence of gnathostomiasis and Gnathostoma species in Lao PDR...
  2. Cho S, Kim T, Kong Y, Na B, Sohn W. Larval Gnathostoma hispidum detected in the red banded odd-tooth snake, Dinodon rufozonatum rufozonatum, from China. Korean J Parasitol. 2007;45:191-8 pubmed
    ..On the basis of these morphological characteristics, the larvae were identified as the third stage larvae of Gnathostoma hispidum.
  3. Chuenkongkaew W, Chirapapaisan N, Hongyok T, Yoolek A. Isolated optic neuritis from an identified Gnathostoma spinigerum. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2007;17:130-2 pubmed
    To describe a patient with isolated monocular optic neuritis caused by an identified Gnathostoma spinigerum infestation.
  4. Eamsobhana P, Ongrotchanakun J, Yoolek A, Punthuprapasa P, Monkong N, Dekumyoy P. Multi-immunodot for rapid differential diagnosis of eosinophilic meningitis due to parasitic infections. J Helminthol. 2006;80:249-54 pubmed
    ..Ultrafiltered, purified antigens of Parastrongylus (=Angiostrongylus) cantonensis, Gnathostoma spinigerum and Taenia solium metacestodes, the most common parasites that invade the central nervous system and ..
  5. Chandenier J, Husson J, Canaple S, Gondry Jouet C, Dekumyoy P, Danis M, et al. Medullary gnathostomiasis in a white patient: use of immunodiagnosis and magnetic resonance imaging. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;32:E154-7 pubmed
    ..Albendazole treatment prevented disease progression, but only partial regression of the neurologic symptoms was obtained...
  6. Moore D, McCroddan J, Dekumyoy P, Chiodini P. Gnathostomiasis: an emerging imported disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:647-50 pubmed
    ..As a result, the occurrence of Gnathostoma spinigerum infection leading to the clinical syndrome gnathostomiasis is increasing...
  7. Ikadai H, Fujii T, Nagai T, Yoshioka K, Nagasao J, Kudo N, et al. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against Gnathostoma nipponicum. J Parasitol. 2003;89:180-3 pubmed
    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were produced against the proteins of advanced third-stage larvae (AdL3) of Gnathostoma nipponicum...
  8. Nuchprayoon S, Sanprasert V, Suntravat M, Kraivichian K, Saksirisampant W, Nuchprayoon I. Study of specific IgG subclass antibodies for diagnosis of Gnathostoma spinigerum. Parasitol Res. 2003;91:137-43 pubmed
    b>Gnathostoma spinigerum infection is endemic in Thailand and many Asian countries. Current diagnosis is the skin test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for IgG antibody against the G...
  9. Woo H, Oh H, Cho S, Na B, Sohn W. Discovery of larval Gnathostoma nipponicum in frogs and snakes from Jeju-do (Province), Republic of Korea. Korean J Parasitol. 2011;49:445-8 pubmed publisher
    A survey was performed to find out the intermediate hosts of Gnathostoma nipponicum in Jeju-do (Province), the Republic of Korea...
  10. Katchanov J, Sawanyawisuth K, Chotmongkoi V, Nawa Y. Neurognathostomiasis, a neglected parasitosis of the central nervous system. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:1174-80 pubmed publisher
    Gnathostomiasis is a foodborne zoonotic helminthic infection caused by the third-stage larvae of Gnathostoma spp. nematodes. The most severe manifestation involves infection of the central nervous system, neurognathostomiasis...
  11. Chappuis F, Farinelli T, Loutan L. Ivermectin treatment of a traveler who returned from Peru with cutaneous gnathostomiasis. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;33:E17-9 pubmed
    ..This is the first reported case of gnathostomiasis acquired by a human in Peru...
  12. Herman J, Chiodini P. Gnathostomiasis, another emerging imported disease. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2009;22:484-92 pubmed publisher
    Gnathostomiasis is a food-borne zoonosis caused by the late-third stage larvae of Gnathostoma spp...
  13. Strady C, Dekumyoy P, Clement Rigolet M, Danis M, Bricaire F, Caumes E. Long-term follow-up of imported gnathostomiasis shows frequent treatment failure. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;80:33-5 pubmed
    ..Thus patients with imported gnathostomiasis should be monitored for at least 6 months to detect late treatment failure...
  14. Sawanyawisuth K, Chlebicki M, Pratt E, Kanpittaya J, Intapan P. Sequential imaging studies of cerebral gnathostomiasis with subdural hemorrhage as its complication. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2009;103:102-4 pubmed publisher
    Cerebral gnathostomiasis is a severe form of human infection caused by Gnathostoma spinigerum. We report sequential brain imaging in serologically proven cerebral gnathostomiasis...
  15. Barua P, Hazarika N, Barua N, Barua C, Choudhury B. Gnathostomiasis of the anterior chamber. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2007;25:276-8 pubmed
    Ocular involvement with Gnathostoma spinigerum occurs years after the initial infection that is acquired by ingestion of poorly cooked, pickled seafood or water contaminated with third stage larvae...
  16. Saksirisampant W, Kulkaew K, Nuchprayoon S, Yentakham S, Wiwanitkit V. A survey of the infective larvae of Gnathostoma spinigerum in swamp eels bought in a local market in Bangkok, Thailand. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2002;96:191-5 pubmed
    ..1%) were found to be infected with the human-infective, third-stage larvae (L3) of Gnathostoma spp. All the identified larvae were confirmed morphologically to be G. spinigerum...
  17. Laummaunwai P, Sawanyawisuth K, Intapan P, Chotmongkol V, Wongkham C, Maleewong W. Evaluation of human IgG class and subclass antibodies to a 24 kDa antigenic component of Gnathostoma spinigerum for the serodiagnosis of gnathostomiasis. Parasitol Res. 2007;101:703-8 pubmed
    ..G class (total IgG) and subclass (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) antibody responses to the spirurid worm Gnathostoma spinigerum were analyzed by immunoblotting technique for the antibodies' potential use in the serodiagnosis of ..
  18. Schmutzhard E. Eosinophilic myelitis, a souvenir from South East Asia. Pract Neurol. 2007;7:48-51 pubmed
  19. Baquera Heredia J, Cruz Reyes A, Flores Gaxiola A, López Pulido G, Díaz Simental E, Valderrama Valenzuela L. Case report: Ocular gnathostomiasis in northwestern Mexico. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2002;66:572-4 pubmed
    ..removal, the parasite was identified by light and electron microscopy as an advanced third-stage larva of Gnathostoma sp...
  20. Rahman M, Moula M. Gnathostomiasis: a rare nematode infection. Mymensingh Med J. 2006;15:105-7 pubmed
    b>Gnathostoma, primarily an animal nematode, can infect human by the third stage larva by consumption of undercooked or raw fish, poultry, or pork. In Bangladesh gnathostomiasis is a very rare condition...
  21. Elzi L, Decker M, Battegay M, Rutishauser J, Blum J. Chest pain after travel to the tropics. Lancet. 2004;363:1198 pubmed
  22. Kraivichian K, Nuchprayoon S, Sitichalernchai P, Chaicumpa W, Yentakam S. Treatment of cutaneous gnathostomiasis with ivermectin. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004;71:623-8 pubmed
    ..We concluded that a single dose of ivermectin (200 microg/kg) is less effective than albendazole (400 mg/day for 21 days) for treatment of cutaneous gnathostomiasis, but there was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05)...
  23. Sangchan A, Sawanyawisuth K, Intapan P, Mahakkanukrauh A. Outward migration of Gnathostoma spinigerum in interferon alpha treated hepatitis C patient. Parasitol Int. 2006;55:31-2 pubmed
    ..She was continually treated and had sustained both virological and biochemical responses to HCV treatment. This case demonstrates that the outward migration of G. spinigerum may be stimulated by the injection of Peg-IFN alpha-2b...
  24. Saksirisampant W, Thanomsub B. Positivity and intensity of Gnathostoma spinigerum infective larvae in farmed and wild-caught swamp eels in Thailand. Korean J Parasitol. 2012;50:113-8 pubmed publisher
    ..2009, livers of the swamp eels (Monopterus alba) were investigated for advanced third-stage larvae (AL3) of Gnathostoma spinigerum. Results revealed that 10.2% (106/1,037) and 20...
  25. Zambrano Zaragoza J, Duran Avelar M, Messina Robles M, Vibanco Pérez N. Characterization of the humoral immune response against Gnathostoma binucleatum in patients clinically diagnosed with gnathostomiasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012;86:988-92 pubmed publisher
    ..disease acquired by consuming raw or uncooked fresh-water fish infected with the advanced third-stage larvae of Gnathostoma spp...
  26. Yang J, Kim M, Kim E, Na B, Yu S, Kwak H. Imported intraocular gnathostomiasis with subretinal tracks confirmed by western blot assay. Korean J Parasitol. 2012;50:73-8 pubmed publisher
    ..examination was performed to provide a more accurate diagnosis, and the patient's serum reacted strongly to the Gnathostoma nipponicum antigen by western blot assay, which led to a diagnosis of intraocular gnathostomiasis...
  27. Hale D, Blumberg L, Frean J. Case report: gnathostomiasis in two travelers to Zambia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003;68:707-9 pubmed
    Gnathostomiasis is a systemic infection caused by migrating nematode larvae of the genus Gnathostoma. It is a zoonosis involving a wide variety of animals as intermediate and definitive hosts, and consumption of raw fish is the main risk ..
  28. Germann R, Schachtele M, Nessler G, Seitz U, Kniehl E. Cerebral gnathostomiasis as a cause of an extended intracranial bleeding. Klin Padiatr. 2003;215:223-5 pubmed
    ..This diagnosis was confirmed by detecting specific antibodies against Gnathostoma spinigerum in serum and CSF by Western blot...
  29. Chai J, Han E, Shin E, Park J, Chu J, Hirota M, et al. An outbreak of gnathostomiasis among Korean emigrants in Myanmar. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003;69:67-73 pubmed
    ..0 +/- 9.8% (n = 26) in two examinations. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of their serum samples, using Gnathostoma doloresi adult worms as the antigen, showed mean +/- SD optical densities of 0.47 +/- 0.29 (n = 28) and 0...
  30. Sieu T, Dung T, Nga N, Hien T, Dalsgaard A, Waikagul J, et al. Prevalence of Gnathostoma spinigerum infection in wild and cultured swamp eels in Vietnam. J Parasitol. 2009;95:246-8 pubmed publisher
    Human infections with Gnathostoma spinigerum frequently occur in southern Vietnam. Previous investigations have implicated infected swamp eels (Monopterus albus) as an important source of infection to humans. Because aquaculture of M...
  31. Uparanukraw P, Morakote N, Harnnoi T, Dantrakool A. Molecular cloning of a gene encoding matrix metalloproteinase-like protein from Gnathostoma spinigerum. Parasitol Res. 2001;87:751-7 pubmed
    The advanced third-stage larvae (aL3) of Gnathostoma spinigerum contain a 24 kDa glycoprotein with diagnostic potential...
  32. Ramirez Avila L, Slome S, Schuster F, Gavali S, Schantz P, Sejvar J, et al. Eosinophilic meningitis due to Angiostrongylus and Gnathostoma species. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48:322-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the infectious agents, Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Gnathostoma spinigerum are the most common...
  33. Kongkerd N, Uparanukraw P, Morakote N, Sajid M, McKerrow J. Identification and characterization of a cathepsin L-like cysteine protease from Gnathostoma spinigerum. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2008;160:129-37 pubmed publisher
    b>Gnathostoma spinigerum is a causative agent of human gnathostomiasis, a common parasitic disease involving skin and visceral organs, especially the central nervous system...
  34. Ligon B. Gnathostomiasis: a review of a previously localized zoonosis now crossing numerous geographical boundaries. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis. 2005;16:137-43 pubmed
    ..Among the diseases caused by helminthic parasites is gnathostomiasis, a disease caused by Gnathostoma spp. Once confined primarily to Southeast Asia, it now is a public health concern in Mexico and other countries...
  35. Diaz Camacho S, Willms K, Ramos M, del Carmen de la Cruz Otero M, Nawa Y, Akahane H. Morphology of Gnathostoma spp. isolated from natural hosts in Sinaloa, Mexico. Parasitol Res. 2002;88:639-45 pubmed
    ..6 nuclei/cell was found, corresponding to data published for Gnathostoma binucleatum...
  36. Xuan L, Rojekittikhun W, Punpoowong B, Trang L, Hien T. Case report: intraocular gnathostomiasis in Vietnam. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2002;33:485-9 pubmed
    ..Surgical extraction of a living Gnathostoma larva was carried out...
  37. Basak S, Sinha T, Bhattacharya D, Hazra T, Parikh S. Intravitreal live Gnathostoma spinigerum. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2004;52:57-8 pubmed
    Intraocular infestation by live Gnathostoma spinigerum is a rare occurrence in humans. Most of the published reports are from South-East Asia...
  38. Woo H, Oh H, Cho S, Na B, Sohn W. The Jeju weasel, Mustela sibilica quelpartis, a new definitive host for Gnathostoma nipponicum Yamaguti, 1941. Korean J Parasitol. 2011;49:317-21 pubmed publisher
    ..9 µm in average size, and had a mucoid plug at 1 pole. These gnathostomes from Jeju weasels were identified as Gnathostoma nipponicum Yamaguti, 1941. By the present study, it was confirmed for the first time that G...
  39. Mukherjee A, Ahmed N, Samantaray J, Mirdha B. A rare case of cutaneous larva migrans due to Gnathostoma sp. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2012;30:356-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Examination of the worms in the parasitology laboratory revealed it to be a larva of Gnathostoma sp. She was advised treatment with Albendazole for 21 days, and there was no recurrence of lesions.
  40. Akahane H, Sano M, Kobayashi M. Three cases of human gnathostomiasis caused by Gnathostoma hispidum, with particular reference to the identification of parasitic larvae. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1998;29:611-4 pubmed
    Human gnathostomiasis is well known to be caused by Gnathostoma spinigerum, G. hispidum, G. doloresi and G. nipponicum in Japan. In the present reported cases, skin biopsies were performed on three Japanese patients...
  41. Caballero García M, Almeyda Artigas R, Mosqueda Cabrera M, Jiménez Cardoso E. Gnathostoma binucleatum: excretion-secretion antigen analysis obtained from advanced third-stage larvae in in vitro culture. Exp Parasitol. 2005;110:140-5 pubmed
    ..describes an introductory characterization of antigenic stimulation of excretion-secretion products (ESP) of Gnathostoma binucleatum advanced third-stage larvae cultured in vitro and proteinases present in this products...
  42. Herman J, Wall E, van Tulleken C, Godfrey Faussett P, Bailey R, Chiodini P. Gnathostomiasis acquired by British tourists in Botswana. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:594-7 pubmed publisher
    Infection with Gnathostoma spinigerum has been generally confined to Southeast Asia and Central and South America. However, gnathostomiasis was recently found in British tourists who had visited Botswana...
  43. Sawanyawisuth K, Tiamkao S, Kanpittaya J, Dekumyoy P, Jitpimolmard S. MR imaging findings in cerebrospinal gnathostomiasis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2004;25:446-9 pubmed
    Human gnathostomiasis is an infection caused mainly by Gnathostoma spinigerum, a nematode. Infected humans can present with various clinical manifestations...
  44. Mosqueda Cabrera M, Almeyda Artigas R, Sanchez Miranda E, Carranza Calderón L, Sánchez Núñez E. Description and development of the early third-stage larva of Gnathostoma turgidum Stossich, 1902 (Nematoda: Gnathostomatidae) and contributions to its life cycle. Parasitol Res. 2010;106:1321-6 pubmed publisher
    The egg and larval stages of Gnathostoma turgidum were examined using light microscopy. Fertilized uterine eggs are 65.97 long and 32.28 wide, oval, brownish, with two cap-like thickenings...
  45. Preechawat P, Wongwatthana P, Poonyathalang A, Chusattayanond A. Orbital apex syndrome from gnathostomiasis. J Neuroophthalmol. 2006;26:184-6 pubmed
    ..Her serum was positive for Gnathostoma spinigerum using an immunoblotting technique...
  46. Bhattacharjee H, Das D, Medhi J. Intravitreal gnathostomiasis and review of literature. Retina. 2007;27:67-73 pubmed
    ..pattern in ocular tissue, surgical management, and electron microscopic features of the retrieved advanced third-stage larva of Gnathostoma spinigerum (aL3) for a 48-year-old Indian woman with excellent postsurgical visual recovery.
  47. Lo Re V, Gluckman S. Eosinophilic meningitis due to Gnathostoma spinigerum. J Infect. 2002;45:117-20 pubmed
    We present a case of eosinophilic meningitis due to the tissue nematode Gnathostoma spinigerum in a patient with remote travel to Korea. G...
  48. Sawanyawisuth K, Tiamkao S, Nitinavakarn B, Dekumyoy P, Jitpimolmard S. MR imaging findings in cauda equina gnathostomiasis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2005;26:39-42 pubmed
    We report a case of cauda equina syndrome caused by Gnathostoma spinigerum, which was confirmed by an immunoblotting test...
  49. Bunyaratavej K, Pongpunlert W, Jongwutiwes S, Likitnukul S. Spinal gnathostomiasis resembling an intrinsic cord tumor/myelitis in a 4-year-old boy. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2008;39:800-3 pubmed
    ..Intraoperatively, after the cervical cord had been opened, a living Gnathostoma spinigerum was found in the spinal cord parenchyma. The nematode was removed...
  50. Magaña M, Messina M, Bustamante F, Cazarín J. Gnathostomiasis: clinicopathologic study. Am J Dermatopathol. 2004;26:91-5 pubmed
    ..Thus, the presence of these histopathologic features in the context of a clinical picture suggestive of gnathostomiasis allows the pathologist to make the correct diagnosis...
  51. Kim H, Lee J, Joo M, Chang S, Chi J, Chai J. Gnathostoma hispidum infection in a Korean man returning from China. Korean J Parasitol. 2010;48:259-61 pubmed publisher
    Human Gnathostoma hispidum infection is extremely rare in the world literature and has never been reported in the Republic of Korea...
  52. Khalap A, Bagrosky B, Lecaude S, Youson J, Danielson P, Dores R. Trends in the evolution of the proenkephalin and prodynorphin genes in gnathostomes. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1040:22-37 pubmed
    ..Current studies on the opioid/orphanin gene family point to the duplication events that shaped this family occurring prior to the radiation of the gnathostomes. ..
  53. Cruz Reyes A, Ortega Corona B, Zepeda Rodriguez A, Perez Torres A. Ultrastructural changes in the advanced third larval stage of Gnathostoma binucleatum Almeyda-Artigas, 1991 (Nematoda: Spirurida) following albendazole and albendazole sulfoxide in vitro exposure. Parasitol Res. 2012;110:557-63 pubmed publisher
    We report here the ultrastructural changes in the third advanced larval stage (AL3) of Gnathostoma binucleatum Almeyda-Artigas, 1991, induced by in vitro treatment with albendazole and the metabolite albendazole sulfoxide...
  54. Near T. Conflict and resolution between phylogenies inferred from molecular and phenotypic data sets for hagfish, lampreys, and gnathostomes. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2009;312:749-61 pubmed publisher
  55. Jelinek T, Ziegler M, Loscher T. [Gnathostomiasis after a stay in Thailand]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 1994;119:1618-22 pubmed
    ..No worm eggs or larvae were found in the stool. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, using larvae of Gnathostoma spinigerum as antigen, demonstrated antibodies against this nematode...
  56. Hernández Gómez R, Martínez Salazar E, López Jiménez S, León Règagnon V. Molecular identification of the advanced third-stage larvae (ADV L(3)) of Gnathostoma lamothei in Tabasco, Mexico. Parasitol Int. 2010;59:97-9 pubmed publisher
    Advanced third-stage larvae (ADV L(3)) of Gnathostoma spp. were collected from the muscle tissue of three species of freshwater fish (i.e...
  57. Jung B, Lee J, Pyo K, Kim H, Jeong H, Yoon C, et al. Detection of Gnathostoma spinigerum third-stage larvae in snakeheads purchased from a central part of Myanmar. Korean J Parasitol. 2008;46:285-8 pubmed publisher
    To examine the infection status of freshwater fish with Gnathostoma spp. larvae in Myanmar, we purchased 15 snakeheads, Channa striatus, from a local market in a suburban area of Naypyidaw, the new capital city...