thelazioidea

Summary

Summary: A superfamily of parasitic nematodes which includes three genera: Thelazia, Spirocerca, and GNATHOSTOMA. Only Thelazia and GNATHOSTOMA occasionally occur in man.

Top Publications

  1. Otranto D, Dantas Torres F, Mallia E, DiGeronimo P, Brianti E, Testini G, et al. Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) in wild animals: report of new host species and ecological implications. Vet Parasitol. 2009;166:262-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The role the wild fauna plays in maintaining and spreading eyeworm infection in humans and domestic animals is also discussed...
  2. Berry W. Spirocerca lupi esophageal granulomas in 7 dogs: resolution after treatment with doramectin. J Vet Intern Med. 2000;14:609-12 pubmed
    ..No dog experienced adverse effects to the drug, and all symptomatic dogs have been free of disease for periods ranging from 3 to 4 years...
  3. Liu G, Gasser R, Otranto D, Xu M, Shen J, Mohandas N, et al. Mitochondrial genome of the eyeworm, Thelazia callipaeda (Nematoda: Spirurida), as the first representative from the family Thelaziidae. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2029 pubmed publisher
  4. Chikweto A, Bhaiyat M, Tiwari K, de Allie C, Sharma R. Spirocercosis in owned and stray dogs in Grenada. Vet Parasitol. 2012;190:613-6 pubmed publisher
    ..lupi and hypertrophic osteopathy. We report spirocercosis for the first time in the dogs from a tropical island of Grenada...
  5. Miró G, Montoya A, Hernandez L, Dado D, Vázquez M, Benito M, et al. Thelazia callipaeda: infection in dogs: a new parasite for Spain. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:148 pubmed publisher
    ..Italy, France, Germany and Switzerland). In June 2010, the first case of canine thelaziosis was observed in central western Spain (La Vera region, Cáceres) and subsequent epidemiological investigation is reported in the present study...
  6. Rossi L, Rigano C, Tomio E, Frassetto D, Ferroglio E. Use of sustained-release moxidectin to prevent eyeworm (Thelazia callipaeda) infection in dogs. Vet Rec. 2007;161:820-1 pubmed
  7. Otranto D, Dutto M. Human thelaziasis, Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:647-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thelazia callipaeda eyeworm is a nematode transmitted by drosophilid flies to carnivores in Europe. It has also been reported in the Far East in humans. We report T. callipaeda infection in 4 human patients in Italy and France...
  8. Otranto D, Lia R, Cantacessi C, Testini G, Troccoli A, Shen J, et al. Nematode biology and larval development of Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) in the drosophilid intermediate host in Europe and China. Parasitology. 2005;131:847-55 pubmed
    ..callipaeda and discussed. Finally, the relationship between T. callipaeda and its fly vector is considered in light of disease prophylaxis and to model its dissemination into habitats and environments favourable to Phortica flies...
  9. Otranto D, Testini G, De Luca F, Hu M, Shamsi S, Gasser R. Analysis of genetic variability within Thelazia callipaeda (Nematoda: Thelazioidea) from Europe and Asia by sequencing and mutation scanning of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Mol Cell Probes. 2005;19:306-13 pubmed
    This study investigated genetic variability within the 'eyeworm'Thelazia callipaeda (Nematoda: Thelazioidea) from Europe and Asia by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-coupled sequencing and mutation scanning of the mitochondrial cytochrome ..

More Information

Publications86

  1. Lavy E, Harrus S, Mazaki Tovi M, Bark H, Markovics A, Hagag A, et al. Spirocerca lupi in dogs: prophylactic effect of doramectin. Res Vet Sci. 2003;75:217-22 pubmed
    ..This study shows that although doramectin did not entirely prevent canine spirocercosis it reduced the clinical signs associated with infection and delayed and reduced egg output...
  2. Dvir E, Kirberger R, Malleczek D. Radiographic and computed tomographic changes and clinical presentation of spirocercosis in the dog. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2001;42:119-29 pubmed
  3. Mylonakis M, Koutinas A, Liapi M, Saridomichelakis M, Rallis T. A comparison of the prevalence of Spirocerca lupi in three groups of dogs with different life and hunting styles. J Helminthol. 2001;75:359-61 pubmed
    ..There was no relationship between prevalence and age/sex of dogs. The impact of life and hunting styles on the prevalence of S. lupi in the dog and that of the faecal examination technique, are discussed...
  4. Otranto D, Traversa D. Thelazia eyeworm: an original endo- and ecto-parasitic nematode. Trends Parasitol. 2005;21:1-4 pubmed
    ..The relationship between eyeworms and their hosts are discussed here, together with recent molecular insights that are instrumental in investigating the biology of Thelazia in their definitive and intermediate hosts...
  5. Otranto D, Cantacessi C, Testini G, Lia R. Phortica variegata as an intermediate host of Thelazia callipaeda under natural conditions: evidence for pathogen transmission by a male arthropod vector. Int J Parasitol. 2006;36:1167-73 pubmed
    ..The synchrony between the fly population dynamics and the biology of the nematode in the definitive host provides an interesting model for exploring the co-evolution of Thelazia spp. with their hosts...
  6. Ruytoor P, Dean E, Pennant O, Dorchies P, Chermette R, Otranto D, et al. Ocular thelaziosis in dogs, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:1943-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Most cases were detected in Dordogne, particularly in 3 counties with numerous strawberry farms, which may favor development of the fruit fly vector. Animal thelaziosis may lead to emergence of human cases...
  7. Chermette R, Guillot J, Bussiéras J. Canine ocular thelaziosis in Europe. Vet Rec. 2004;154:248 pubmed
  8. Ranen E, Lavy E, Aizenberg I, Perl S, Harrus S. Spirocercosis-associated esophageal sarcomas in dogs. A retrospective study of 17 cases (1997-2003). Vet Parasitol. 2004;119:209-21 pubmed
    ..Proper surgical treatment could prolong the dogs' lifespan for months, and improve their quality of life...
  9. Lia R, Traversa D, Agostini A, Otranto D. Field efficacy of moxidectin 1 per cent against Thelazia callipaeda in naturally infected dogs. Vet Rec. 2004;154:143-5 pubmed
  10. Mylonakis M, Rallis T, Koutinas A, Ververidis H, Fytianou A. A comparison between ethanol-induced chemical ablation and ivermectin plus prednizolone in the treatment of symptomatic esophageal spirocercosis in the dog: a prospective study on 14 natural cases. Vet Parasitol. 2004;120:131-8 pubmed
    ..The combination of ivermectin and prednizolone may be considered an effective treatment in the symptomatic and evidently asymptomatic esophageal spirocercosis of the dog...
  11. Magnis J, Naucke T, Mathis A, Deplazes P, Schnyder M. Local transmission of the eye worm Thelazia callipaeda in southern Germany. Parasitol Res. 2010;106:715-7 pubmed publisher
    ..callipaeda in large parts of Europe cannot be excluded...
  12. Mylonakis M, Rallis T, Koutinas A, Leontides L, Patsikas M, Florou M, et al. Clinical signs and clinicopathologic abnormalities in dogs with clinical spirocercosis: 39 cases (1996-2004). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2006;228:1063-7 pubmed
    ..To determine clinical signs and clinicopathologic abnormalities in dogs with naturally occurring clinical spirocercosis...
  13. Vieira L, Rodrigues F, Costa A, Diz Lopes D, Machado J, Coutinho T, et al. First report of canine ocular thelaziosis by Thelazia callipaeda in Portugal. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:124 pubmed publisher
    ..Infested hosts might remain asymptomatic or display clinical manifestations characterized by variable degrees of severity...
  14. van der Merwe L, Kirberger R, Clift S, Williams M, Keller N, Naidoo V. Spirocerca lupi infection in the dog: a review. Vet J. 2008;176:294-309 pubmed
    ..Doramectin is the current drug of choice, effectively killing adult worms and decreasing egg shedding. Early diagnosis of infection is still a challenge and to date no ideal regimen for prophylaxis has been published...
  15. Otranto D, Lia R, Traversa D, Giannetto S. Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) of carnivores and humans: morphological study by light and scanning electron microscopy. Parassitologia. 2003;45:125-33 pubmed
    ..The morphological characteristics useful for the identification of T. callipaeda are discussed...
  16. Lavy E, Aroch I, Bark H, Markovics A, Aizenberg I, Mazaki Tovi M, et al. Evaluation of doramectin for the treatment of experimental canine spirocercosis. Vet Parasitol. 2002;109:65-73 pubmed
    ..lupi granulomas could still be seen 544 days post-initiation of treatment with doramectin. Multiple subcutaneous injections of doramectin (400 microg/kg) were shown to be effective and safe in the treatment of canine spirocercosis...
  17. Mazaki Tovi M, Baneth G, Aroch I, Harrus S, Kass P, Ben Ari T, et al. Canine spirocercosis: clinical, diagnostic, pathologic, and epidemiologic characteristics. Vet Parasitol. 2002;107:235-50 pubmed
    ..The case-fatality rate decreased toward the end of the study period when improved therapy with avermectins became available...
  18. Sohn W, Na B, Yoo J. Two cases of human thelaziasis and brief review of Korean cases. Korean J Parasitol. 2011;49:265-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Most of the cases (94.9%) were conjunctival sac infections and only 2 (5.1%) were intraocular cases. The present 2 HT cases are the first reported cases in Gyeongsangnam-do. Some characteristics of Korean HT cases were analyzed...
  19. Otranto D, Ferroglio E, Lia R, Traversa D, Rossi L. Current status and epidemiological observation of Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) in dogs, cats and foxes in Italy: a "coincidence" or a parasitic disease of the Old Continent?. Vet Parasitol. 2003;116:315-25 pubmed
    ..callipaeda is also present in other European countries. Speculation as to the origins of this parasitic infestation in Europe and the biology of T. callipaeda and its vector/s is also discussed...
  20. Otranto D, Traversa D. Molecular characterization of the first internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA of the most common species of eyeworms (Thelazioidea: Thelazia). J Parasitol. 2004;90:185-8 pubmed
    ..transmission patterns and prevalence in definitive and intermediate hosts...
  21. Kok D, Schenker R, Archer N, Horak I, Swart P. The efficacy of milbemycin oxime against pre-adult Spirocerca lupi in experimentally infected dogs. Vet Parasitol. 2011;177:111-8 pubmed publisher
    ..As expected, none of the treatment protocols reduced S. lupi related damage within the aorta because the administration of milbemycin oxime only began after the larvae had completed their first stage of migration...
  22. Rinas M, Nesnek R, Kinsella J, DeMatteo K. Fatal aortic aneurysm and rupture in a neotropical bush dog (Speothos venaticus) caused by Spirocerca lupi. Vet Parasitol. 2009;164:347-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The cause of death was determined to be acute bleeding following the rupture of an aneurysm in the caudal thoracic aorta as a result of the parasite located there. This is the first report of S. lupi in a bush dog...
  23. Gottlieb Y, Markovics A, Klement E, Naor S, Samish M, Aroch I, et al. Characterization of Onthophagus sellatus as the major intermediate host of the dog esophageal worm Spirocerca lupi in Israel. Vet Parasitol. 2011;180:378-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Significant differences were observed between the two different microenvironments and along the year. The highest risk for infection of dogs with the nematode was during the summer, in an irrigated, shady microenvironment...
  24. Seo M, Yu J, Park H, Huh S, Kim S, Hong S. Enzooticity of the dogs, the reservoir host of Thelazia callipaeda, in Korea. Korean J Parasitol. 2002;40:101-3 pubmed
    ..7%), and 188 worms from 26 shepherds (33.5%). No worms were recovered from the cattle or pigs. These results suggest that the dogs, especially the military dogs are serving as a reservoir host of T. callipaeda in Korea...
  25. Traversa D, Costanzo F, Iorio R, Aroch I, Lavy E. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene sequence of Spirocerca lupi (Nematoda, Spirurida): avenues for potential implications. Vet Parasitol. 2007;146:263-70 pubmed
    ..Crucial implications for the specific molecular diagnosis of clinical spirocercosis and investigation of the evolution, population genetics, ecology and epidemiology of S. lupi are discussed...
  26. Shen J, Gasser R, Chu D, Wang Z, Yuan X, Cantacessi C, et al. Human thelaziosis--a neglected parasitic disease of the eye. J Parasitol. 2006;92:872-5 pubmed
  27. Wang Z, Hu Y, Shen J, Wang K, Wang H, Jiang B, et al. [Longitudinal investigation and experimental studies on thelaziasis and the intermediate host of Thelazia callipaeda in Guanghua county of Hubei province]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2003;24:588-90 pubmed
    ..To verify houseflies Musca spp. as the intermediate host of Thelazia callipaeda and reveal epidemiological situation of thelaziasis in Hubei province...
  28. Otranto D, Lia R, Buono V, Traversa D, Giangaspero A. Biology of Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) eyeworms in naturally infected definitive hosts. Parasitology. 2004;129:627-33 pubmed
    ..This basic knowledge of the development of T. callipaeda will hopefully help future epidemiological studies to identify the intermediate hosts and define the likely risk for vectors in field conditions...
  29. Malacrida F, Hegglin D, Bacciarini L, Otranto D, Nageli F, Nägeli C, et al. Emergence of canine ocular Thelaziosis caused by Thelazia callipaeda in southern Switzerland. Vet Parasitol. 2008;157:321-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Young and small sized dogs were significantly less involved than large animals and over 3 years of age. The results indicate that thelaziosis is endemic in that area...
  30. Otranto D, Cantacessi C, Mallia E, Lia R. First report of Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) in wolves in Italy. J Wildl Dis. 2007;43:508-11 pubmed
    ..callipaeda was present. The competence of wolves as a definitive host for T. callipaeda is discussed in view of the relevance of wild fauna in maintaining and spreading eyeworm infection in humans and domestic animals...
  31. Dorchies P, Chaudieu G, Siméon L, Cazalot G, Cantacessi C, Otranto D. First reports of autochthonous eyeworm infection by Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) in dogs and cat from France. Vet Parasitol. 2007;149:294-7 pubmed
    ..callipaeda. So far, the arthropod acting as intermediate host of T. callipaeda eyeworms has not been identified in France although it might be Phortica variegata (Steganinae, Drosophilidae) as recently described in Italy...
  32. Motta B, Schnyder M, Basano F, Nageli F, Nägeli C, Schiessl B, et al. Therapeutic efficacy of milbemycin oxime/praziquantel oral formulation (Milbemax®) against Thelazia callipaeda in naturally infested dogs and cats. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:85 pubmed publisher
    ..The therapeutic efficacy of milbemycin oxime/praziquantel tablets (Milbemax®) against T. callipaeda was tested in naturally infested dogs and cats...
  33. Otranto D, Lia R, Testini G, Milillo P, Shen J, Wang Z. Musca domestica is not a vector of Thelazia callipaeda in experimental or natural conditions. Med Vet Entomol. 2005;19:135-9 pubmed
    ..domestica collected from Group 3 were negative for T. callipaeda. The results clearly suggest that M. domestica is unlikely to act as a vector of T. callipaeda in southern Europe, in contrast with a single previous report...
  34. Bianciardi P, Otranto D. Treatment of dog thelaziosis caused by Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) using a topical formulation of imidacloprid 10% and moxidectin 2.5%. Vet Parasitol. 2005;129:89-93 pubmed
    ..5% is very easy to apply and helps overcome problems linked to the mechanical removal of parasites or to the restraining of the animals for the local instillation of drugs in the eyes...
  35. Hermosilla C, Herrmann B, Bauer C. First case of Thelazia callipaeda infection in a dog in Germany. Vet Rec. 2004;154:568-9 pubmed
  36. Naem S. Scanning electron microscopic observations on adult Spirocerca lupi (Nematoda: Spirurida, Thelaziidae). Parasitol Res. 2004;92:265-9 pubmed
    ..The cuticle shows an abnormal tumour-like mass in two cases...
  37. Dvir E, Kirberger R, Mukorera V, van der Merwe L, Clift S. Clinical differentiation between dogs with benign and malignant spirocercosis. Vet Parasitol. 2008;155:80-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, if found together in a specific case, they should increase the index of suspicion for malignancy in a diagnosed spirocercosis case...
  38. Caron Y, Premont J, Losson B, Grauwels M. Thelazia callipaeda ocular infection in two dogs in Belgium. J Small Anim Pract. 2013;54:205-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In these two regions, the disease is considered endemic and spreading. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report of canine thelaziosis in Belgium. ..
  39. Gottlieb Y, Lavy E, Kaufman M, Markovics A, Ghanim M, Aroch I. A novel bacterial symbiont in the nematode Spirocerca lupi. BMC Microbiol. 2012;12:133 pubmed publisher
    ..The discovery of a new Comamonas sp. in S. lupi increase the complexity of the interactions among the organisms involved in this system, and may open innovative approaches for diagnosis and control of spirocercosis in dogs. ..
  40. Yang C, Tung K, Wang M, Chang S, Tu W, Wang K, et al. First Thelazia callipaeda infestation report in a dog in Taiwan. J Vet Med Sci. 2006;68:103-4 pubmed
    ..In 1998, first human case was reported in the central area of Taiwan. The dogs infected with T. callipaeda may have important implication in the infestation of this parasite to humans as reservoir hosts. ..
  41. Yas E, Kelmer G, Shipov A, Ben Oz J, Segev G. Successful transendoscopic oesophageal mass ablation in two dogs with Spirocerca lupi associated oesophageal sarcoma. J Small Anim Pract. 2013;54:495-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Transendoscopic laser ablation and polypectomy snare electrocautery is a potential non-invasive, cost effective alternative for surgical oesophageal mass resection. ..
  42. Yagi T, Sasoh M, Kawano T, Ito K, Uji Y, Ando K. Removal of Thelazia callipaeda from the subconjunctival space. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2007;17:266-8 pubmed
    ..To report the finding of Thelazia callipaeda within the human subconjunctival space...
  43. Roggero C, Schaffner F, Bächli G, Mathis A, Schnyder M. Survey of Phortica drosophilid flies within and outside of a recently identified transmission area of the eye worm Thelazia callipaeda in Switzerland. Vet Parasitol. 2010;171:58-67 pubmed publisher
    ..north to the Alps and therefore the potential risk of T. callipaeda infection outside the currently known endemic region, depending on local abundance and longevity of the drosophilid vectors. ..
  44. Chai O, Shelef I, Brenner O, Dogadkin O, Aroch I, Shamir M. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of spinal intramedullary spirocercosis. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2008;49:456-9 pubmed
    ..Gross and microscopic pathologic findings confirmed the diagnosis of aberrant spinal intramedullary migration of S. lupi in one dog, and in the other dog, the clinical and imaging findings were supportive of this diagnosis. ..
  45. Mylonakis M, Rallis T, Koutinas A. Canine spirocercosis. Compend Contin Educ Vet. 2008;30:111-6 pubmed
    ..Two avermectins, doramectin and ivermectin, have been effective in the treatment of canine spirocercosis, resulting in clinical remission, regression, or elimination of esophageal granulomas and cessation of egg shedding. ..
  46. Christie J, Schwan E, Bodenstein L, Sommerville J, van der Merwe L. The sensitivity of direct faecal examination, direct faecal flotation, modified centrifugal faecal flotation and centrifugal sedimentation/flotation in the diagnosis of canine spirocercosis. J S Afr Vet Assoc. 2011;82:71-5 pubmed
    ..The modified centrifugal flotation faecal method using this solution has the highest egg count. The study also found that dogs with neoplastic nodules shed significantly fewer eggs than dogs with non-neoplastic nodules. ..
  47. Naem S. Thelazia rhodesi (Spirurida, Thelaziidae), bovine eyeworm: morphological study by scanning electron microscopy. Parasitol Res. 2007;100:855-60 pubmed
    ..The spicules were unequal and dissimilar. The cuticle was transversally striated and appeared serrated. ..
  48. Shen J, Wang Z, Luo Q, Li J, Wen H, Zhou Y. [Amiota magna as an intermediate host of Thelazia callipaeda under laboratory conditions]. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi. 2009;27:375-6 pubmed
    ..At the 35th day after infection, the newborn larvae and worms of T. callipaeda were found in the conjunctival sac of rabbits. This study suggested that A. magna acts as intermediate host of T. callipaeda under laboratory conditions...
  49. Casiraghi M, Anderson T, Bandi C, Bazzocchi C, Genchi C. A phylogenetic analysis of filarial nematodes: comparison with the phylogeny of Wolbachia endosymbionts. Parasitology. 2001;122 Pt 1:93-103 pubmed
    ..and Wuchereria spp.) and the sister group relationship of Dirofilaria spp. and Onchocerca spp. However, the placement of the Wolbachia-free filaria Acanthocheilonema viteae is ambiguous and dependent on the phylogenetic methods used. ..
  50. Tasić Otašević S, Gabrielli S, Trenkić Božinović M, Petrović A, Gajić B, Colella V, et al. Eyeworm infections in dogs and in a human patient in Serbia: A One Health approach is needed. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2016;45:20-2 pubmed publisher
    ..A One Health approach, based on cooperation amongst veterinarians and physicians, is strongly advised for this emerging infection in order to assess the risk for and prevent of the zoonotic infection. ..
  51. Fisher M, Morgan J, Krecek R, Kelly P. Radiography for the diagnosis of spirocercosis in apparently healthy dogs, St. Kitts, West Indies. Vet Parasitol. 2009;160:337-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results show spirocercosis is common on St. Kitts and that radiographs are as dependable as fecal analysis and/or endoscopy in diagnosing the condition. ..
  52. Lyons E, Swerczek T, Tolliver S, Bair H, Drudge J, Ennis L. Prevalence of selected species of internal parasites in equids at necropsy in central Kentucky (1995-1999). Vet Parasitol. 2000;92:51-62 pubmed
    ..Compared to previous studies (about 15-25 years ago) in Kentucky, the present survey indicated the genera Onchocerca and Gasterophilus greatly declined but Thelazia, Anoplocephala, and Parascaris did not. ..
  53. Traversa D, Otranto D, Iorio R, Giangaspero A. Molecular characterization of Thelazia lacrymalis (Nematoda, Spirurida) affecting equids: a tool for vector identification. Mol Cell Probes. 2005;19:245-9 pubmed
    ..The molecular assay presented herein is a useful tool to identify the intermediate host(s) of T. lacrymalis in natural conditions and to study its/their ecology and epidemiology. ..
  54. Mukaratirwa S, Pillay E, Munsammy K. Experimental infection of selected arthropods with spirurid nematodes Spirocerca lupi Railliet & Henry, 1911 and Gongylonema ingluvicola Molin, 1857. J Helminthol. 2010;84:369-74 pubmed publisher
    ..ingluvicola larvae were not detected in the millipede species O. kyrhocephalus. The difference in the susceptibility of the arthropods to the two parasite species may depend on their feeding biology...
  55. Naem S. Morphological differentiation among three Thelazia species (Nematoda: Thelaziidae) by scanning electron microscopy. Parasitol Res. 2007;101:145-51 pubmed
    ..This article describes the morphological features of adult T. rhodesi, T. skrjabini, and T. gulosa by scanning electron microscopy and highlights the most relevant differences for their identification. ..
  56. Ferrantelli V, Riili S, Vicari D, Percipalle M, Chetta M, Monteverde V, et al. Spirocerca lupi isolated from gastric lesions in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Sicily (Italy). Pol J Vet Sci. 2010;13:465-71 pubmed
    ..This survey gives a contribution to the epidemiology of this parasite which is severely outdated in Italy and highlights some distinctive features of the life cycle and parasite migration. ..
  57. de Waal P, Gous A, Clift S, Greeff J. High within-host genetic variation of the nematode Spirocerca lupi in a high-density urban dog population. Vet Parasitol. 2012;187:259-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Small infrapopulation sizes along with clumped transmission may also result in members of infrapopulations being closely related. ..
  58. Mukorera V, Dvir E, van der Merwe L, Goddard A. Serum C-reactive protein concentration in benign and malignant canine spirocercosis. J Vet Intern Med. 2011;25:963-6 pubmed publisher
    ..There is a decrease in CRP concentration in dogs with benign spirocercosis once treatment has commenced. Serial CRP measurement can be used to monitor response to treatment in benign spirocercosis. ..
  59. Lobetti R. Successful resolution of oesophageal spirocercosis in 20 dogs following daily treatment with oral doramectin. Vet J. 2012;193:277-8 pubmed publisher
    ..No adverse events associated with treatment were observed. This study concluded that doramectin at 0.5 mg/kg once a day is effective in the elimination of Spirocerca lupi nodules in dogs. ..
  60. Rodrigues F, Cardoso L, Coutinho T, Otranto D, Diz Lopes D. Ocular thelaziosis due to Thelazia callipaeda in a cat from northeastern Portugal. J Feline Med Surg. 2012;14:952-4 pubmed publisher
  61. Du Plessis C, Keller N, Millward I. Aberrant extradural spinal migration of Spirocerca lupi: four dogs. J Small Anim Pract. 2007;48:275-8 pubmed
    ..In areas endemic for spirocercosis, Spirocerca lupi should be considered as an important differential diagnosis in cases that are presented with clinical signs suggestive of a spinal cord lesion. ..
  62. Traversa D, Avolio S, Modry D, Otranto D, Iorio R, Aroch I, et al. Copromicroscopic and molecular assays for the detection of cancer-causing parasitic nematode Spirocerca lupi. Vet Parasitol. 2008;157:108-16 pubmed publisher
    ..2%) Israeli samples scored molecularly positive using the PCR-based approach. The potential implications and perspectives for canine spirocercosis of these coproscopic and molecular diagnostic methodologies evaluated herein are discussed...
  63. Stettner N, Ranen E, Dank G, Lavy E, Aroch I, Harrus S, et al. Murine xenograft model of Spirocerca lupi-associated sarcoma. Comp Med. 2005;55:510-4 pubmed
    ..This resource will facilitate studies on the malignant transformation of the granulomas, establishment of efficient chemotherapy and radiotherapy regimens, and identification of diagnostic molecular markers...
  64. Okanishi H, Matsumoto J, Aoki H, Kagawa Y, Asano K, Nogami S, et al. Successful resolution of esophageal granulomas in a dog infected with Spirocerca lupi. J Vet Med Sci. 2013;75:1629-32 pubmed
    ..The therapy was successful, and a remarkable reduction in granulomas was observed. This case report describes the diagnostic imaging findings and treatment outcome of a dog with S. lupi infection in Japan. ..
  65. Zhang H, Tong D. [Diagnosis and treatment of one patient infected with Thelazia callipaeda]. Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi. 2013;25:220 pubmed
  66. Chowdhury N, Sood N, Lal S, Gupta K, Singla L. Development of some larval nematodes in experimental and natural animal hosts: an insight into development of pathological lesions vis-a-vis host-parasite interactions. ScientificWorldJournal. 2013;2013:162538 pubmed publisher
    ..Developmental effects shown in experimental hosts and host specificity are of value in understanding the evolution of nematode parasitism. ..
  67. Tudor P, Bădicu A, Mateescu R, Tudor N, Mateescu C, Ionaşcu I. First report of canine ocular thelaziosis in the Muntenia Region, Romania. Parasitol Res. 2016;115:1741-4 pubmed publisher
    ..callipaeda. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of canine ocular thelaziosis caused by T. callipaeda from the Muntenia Region of Romania. ..
  68. Hirasawa R, Urabe M. Ephemera strigata (Insecta: Ephemeroptera: Ephemeridae) is the intermediate host of the nematodes Rhabdochona denudata honshuensis and Rhabdochona coronacauda in Japan. J Parasitol. 2003;89:617-20 pubmed
    ..denudata honshuensis Moravec and Nagasawa, 1989 and Rhabdochona coronacauda Belouss, 1965 (Spirurida: Thelazioidea: Rhabdochonidae) were found in mayfly nymphs collected in a mountain stream in Japan...
  69. Wang Z, Shen J, Wang H, Otranto D. [An update on the research of human thelaziosis]. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi. 2006;24:299-303 pubmed
    ..This review covers its distribution, morphology and life cycle of the parasite, pathogenesis, clinical diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of the disease...
  70. Xue C, Tian N, Huang Z. Thelazia callipaeda in human vitreous. Can J Ophthalmol. 2007;42:884-5 pubmed
  71. Elias R, Mamani J, Hermoza C, Kinsella J. First report of thelaziosis (Thelazia anolabiata) in an Andean Cock of the Rock (Rupicola peruviana) from Peru. Vet Parasitol. 2008;158:382-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The nematodes were identified using the primary characteristics used to differentiate the species of this genus as lengths of spicules and other morphologic characteristics...
  72. Hossain M, Hossain M, Nahar L, Hossain M, Mondal A, Alim M, et al. Human thelaziasis in Bangladesh. Mymensingh Med J. 2011;20:128-30 pubmed
    ..Subsequently with the joint collaboration & detailed examination by the Parasitology department of Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh, the nematode was identified as an adult Thelazia callipaeda worm...
  73. Dvir E, Clift S, Williams M. Proposed histological progression of the Spirocerca lupi-induced oesophageal lesion in dogs. Vet Parasitol. 2010;168:71-7 pubmed publisher
    ..1.4+/-1.6). These results indicate 2 stages in the non-neoplastic nodules: early inflammation, characterized by fibrocytes and abundant collagen, and a pre-neoplastic stage, characterized by activated fibroblasts and reduced collagen...
  74. Dvir E, Clift S. Evaluation of selected growth factor expression in canine spirocercosis (Spirocerca lupi)-associated non-neoplastic nodules and sarcomas. Vet Parasitol. 2010;174:257-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Further investigation is warranted to establish whether FGF, VEGF or PDGF play a role in the pathogenesis of the malignant transformation in canine spirocercosis or are they simply integral to angiogenesis induction?..
  75. Yang Y, Liag T, Lin S, Chen H, Lai S. Human Thelaziasis occurrence in Taiwan. Clin Exp Optom. 2006;89:40-4 pubmed
    ..The vector leading to human infection is the fly. The possible mechanisms of infection for this patient are discussed. Although this is a known form of ocular infection, especially in Asia, this is one of few reported cases in Taiwan...
  76. Nath R, Narain K, Saikia L, Pujari B, Thakuria B, Mahanta J. Ocular thelaziasis in Assam: a report of two cases. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2008;51:146-8 pubmed
    ..They were identified as thelazia species. These two cases have been reported due to their rarity in India and elsewhere...
  77. Le Sueur C, Bour S, Schaper R. Efficacy of a combination of imidacloprid 10%/moxidectin 2.5% spot-on (Advocate® for dogs) in the prevention of canine spirocercosis (Spirocerca lupi). Parasitol Res. 2010;107:1463-9 pubmed publisher
    ..5% (Advocate® for dogs) in puppies starting at the age of 2 to 4 months achieves effective and safe prevention of canine spirocercosis...