onchocerca volvulus

Summary

Summary: A species of parasitic nematodes widely distributed throughout central Africa and also found in northern South America, southern Mexico, and Guatemala. Its intermediate host and vector is the blackfly or buffalo gnat.

Top Publications

  1. Brattig N, Schwohl A, Rickert R, Büttner D. The filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus generates the lipid mediator prostaglandin E(2). Microbes Infect. 2006;8:873-9 pubmed
    ..We found significant expression of PGE(2) in male and female Onchocerca volvulus. Using immunohistology, PGE(2) was predominantly detected in the hypodermis of adult O...
  2. Hoerauf A. Filariasis: new drugs and new opportunities for lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2008;21:673-81 pubmed publisher
    ..A regimen of 6-week/100 mg doxycycline per day sterilized adult female Onchocerca volvulus. Two hundred milligrams doxycycline per day for 4 or 6 weeks revealed 50 and 60% macrofilaricidal effects, ..
  3. Gardon J, Boussinesq M, Kamgno J, Gardon Wendel N, Demanga Ngangue -, Duke B. Effects of standard and high doses of ivermectin on adult worms of Onchocerca volvulus: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2002;360:203-10 pubmed
    ..to compare the effect of higher doses, more frequent doses, or both with the standard regimen on adult Onchocerca volvulus. We randomly allocated 657 patients who had onchocerciasis to 150 microg/kg ivermectin yearly (reference ..
  4. Xiao W, Du L, Liang C, Guan J, Jiang S, Lustigman S, et al. Evaluation of recombinant Onchocerca volvulus activation associated protein-1 (ASP-1) as a potent Th1-biased adjuvant with a panel of protein or peptide-based antigens and commercial inactivated vaccines. Vaccine. 2008;26:5022-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously showed that activation-associated protein-1 (ASP-1) derived from Onchocerca volvulus has potent adjuvant activity...
  5. Boussinesq M, Gardon J, Kamgno J, Demanga Ngangue -, Pion S, Duke B. Studies on the macrofilarial population of Onchocerca volvulus in hyper-endemic villages of the Central province of Cameroon. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2001;95:379-88 pubmed
    The population structure of Onchocerca volvulus macrofilariae was studied in villages of central Cameroon where onchocerciasis is hyper-endemic...
  6. Boussinesq M. Onchocerciasis control: biological research is still needed. Parasite. 2008;15:510-4 pubmed
  7. Kerepesi L, Leon O, Lustigman S, Abraham D. Protective immunity to the larval stages of onchocerca volvulus is dependent on Toll-like receptor 4. Infect Immun. 2005;73:8291-7 pubmed
    ..Protective immunity against larval Onchocerca volvulus in mice depends on the development of a Th2 immune response mediated by both interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-5...
  8. Garms R, Lakwo T, Ndyomugyenyi R, Kipp W, Rubaale T, Tukesiga E, et al. The elimination of the vector Simulium neavei from the Itwara onchocerciasis focus in Uganda by ground larviciding. Acta Trop. 2009;111:203-10 pubmed publisher
    ..S. neavei was found to be a very efficient vector with 40% of parous flies harbouring developing larvae of Onchocerca volvulus. After 4 years of community-based distribution of ivermectin transmission was still considerable and in ..
  9. Demanou M, Enyong P, Pion S, Basáñez M, Boussinesq M. Experimental studies on the transmission of Onchocerca volvulus by its vector in the Sanaga valley (Cameroon): Simulium squamosum B. Intake of microfilariae and their migration to the haemocoel of the vector. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2003;97:381-402 pubmed
    ..focus of the Sanaga valley, Cameroon, was therefore investigated, by feeding 1320 flies on 14 carriers of Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae (mff)...

More Information

Publications137 found, 100 shown here

  1. Duerr H, Dietz K, Schulz Key H, Buttner D, Eichner M. Density-dependent parasite establishment suggests infection-associated immunosuppression as an important mechanism for parasite density regulation in onchocerciasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2003;97:242-50 pubmed
    ..We address the unresolved question of acquisition, establishment and accumulation of Onchocerca volvulus by using a modelling approach that relates computer simulations to cross-sectional data concerning parasite ..
  2. Cho Ngwa F, Liu J, Lustigman S. The Onchocerca volvulus cysteine proteinase inhibitor, Ov-CPI-2, is a target of protective antibody response that increases with age. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e800 pubmed publisher
    Despite considerable efforts, a suitable vaccine against Onchocerca volvulus infection has remained elusive. Herein, we report on the use of molecular tools to identify and characterize O...
  3. Keddie E, Higazi T, Unnasch T. The mitochondrial genome of Onchocerca volvulus: sequence, structure and phylogenetic analysis. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1998;95:111-27 pubmed
    The complete DNA sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Onchocerca volvulus is described. The O...
  4. Hoerauf A, Brattig N. Resistance and susceptibility in human onchocerciasis--beyond Th1 vs. Th2. Trends Parasitol. 2002;18:25-31 pubmed
  5. Rodriguez Perez M, Valdivieso López N, McCall P. Aggregated oviposition in Simulium ochraceum s.l. (Diptera: Simuliidae), an important neotropical vector of Onchocerca volvulus. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2003;97:203-7 pubmed
  6. Hoerauf A, Specht S, Buttner M, Pfarr K, Mand S, Fimmers R, et al. Wolbachia endobacteria depletion by doxycycline as antifilarial therapy has macrofilaricidal activity in onchocerciasis: a randomized placebo-controlled study. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2008;197:295-311 pubmed
    ..Doxycycline may be developed as second-line drug for onchocerciasis, to be administered in areas without transmission, in foci with IVM resistance and in areas with Loa co-infections. ..
  7. Specht S, Hoerauf A, Adjei O, Debrah A, Büttner D. Newly acquired Onchocerca volvulus filariae after doxycycline treatment. Parasitol Res. 2009;106:23-31 pubmed publisher
    Despite successful mass drug administration and vector control programs, the nematode Onchocerca volvulus is far from being eradicated. Therefore, new long-term sterilizing or macrofilaricidal drugs are needed...
  8. Basáñez M, Ricardez Esquinca J. Models for the population biology and control of human onchocerciasis. Trends Parasitol. 2001;17:430-8 pubmed
    The absence of animal models in which to reproduce successfully the complete life cycle of Onchocerca volvulus has hindered progress towards unravelling the processes involved in the regulation of parasite abundance in the vertebrate ..
  9. Boatin B, Toe L, Alley E, Nagelkerke N, Borsboom G, Habbema J. Detection of Onchocerca volvulus infection in low prevalence areas: a comparison of three diagnostic methods. Parasitology. 2002;125:545-52 pubmed
    ..As the DEC test is non-invasive, simple and cheap, it may provide a good alternative to skin snipping alone for surveillance in low prevalence areas. ..
  10. König R, Nassri A, Meindl M, Matuja W, Kidunda A, Siegmund V, et al. The role of Onchocerca volvulus in the development of epilepsy in a rural area of Tanzania. Parasitology. 2010;137:1559-68 pubmed publisher
    ..This raises the question of whether these diseases are associated. We therefore investigated people with epilepsy and/or onchocerciasis living in an area in Tanzania endemic for Onchocerca volvulus (O. volvulus).
  11. Toe L, Back C, Adjami A, Tang J, Unnasch T. Onchocerca volvulus: comparison of field collection methods for the preservation of parasite and vector samples for PCR analysis. Bull World Health Organ. 1997;75:443-7 pubmed
    In recent years, methods for the identification of the filarial worm Onchocerca volvulus and its vector, blackflies of the Simulium damnosum complex (S. damnosum sensu lato (s.l...
  12. Sommer A, Nimtz M, Conradt H, Brattig N, Boettcher K, Fischer P, et al. Structural analysis and antibody response to the extracellular glutathione S-transferases from Onchocerca volvulus. Infect Immun. 2001;69:7718-28 pubmed
    b>Onchocerca volvulus is a human pathogenic filarial parasite which, like other parasitic nematodes, is capable of surviving in an immunologically competent host by employing a variety of immune evasion strategies and defense mechanisms ..
  13. Ardelli B, Prichard R. Identification of variant ABC-transporter genes among Onchocerca volvulus collected from ivermectin-treated and untreated patients in Ghana, West Africa. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2004;98:371-84 pubmed
    ..The genetic variation of four ABC-transporter homologues from Onchocerca volvulus was therefore investigated, to determine if any change in genetic polymorphism occurs in these genes ..
  14. Rodríguez Pérez M, Domínguez Vázquez A, Mendez Galvan J, Sifuentes Rincón A, Larralde Corona P, Barrera Saldaña H, et al. Antibody detection tests for Onchocerca volvulus: comparison of the sensitivity of a cocktail of recombinant antigens used in the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with a rapid-format antibody card test. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2003;97:539-41 pubmed
    ..The sensitivity of the ELISA and ICT was 97% and 86%, respectively...
  15. Brattig N, Buttner D, Hoerauf A. Neutrophil accumulation around Onchocerca worms and chemotaxis of neutrophils are dependent on Wolbachia endobacteria. Microbes Infect. 2001;3:439-46 pubmed
    ..treatment) are direct and indirect sources of signals accounting for neutrophil accumulation around adult Onchocerca volvulus filariae...
  16. Gardon J, Gardon Wendel N, Demanga Ngangue -, Kamgno J, Chippaux J, Boussinesq M. Serious reactions after mass treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin in an area endemic for Loa loa infection. Lancet. 1997;350:18-22 pubmed
    In 1995, the World Bank launched an African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control to eliminate Onchocerca volvulus disease from 19 African countries by means of community-based ivermectin treatment (CBIT)...
  17. Drabner B, Reineke U, Schneider Mergener J, Humphreys R, Hartmann S, Lucius R. Identification of T helper cell-recognized epitopes in the chitinase of the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus. Vaccine. 2002;20:3685-94 pubmed
    T helper cell-recognized epitopes were determined in chitinase of Onchocerca volvulus, a vaccine candidate protein...
  18. Ardelli B, Guerriero S, Prichard R. Ivermectin imposes selection pressure on P-glycoprotein from Onchocerca volvulus: linkage disequilibrium and genotype diversity. Parasitology. 2006;132:375-86 pubmed
    ..Control Program (OCP) in West Africa could influence the evolution of the human filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus. Use of IVM, in some areas for 15 years, may have restricted genetic diversity of O...
  19. Borchert N, Becker Pauly C, Wagner A, Fischer P, Stöcker W, Brattig N. Identification and characterization of onchoastacin, an astacin-like metalloproteinase from the filaria Onchocerca volvulus. Microbes Infect. 2007;9:498-506 pubmed
    The tissue-invasive nematode Onchocerca volvulus causes skin and eye pathology in human onchocerciasis...
  20. Rodríguez Pérez M, Gopal H, Adeleke M, De Luna Santillana E, Gurrola Reyes J, Guo X. Detection of Onchocerca volvulus in Latin American black flies for pool screening PCR using high-throughput automated DNA isolation for transmission surveillance. Parasitol Res. 2013;112:3925-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report a high-throughput automated DNA isolation of Onchocerca volvulus for PCR using a major Latin American black fly vector of onchocerciasis...
  21. Hise A, Gillette Ferguson I, Pearlman E. Immunopathogenesis of Onchocerca volvulus keratitis (river blindness): a novel role for TLR4 and endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria. J Endotoxin Res. 2003;9:390-4 pubmed
    Infection with the parasitic nematode Onchocerca volvulus is associated with inflammation of the skin and cornea that can lead to blindness...
  22. Korten S, Badusche M, Büttner D, Hoerauf A, Brattig N, Fleischer B. Natural death of adult Onchocerca volvulus and filaricidal effects of doxycycline induce local FOXP3+/CD4+ regulatory T cells and granzyme expression. Microbes Infect. 2008;10:313-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we examined FOXP3+T cells and granzyme expression in onchocercomas harbouring adult Onchocerca volvulus worms, with respect to worm viability, productivity, the patient's immune status and filaricidal treatment...
  23. Gopal H, Hassan H, Rodríguez Pérez M, Toé L, Lustigman S, Unnasch T. Oligonucleotide based magnetic bead capture of Onchocerca volvulus DNA for PCR pool screening of vector black flies. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1712 pubmed publisher
    Entomological surveys of Simulium vectors are an important component in the criteria used to determine if Onchocerca volvulus transmission has been interrupted and if focal elimination of the parasite has been achieved...
  24. Wetten S, Collins R, Vieira J, Marshall C, Shelley A, Basanez M. Vector competence for Onchocerca volvulus in the Simulium (Notolepria) exiguum complex: cytoforms or density-dependence?. Acta Trop. 2007;103:58-68 pubmed
    ..This variable vectorial role has been attributed to sibling forms that differ in their ability to allow Onchocerca volvulus larval development and their preferred bloodmeal hosts...
  25. MacDonald A, Turaga P, Harmon Brown C, Tierney T, Bennett K, McCarthy M, et al. Differential cytokine and antibody responses to adult and larval stages of Onchocerca volvulus consistent with the development of concomitant immunity. Infect Immun. 2002;70:2796-804 pubmed
    The possibility of concomitant immunity and its potential mechanisms in Onchocerca volvulus infection were examined by analyzing cytokine and antibody responses to infective larval (third-stage larvae [L3] and molting L3 [mL3]), adult ..
  26. Little M, Breitling L, Basáñez M, Alley E, Boatin B. Association between microfilarial load and excess mortality in onchocerciasis: an epidemiological study. Lancet. 2004;363:1514-21 pubmed
    Infection with the parasitic filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus can lead to severe visual impairment and ultimately blindness...
  27. Rodríguez Pérez M, Unnasch T, Domínguez Vázquez A, Morales Castro A, Richards F, Peña Flores G, et al. Lack of active Onchocerca volvulus transmission in the northern Chiapas focus of Mexico. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;83:15-20 pubmed publisher
    ..assumed to be representative of the focus as a whole, suggest that there is no ongoing transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the northern Chiapas focus...
  28. Katabarwa M, Lakwo T, Habomugisha P, Agunyo S, Byamukama E, Oguttu D, et al. Transmission of Onchocerca volvulus continues in Nyagak-Bondo focus of northwestern Uganda after 18 years of a single dose of annual treatment with ivermectin. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013;89:293-300 pubmed publisher
    ..9% and 1.5%, respectively, whereas the infective rate on flies examination by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was 1.92% and annual transmission potential was 26.9. Stopping ivermectin treatment may result in onchocerciasis recrudescence. ..
  29. Guillet P, Seketeli A, Alley E, Agoua H, Boatin B, Bissan Y, et al. Impact of combined large-scale ivermectin distribution and vector control on transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the Niger basin, Guinea. Bull World Health Organ. 1995;73:199-205 pubmed
    ..The combined use of ivermectin and vector control has opened up new prospects for carrying out OCP operations with the possibility of reducing larviciding operations. ..
  30. Pion S, Clément M, Boussinesq M. Impact of four years of large-scale ivermectin treatment with low therapeutic coverage on the transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the Mbam valley focus, central Cameroon. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2004;98:520-8 pubmed
    ..study suggest that the specific vectorial competence of Simulium squamosum cytotype B, the vector of Onchocerca volvulus in the Mbam valley, allows a significant decrease in onchocerciasis transmission after several years of ..
  31. Thylefors B, Alleman M. Towards the elimination of onchocerciasis. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2006;100:733-46 pubmed
    ..Research is needed to define the optimal approaches with the existing tools and to intensify the development of alternative strategies, such as macrofilaricidal drugs for wide-scale use...
  32. Specht S, Mand S, Marfo Debrekyei Y, Debrah A, Konadu P, Adjei O, et al. Efficacy of 2- and 4-week rifampicin treatment on the Wolbachia of Onchocerca volvulus. Parasitol Res. 2008;103:1303-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The loss of Wolbachia results in sterilization of Onchocerca volvulus and macrofilaricidal effects...
  33. Tekle A, Elhassan E, Isiyaku S, Amazigo U, Bush S, Noma M, et al. Impact of long-term treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin in Kaduna State, Nigeria: first evidence of the potential for elimination in the operational area of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:28 pubmed publisher
    ..It is the first of such evidence for the APOC operational area. ..
  34. Kutin K, Kruppa T, Brenya R, Garms R. Efficiency of Simulium sanctipauli as a vector of Onchocerca volvulus in the forest zone of Ghana. Med Vet Entomol. 2004;18:167-73 pubmed
    The role of Simulium sanctipauli Vajime & Dunbar (Diptera: Simuliidae) as a vector of Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart) (Spirurida: Onchocercidae) in the forest zone of central Ghana was studied in the Upper Denkyira district, where ..
  35. Basanez M, Razali K, Renz A, Kelly D. Density-dependent host choice by disease vectors: epidemiological implications of the ideal free distribution. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2007;101:256-69 pubmed
    ..Density dependence in the contact rate of infectious diseases transmitted by insects may be an important non-linear process with implications for their epidemiology and control...
  36. Hotez P. Control of onchocerciasis--the next generation. Lancet. 2007;369:1979-80 pubmed
  37. Rodríguez Pérez M, Domínguez Vázquez A, Unnasch T, Hassan H, Arredondo Jiménez J, Orozco Algarra M, et al. Interruption of transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the Southern Chiapas Focus, México. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2133 pubmed publisher
    ..06/2,000 flies examined. Serological assays testing for Onchocerca volvulus exposure conducted on 4,230 children 5 years of age and under (of a total population of 10,280 in this age ..
  38. Soboslay P, Geiger S, Weiss N, Banla M, Lüder C, Dreweck C, et al. The diverse expression of immunity in humans at distinct states of Onchocerca volvulus infection. Immunology. 1997;90:592-9 pubmed
    This study examined the development and persistence of immunity in humans presenting defined states of Onchocerca volvulus infection, i.e...
  39. Nirmalan N, Cordeiro N, Kläger S, Bradley J, Allen J. Comparative analysis of glycosylated and nonglycosylated filarial homologues of the 20-kilodalton retinol binding protein from Onchocerca volvulus (Ov20). Infect Immun. 1999;67:6329-34 pubmed
    Ov20 is a structurally novel 20-kDa retinol binding protein secreted by Onchocerca volvulus. Immunological and biological investigation of this protein has been hampered by the inability to maintain O. volvulus in a laboratory setting...
  40. Engelbrecht F, Oettl T, Herter U, Link C, Philipp D, Edeghere H, et al. Analysis of Wuchereria bancrofti infections in a village community in northern Nigeria: increased prevalence in individuals infected with Onchocerca volvulus. Parasitol Int. 2003;52:13-20 pubmed
    ..Antibody levels also increased very significantly with age. A further analysis measuring Onchocerca volvulus-specific IgG4 antibodies showed a very significant association between infections with O...
  41. Hoerauf A, Marfo Debrekyei Y, Buttner M, Debrah A, Konadu P, Mand S, et al. Effects of 6-week azithromycin treatment on the Wolbachia endobacteria of Onchocerca volvulus. Parasitol Res. 2008;103:279-86 pubmed publisher
    ..on the presence of Wolbachia endobacteria and on the embryogenesis and microfilariae production of Onchocerca volvulus were studied...
  42. Brattig N, Schwohl A, Hoerauf A, Büttner D. Identification of the lipid mediator prostaglandin E2 in tissue immune cells of humans infected with the filaria Onchocerca volvulus. Acta Trop. 2009;112:231-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified PGE(2) in host immune cells adjacent to Onchocerca volvulus in subcutaneous onchocercomas and the affected skin...
  43. Cupp E, Sauerbrey M, Richards F. Elimination of human onchocerciasis: history of progress and current feasibility using ivermectin (Mectizan(®)) monotherapy. Acta Trop. 2011;120 Suppl 1:S100-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Ivermectin has proven exceedingly effective because it is highly efficacious against Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae, the etiological agent of onchocercal skin and ocular disease and the infective stage for the ..
  44. Zipfel P, Schrum S, Bialonski A, Buttner D. The peroxidoxin 2 protein of the human parasite Onchocerca volvulus: recombinant expression, immunolocalization, and demonstration of homologous molecules in other species. Parasitol Res. 1998;84:623-31 pubmed
    The peroxidoxin protein of the filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus (OvPXN-2) belongs to a group of highly conserved antioxidant molecules...
  45. Ghogomu S, Souopgui J, Pelle R, Titanji V. Expression and characterization of Ov-47, a dominant antigen of Onchocerca volvulus. Exp Parasitol. 2002;100:143-9 pubmed
    ..Ov-47 was identified and isolated from a lambda gt-11 cDNA expression library derived from adult female Onchocerca volvulus mRNA using rabbit antiserum raised against the surface proteins of O. volvulus female worms...
  46. Satoguina J, Mempel M, Larbi J, Badusche M, Löliger C, Adjei O, et al. Antigen-specific T regulatory-1 cells are associated with immunosuppression in a chronic helminth infection (onchocerciasis). Microbes Infect. 2002;4:1291-300 pubmed
    ..This is the first time that this type of suppressor T cell has been cloned as naturally occurring during an infectious disease. ..
  47. Higazi T, Pearlman E, Whikehart D, Unnasch T. Angiogenic activity of an Onchocerca volvulus Ancylostoma secreted protein homologue. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2003;129:61-8 pubmed
    ..In previous studies, it has been demonstrated that Onchocerca volvulus homologues of the Ancylostoma secreted protein family have pronounced angiogenic activity...
  48. Korten S, Büttner D, Schmetz C, Hoerauf A, Mand S, Brattig N. The nematode parasite Onchocerca volvulus generates the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Parasitol Res. 2009;105:731-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Adult Onchocerca volvulus, Onchocerca gibsoni, Onchocerca ochengi, Onchocerca armillata, Onchocerca fasciata, Onchocerca flexuosa, ..
  49. Nana Djeunga H, Bourguinat C, Pion S, Kamgno J, Gardon J, Njiokou F, et al. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in ?-tubulin selected in Onchocerca volvulus following repeated ivermectin treatment: possible indication of resistance selection. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2012;185:10-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Sub-optimal responses and genetic changes have been reported in Onchocerca volvulus populations under high IVM pressure but more work is needed to determine whether resistance is developing...
  50. Wu Y, Egerton G, Ball A, Tanguay R, Bianco A. Characterization of the heat-shock protein 60 chaperonin from Onchocerca volvulus. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2000;107:155-68 pubmed
    ..Antibodies to recombinant CPN60 from humans was used to screen a cDNA library of Onchocerca volvulus and antigen-positive clones were selected...
  51. Alley W, Van Oortmarssen G, Boatin B, Nagelkerke N, Plaisier A, Remme J, et al. Macrofilaricides and onchocerciasis control, mathematical modelling of the prospects for elimination. BMC Public Health. 2001;1:12 pubmed
    ..In view of the impact of control efforts preceding the introduction of macrofilaricides on the success of elimination, it is important to sustain current control efforts. ..
  52. Fischer P, Bonow I, Büttner D, Kamal I, Liebau E. An aspartate aminotransferase of Wolbachia endobacteria from Onchocerca volvulus is recognized by IgG1 antibodies from residents of endemic areas. Parasitol Res. 2003;90:38-47 pubmed
    ..encoding the aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) of Wolbachia from the human pathogenic filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus (Ov-WolAspAT) was identified...
  53. Awadzi K, Edwards G, Duke B, Opoku N, Attah S, Addy E, et al. The co-administration of ivermectin and albendazole--safety, pharmacokinetics and efficacy against Onchocerca volvulus. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2003;97:165-78 pubmed
    ..determine whether the co-administration of ivermectin with albendazole is safe and more effective against Onchocerca volvulus than ivermectin alone, and whether a significant pharmacokinetic interaction occurs...
  54. Hougard J, Alley E, Yameogo L, Dadzie K, Boatin B. Eliminating onchocerciasis after 14 years of vector control: a proved strategy. J Infect Dis. 2001;184:497-503 pubmed
  55. Osei Atweneboana M, Eng J, Boakye D, Gyapong J, Prichard R. Prevalence and intensity of Onchocerca volvulus infection and efficacy of ivermectin in endemic communities in Ghana: a two-phase epidemiological study. Lancet. 2007;369:2021-9 pubmed
    ..of the long-term use of this drug and the development of resistance in other nematodes, we have assessed Onchocerca volvulus burdens, effectiveness of ivermectin as a microfilaricide, and its effect on adult female worm reproduction.
  56. Ardelli B, Prichard R. Reduced genetic variation of an Onchocerca volvulus ABC transporter gene following treatment with ivermectin. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2007;101:1223-32 pubmed
    ..Genetic variation of an Onchocerca volvulus ABC transporter homologue (OvABC-3) from several populations in Africa was examined to determine whether an ..
  57. Bourguinat C, Ardelli B, Pion S, Kamgno J, Gardon J, Duke B, et al. P-glycoprotein-like protein, a possible genetic marker for ivermectin resistance selection in Onchocerca volvulus. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2008;158:101-11 pubmed publisher
    ..A reduction in response to IVM in Onchocerca volvulus could have significant consequences for the onchocerciasis control programs...
  58. Mahalakshmi N, Aparnaa R, Ansel Vishal L, Kaliraj P. Molecular characterization and evaluation of Onchocerca volvulus-secreted larval acidic protein 1 (SLAP1) as a putative vaccine candidate on endemic population of lymphatic filariasis. Parasitol Res. 2013;112:3203-11 pubmed publisher
    ..expression of secreted larval acidic protein 1 (SLAP1) was identified; an ALT orthologue from Onchocerca volvulus was cloned, expressed, and purified as a recombinant protein...
  59. Meyer C, Gallin M, Erttmann K, Brattig N, Schnittger L, Gelhaus A, et al. HLA-D alleles associated with generalized disease, localized disease, and putative immunity in Onchocerca volvulus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:7515-9 pubmed
    Human infections with the tissue nematode Onchocerca volvulus result in a variety of clinical conditions that possibly include protective immunity...
  60. Cupp E, Duke B, Mackenzie C, Guzman J, Vieira J, Mendez Galvan J, et al. The effects of long-term community level treatment with ivermectin (Mectizan) on adult Onchocerca volvulus in Latin America. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004;71:602-7 pubmed
    ..collected over a one-year period (2001) to determine the effects of semi-annual ivermectin treatments on Onchocerca volvulus macrofilarial populations...
  61. Higazi T, Katholi C, Mahmoud B, Baraka O, Mukhtar M, Qubati Y, et al. Onchocerca volvulus: genetic diversity of parasite isolates from Sudan. Exp Parasitol. 2001;97:24-34 pubmed
    ..The significance of these data are discussed in light of knowledge of the biogeography and biology of transmission of O. volvulus in Africa. ..
  62. Mackenzie C, Huntington M, Wanji S, Lovato R, Eversole R, Geary T. The association of adult Onchocerca volvulus with lymphatic vessels. J Parasitol. 2010;96:219-21 pubmed publisher
    Immunocytochemical examination of onchocercal nodule tissues containing adult Onchocerca volvulus using immuno-markers for blood and lymphatic vessels (vWF, D2-40, podoplanin, Prox-1, and Lyve1) shows a distinct pattern of distribution ..
  63. Duerr H, Raddatz G, Eichner M. Control of onchocerciasis in Africa: threshold shifts, breakpoints and rules for elimination. Int J Parasitol. 2011;41:581-9 pubmed publisher
  64. Kaiser C, Kipp W, Asaba G, Mugisa C, Kabagambe G, Rating D, et al. The prevalence of epilepsy follows the distribution of onchocerciasis in a west Ugandan focus. Bull World Health Organ. 1996;74:361-7 pubmed
    ..This article reports the relationship between epilepsy and onchocerciasis in an Onchocerca volvulus endemic area in West Uganda...
  65. Boatin B, Richards F. Control of onchocerciasis. Adv Parasitol. 2006;61:349-94 pubmed
    ..A search for a second-line treatment or as an additional drug to ivermectin as well as a search for a macrofilaricide are issues that need to be addressed in the future...
  66. Lindblade K, Richards M, Richards J, Gonzalez R, Cruz Ortiz N, Zea Flores G, et al. Exposure of seasonal migrant workers to Onchocerca volvulus on coffee plantations in Guatemala. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;81:438-42 pubmed
    ..studies undertaken to measure the exposure to onchocerciasis (presence of IgG4 antibodies to a recombinant Onchocerca volvulus antigen, OV-16) among migrant workers...
  67. Abraham D, Leon O, Leon S, Lustigman S. Development of a recombinant antigen vaccine against infection with the filarial worm Onchocerca volvulus. Infect Immun. 2001;69:262-70 pubmed
    Efforts to control Onchocerca volvulus, the etiologic agent of river blindness, have been limited to vector control and drug treatment to eliminate microfilariae, with no means available to prevent infection...
  68. Hoerauf A, Mand S, Adjei O, Fleischer B, Buttner D. Depletion of wolbachia endobacteria in Onchocerca volvulus by doxycycline and microfilaridermia after ivermectin treatment. Lancet. 2001;357:1415-6 pubmed
  69. Little M, Basanez M, Breitling L, Boatin B, Alley E. Incidence of blindness during the Onchocerciasis control programme in western Africa, 1971-2002. J Infect Dis. 2004;189:1932-41 pubmed
    Infection with Onchocerca volvulus is associated with the prevalence of severe visual impairment and blindness. However, longitudinal studies of the incidence of blindness caused by onchocerciasis are scarce.
  70. Omura S, Crump A. The life and times of ivermectin - a success story. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2004;2:984-9 pubmed
    ..The drug is now being used, free of charge, in two global disease-elimination programmes that are benefiting millions of the world's poorest people...
  71. Duke B. Evidence for macrofilaricidal activity of ivermectin against female Onchocerca volvulus: further analysis of a clinical trial in the Republic of Cameroon indicating two distinct killing mechanisms. Parasitology. 2005;130:447-53 pubmed
    During a 3-year trial of the effects of ivermectin (Mectizan) on adult worms and microfilariae of Onchocerca volvulus in the Republic of Cameroon, comparison was made between the percentages of calcified and uncalcified moribund (M) and ..
  72. Rodríguez Pérez M, Unnasch T, Domínguez Vázquez A, Morales Castro A, Peña Flores G, Orozco Algarra M, et al. Interruption of transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the Oaxaca focus, Mexico. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;83:21-7 pubmed publisher
    ..09%). These meet the criteria for absence of morbidity and parasite transmission in the Oaxaca focus. As a result mass treatments with ivermectin were halted in 2009...
  73. Golden A, Steel C, Yokobe L, Jackson E, Barney R, Kubofcik J, et al. Extended result reading window in lateral flow tests detecting exposure to Onchocerca volvulus: a new technology to improve epidemiological surveillance tools. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e69231 pubmed publisher
    Onchocerciasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by infection with the parasite Onchocerca volvulus (Ov). An estimated 180 million people are at risk for Ov infection, and 37 million people are infected, mostly in Africa...
  74. Wildenburg G, Korten S, Buttner D. Mast cell distribution in nodules of Onchocerca volvulus from untreated patients with generalized onchocerciasis. Parasitology. 1998;116 ( Pt 3):257-68 pubmed
    ..appeared singly or in diffuse accumulations perivascularly and in inflammatory infiltrates between adult Onchocerca volvulus and in the capsular area. No mast cells were detected in cystic parts...
  75. Unnasch T, Bradley J, Beauchamp J, Tuan R, Kennedy M. Characterization of a putative nuclear receptor from Onchocerca volvulus. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1999;104:259-69 pubmed
    ..Previous studies have demonstrated that the genome of Onchocerca volvulus encodes at least three members of the nuclear receptor family...
  76. Weil G, Steel C, Liftis F, Li B, Mearns G, Lobos E, et al. A rapid-format antibody card test for diagnosis of onchocerciasis. J Infect Dis. 2000;182:1796-9 pubmed
    ..A rapid-format card test was evaluated that detects IgG4 antibodies to recombinant Onchocerca volvulus antigen Ov16 with serum samples from patients with onchocerciasis and with various types of control serum ..
  77. Kampkotter A, Volkmann T, de Castro S, Leiers B, Klotz L, Johnson T, et al. Functional analysis of the glutathione S-transferase 3 from Onchocerca volvulus (Ov-GST-3): a parasite GST confers increased resistance to oxidative stress in Caenorhabditis elegans. J Mol Biol. 2003;325:25-37 pubmed
    ..of the coding region of the glutathione S-transferase 3 (Ov-GST-3) from the human parasitic nematode Onchocerca volvulus; alternative splicing leads to three different transcripts (Ov-GST-3/1; Ov-GST-3/2 and Ov-GST-3/3)...
  78. Basanez M, Collins R, Porter C, Little M, Brandling Bennett D. Transmission intensity and the patterns of Onchocerca volvulus infection in human communities. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2002;67:669-79 pubmed
    We focus on possible constraints upon Onchocerca volvulus establishment in humans in relation to exposure rates to infective larvae (L3) as measured by the annual transmission potential (ATP)...
  79. Wanji S, Tendongfor N, Esum M, Ndindeng S, Enyong P. Epidemiology of concomitant infections due to Loa loa, Mansonella perstans, and Onchocerca volvulus in rain forest villages of Cameroon. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2003;192:15-21 pubmed
    ..of southern Cameroon to ascertain the prevalence and intensity of three species of filariae: Loa loa, Onchocerca volvulus, and Mansonella perstans...
  80. Awadzi K, Boakye D, Edwards G, Opoku N, Attah S, Osei Atweneboana M, et al. An investigation of persistent microfilaridermias despite multiple treatments with ivermectin, in two onchocerciasis-endemic foci in Ghana. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2004;98:231-49 pubmed
    ..In an open, case-control study, an attempt was made to determine if the persistent, significant, Onchocerca volvulus microfilaridermias seen in some individuals who had received at least nine treatments with ivermectin were ..
  81. MacDonald A, Tawe W, Leon O, Cao L, Liu J, Oksov Y, et al. Ov-ASP-1, the Onchocerca volvulus homologue of the activation associated secreted protein family is immunostimulatory and can induce protective anti-larval immunity. Parasite Immunol. 2004;26:53-62 pubmed
    Vaccination of mice with a recombinant protein, Ov-ASP-1, the Onchocerca volvulus homologue of the activation associated secreted gene family stimulated very high titres of both IgG1 and IgG2a without adjuvant...
  82. Eng J, Prichard R. A comparison of genetic polymorphism in populations of Onchocerca volvulus from untreated- and ivermectin-treated patients. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2005;142:193-202 pubmed
    An analysis of the polymorphism of 16 genes from Onchocerca volvulus was undertaken, in two populations of worms from either ivermectin-naïve patients or patients who had been repeatedly treated with ivermectin, in Ghana...
  83. Traoré S, Enyong P, Mandiangu M, Kayembé D, Zouré H, Noma M, et al. [Vector capacities of Similium damsnosum s.l and risk for Onchocerca volvulus transmission in Inga (Democratic Republic of Congo)]. Sante. 2006;16:77-82 pubmed
    ..The vector capacity of similium shows that the risk of transmission of Onchocerca volvulus to the human population was not only reduced in time (2-3 months), but was also negligible all year round.
  84. Mai C, Hamm D, Banla M, Agossou A, Schulz Key H, Heuschkel C, et al. Onchocerca volvulus-specific antibody and cytokine responses in onchocerciasis patients after 16 years of repeated ivermectin therapy. Clin Exp Immunol. 2007;147:504-12 pubmed
    ..for decades, and it remains unknown how repeated ivermectin therapy might affect immunity against Onchocerca volvulus in the long term. O...
  85. Duerr H, Raddatz G, Eichner M. Diagnostic value of nodule palpation in onchocerciasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2008;102:148-54 pubmed
    ..Its diagnostic precision is poor because of large intra- and inter-individual variability. The findings underline the need for further development of available diagnostics that allow long-term monitoring when endemicity declines...
  86. Turner J, Tendongfor N, Esum M, Johnston K, Langley R, Ford L, et al. Macrofilaricidal activity after doxycycline only treatment of Onchocerca volvulus in an area of Loa loa co-endemicity: a randomized controlled trial. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e660 pubmed publisher
    ..could be used without subsequent ivermectin administration to effectively deliver sustained effects on Onchocerca volvulus microfilaridermia and adult viability...
  87. Bourguinat C, Kamgno J, Boussinesq M, Mackenzie C, Prichard R, Geary T. Analysis of the mdr-1 gene in patients co-infected with Onchocerca volvulus and Loa loa who experienced a post-ivermectin serious adverse event. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;83:28-32 pubmed publisher
    ..An association of high Loa mf load and a genetic predisposition to altered IVM distribution could be involved in IVM SAEs...
  88. Traoré M, Sarr M, Badji A, Bissan Y, Diawara L, Doumbia K, et al. Proof-of-principle of onchocerciasis elimination with ivermectin treatment in endemic foci in Africa: final results of a study in Mali and Senegal. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1825 pubmed publisher
    ..This article reports the results of the final evaluations up to 5 years after the last treatment...
  89. Pion S, Nana Djeunga H, Kamgno J, Tendongfor N, Wanji S, Njiokou F, et al. Dynamics of Onchocerca volvulus microfilarial densities after ivermectin treatment in an ivermectin-naïve and a multiply treated population from Cameroon. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2084 pubmed publisher
    ..We assessed, in two Cameroonian foci, whether the microfilaricidal and/or embryostatic effects of ivermectin on Onchocerca volvulus have been altered after several years of drug pressure.
  90. Zimmerman P, Guderian R, Aruajo E, Elson L, Phadke P, Kubofcik J, et al. Polymerase chain reaction-based diagnosis of Onchocerca volvulus infection: improved detection of patients with onchocerciasis. J Infect Dis. 1994;169:686-9 pubmed
    Definitive diagnosis of Onchocerca volvulus (Ov) infection requires the identification of the parasite in either the skin or subcutaneous nodules. These parasitologic approaches suffer from poor sensitivity...
  91. Soboslay P, Geiger S, Drabner B, Banla M, Batchassi E, Kowu L, et al. Prenatal immune priming in onchocerciasis-onchocerca volvulus-specific cellular responsiveness and cytokine production in newborns from infected mothers. Clin Exp Immunol. 1999;117:130-7 pubmed
    This study investigated the effect of maternal Onchocerca volvulus infection on humoral and cellular responsiveness in newborn children and their mothers...
  92. Morales Hojas R, Post R, Shelley A, Maia Herzog M, Coscarón S, Cheke R. Characterisation of nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences from Onchocerca volvulus and Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda: Filarioidea) and development of a PCR-based method for their detection in skin biopsies. Int J Parasitol. 2001;31:169-77 pubmed
    The internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1, 5.8S gene and ITS2) of the two filarial nematodes Onchocerca volvulus and Mansonella ozzardi was sequenced, and two species-specific primers designed in the ITS2 to develop a PCR-based method ..