onchocerca

Summary

Summary: A genus of parasitic nematodes whose organisms live and breed in skin and subcutaneous tissues. Onchocercal microfilariae may also be found in the urine, blood, or sputum.

Top Publications

  1. Brattig N. Pathogenesis and host responses in human onchocerciasis: impact of Onchocerca filariae and Wolbachia endobacteria. Microbes Infect. 2004;6:113-28 pubmed
    b>Onchocerca volvulus is a tissue-invasive parasitic nematode causing skin and eye pathology in human onchocerciasis...
  2. Nyasse B, Ngantchou I, Nono J, Schneider B. Antifilarial activity in vitro of polycarpol and 3-O-acetyl aleuritolic acid from cameroonian medicinal plants against Onchocerca gutturosa. Nat Prod Res. 2006;20:391-7 pubmed
    ..the antifilarial activities of crude extracts and pure compounds from some Cameroonian medicinal plants against Onchocerca volvulus and Onchocerca gutturosa. In our efforts to find new filaricidal agents against adult male O...
  3. Petralanda I, Piessens W. Onchocerca volvulus, O. gutturosa, Brugia malayi, and Dirofilaria immitis: a comparative study of the immunochemical properties of cuticular proteins from filarial parasites. Exp Parasitol. 1991;72:164-73 pubmed
    ..the chemical and immunological properties of cuticular collagens from four species of filarial nematodes, Onchocerca volvulus, O. gutturosa, Brugia malayi, and Dirofilaria immitis...
  4. Eberhard M, Ortega Y, Dial S, Schiller C, Sears A, Greiner E. Ocular Onchocerca infections in two dogs in western United States. Vet Parasitol. 2000;90:333-8 pubmed
    ..and one from Arizona, were found to have aberrant infections caused by filarial nematodes of the genus Onchocerca. In both cases, the parasites are localized in or near the eye...
  5. Sallo F, Eberhard M, Fok E, Baska F, Hatvani I. Zoonotic intravitreal Onchocerca in Hungary. Ophthalmology. 2005;112:502-4 pubmed
    ..The nematode was identified as an immature filaria, most likely a member of the genus Onchocerca. Only 3 previous reports exist of human infection of the eye caused by zoonotic Onchocerca, 2 involving the ..
  6. Széll Z, Sréter T, Erdelyi I, Varga I. Ocular onchocercosis in dogs: aberrant infection in an accidental host or lupi onchocercosis?. Vet Parasitol. 2001;101:115-25 pubmed
    ..dogs that had spent their entire life in Hungary, were found to be infected with filaroid nematodes of the genus Onchocerca. The morphology and location of the parasites as well as pathological lesions were similar to those described ..
  7. Fukuda M, Otsuka Y, Uni S, Bain O, Takaoka H. Genetic evidence for the presence of two species of Onchocerca from the wild boar in Japan. Parasite. 2010;17:33-7 pubmed
    In order to clarify the genetic differences between Onchocerca dewittei japonica, the causative agent of zoonotic onchocerciasis in Japan and a related undescribed Onchocerca sp...
  8. Tchakouté V, Graham S, Jensen S, Makepeace B, Nfon C, Njongmeta L, et al. In a bovine model of onchocerciasis, protective immunity exists naturally, is absent in drug-cured hosts, and is induced by vaccination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:5971-6 pubmed
    ..is a major parasitic disease of humans in sub-Saharan Africa caused by the microfilarial stage of the nematode Onchocerca volvulus...
  9. Labelle A, Maddox C, Daniels J, Lanka S, Eggett T, Dubielzig R, et al. Canine ocular onchocercosis in the United States is associated with Onchocerca lupi. Vet Parasitol. 2013;193:297-301 pubmed publisher
    Canine ocular onchocerciasis has a worldwide distribution and has been associated in Europe with Onchocerca lupi based on morphologic and molecular analysis...

More Information

Publications71

  1. Pax R, Williams J, Guderian R. In vitro motility of isolated adults and segments of Onchocerca volvulus, Brugia pahangi and Acanthocheilonema viteae. Trop Med Parasitol. 1988;39 Suppl 4:450-5 pubmed
    Observations were made on the spontaneous motility in vitro of entire adult worms and segments of Onchocerca volvulus, Brugia pahangi and Acanthocheilonema viteae...
  2. Sréter T, Széll Z, Egyed Z, Varga I. Subconjunctival zoonotic onchocerciasis in man: aberrant infection with Onchocerca lupi?. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2002;96:497-502 pubmed
    ..In the majority of cases, Onchocerca cervicalis, O. gutturosa or O...
  3. Awadzi K, Attah S, Addy E, Opoku N, Quartey B, Lazdins Helds J, et al. Thirty-month follow-up of sub-optimal responders to multiple treatments with ivermectin, in two onchocerciasis-endemic foci in Ghana. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2004;98:359-70 pubmed
    The pathogenesis of the sub-optimal response of Onchocerca volvulus to ivermectin was investigated in a 30-month follow-up of 28 individuals who, in a previous study, had been found to show a sub-optimal (N = 15) or adequate response (N = ..
  4. Hermosilla C, Hetzel U, Bausch M, Grübl J, Bauer C. First autochthonous case of canine ocular onchocercosis in Germany. Vet Rec. 2005;156:450-2 pubmed
  5. Széll Z, Erdelyi I, Sréter T, Albert M, Varga I. Canine ocular onchocercosis in Hungary. Vet Parasitol. 2001;97:243-9 pubmed
    ..dog that had spent its entire life in Hungary, was found to have infection with filaroid nematodes of the genus Onchocerca. The gravid male and female parasites were embedded in bean-sized granulomatous masses on the conjunctiva and ..
  6. Trees A, Graham S, Renz A, Bianco A, Tanya V. Onchocerca ochengi infections in cattle as a model for human onchocerciasis: recent developments. Parasitology. 2000;120 Suppl:S133-42 pubmed
    The bovine parasite Onchocerca ochengi is a nodule-dwelling filarial nematode, closely related to O. volvulus, the causal agent of human River Blindness, and, sharing with it, the same vector...
  7. Zipfel P, Schrum S, Bialonski A, Buttner D. The peroxidoxin 2 protein of the human parasite Onchocerca volvulus: recombinant expression, immunolocalization, and demonstration of homologous molecules in other species. Parasitol Res. 1998;84:623-31 pubmed
    The peroxidoxin protein of the filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus (OvPXN-2) belongs to a group of highly conserved antioxidant molecules...
  8. Duke B. Observations and reflections on the immature stages of Onchocerca volvulus in the human host. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1991;85:103-10 pubmed
    Knowledge of the morphology, migrations and development rates of the L3, L4 and prepubertal L5 stages of Onchocerca volvulus in the vertebrate host is an essential prerequisite to work vaccine development of chemoprophylaxis...
  9. Renz A. Studies on the dynamics of transmission of onchocerciasis in a Sudan-savanna area of North Cameroon III. Infection rates of the Simulium vectors and Onchocerca volvulus transmission potentials. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1987;81:239-52 pubmed
    ..8% of which were morphologically indistinguishable from Onchocerca volvulus and 31...
  10. Uni S, Bain O, Agatsuma T, Harada M, Torii H, Fukuda M, et al. Onchocerca eberhardi n. sp. (Nematoda: Filarioidea) from sika deer in Japan; relationships between species parasitic in cervids and bovids in the Holarctic region. Parasite. 2007;14:199-211 pubmed
    b>Onchocerca eberhardi n. sp. from the sika deer, Cervus nippon, in Japan is described. Adult worms lived in the carpal ligament; infection reached high levels (up to 25 female and 16 male worms in a single carpal limb)...
  11. Sréter T, Széll Z. Onchocercosis: a newly recognized disease in dogs. Vet Parasitol. 2008;151:1-13 pubmed
    ..According to some authors, the Onchocerca sp. responsible for canine cases spills over from domestic or wild ungulates into dogs...
  12. Uni S, Boda T, Daisaku K, Ikura Y, Maruyama H, Hasegawa H, et al. Zoonotic filariasis caused by Onchocerca dewittei japonica in a resident of Hiroshima Prefecture, Honshu, Japan. Parasitol Int. 2010;59:477-80 pubmed publisher
    A female of Onchocerca sp. was found to be the probable causative agent of a subcutaneous nodule in the left knee of a 70-year-old man in a rural area of Hiroshima Prefecture, Honshu, the main island of Japan...
  13. Otranto D, Sakru N, Testini G, Gürlü V, Yakar K, Lia R, et al. Case report: First evidence of human zoonotic infection by Onchocerca lupi (Spirurida, Onchocercidae). Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011;84:55-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Onchocerca lupi, originally described from a wolf, has been implicated in some of these cases, and its zoonotic role has ..
  14. Cho Ngwa F, Daggfeldt A, Titanji V, Grönvik K. Preparation and characterization of specific monoclonal antibodies for the detection of adult worm infections in onchocerciasis. Hybridoma (Larchmt). 2005;24:283-90 pubmed
    Suitable molecular tests for monitoring the viability of adult worms of Onchocerca in vivo are required to accelerate the development of new macrofilaricides in river blindness (onchocerciasis)...
  15. Ilhan H, Yaman A, Morishima Y, Sugiyama H, Muto M, Yamasaki H, et al. Onchocerca lupi infection in Turkey: a unique case of a rare human parasite. Acta Parasitol. 2013;58:384-8 pubmed publisher
    ..lupi in both humans and dogs were more symptomatic than in our patient, Onchocerca infection should not be ruled out during the differential diagnosis of the subconjunctival and orbital cystic ..
  16. Krueger A, Fischer P, Morales Hojas R. Molecular phylogeny of the filaria genus Onchocerca with special emphasis on Afrotropical human and bovine parasites. Acta Trop. 2007;101:1-14 pubmed
    Filarial parasites of the genus Onchocerca are found in a broad spectrum of ungulate hosts. One species, O. volvulus, is a human parasite that can cause severe disease (onchocerciasis or 'river blindness')...
  17. Gilbert J, Nfon C, Makepeace B, Njongmeta L, Hastings I, Pfarr K, et al. Antibiotic chemotherapy of onchocerciasis: in a bovine model, killing of adult parasites requires a sustained depletion of endosymbiotic bacteria (Wolbachia species). J Infect Dis. 2005;192:1483-93 pubmed
    Development of a drug lethal to adult Onchocerca volvulus (i.e., macrofilaricide) is a research priority for the control of human onchocerciasis. Using bovine O...
  18. Remme J. Research for control: the onchocerciasis experience. Trop Med Int Health. 2004;9:243-54 pubmed
    ..Lessons learned during this unique collaboration between research and control are discussed...
  19. Mather C, Treuting P. Onchocerca armillata contamination of a bovine pericardial xenograft in a human patient with repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Cardiovasc Pathol. 2012;21:e35-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we present a case of parasitic contamination of a bovine pericardium used as a transannular patch during repair of tetralogy of Fallot 28 years prior at a hospital in China...
  20. Abraham D, Lucius R, Trees A. Immunity to Onchocerca spp. in animal hosts. Trends Parasitol. 2002;18:164-71 pubmed
    This review summarizes research using Onchocerca spp. in chimpanzees, cattle and mice to gain insight into the protective immune response to the filarial worm Onchocerca volvulus in humans...
  21. Ogbogu V, Bablis J, Ajanusi O. Prevalence of microfilariae in cattle at slaughter in Zaria, Nigeria. Vet Parasitol. 1990;36:171-5 pubmed
    ..6%) blood samples were positive for microfilariae. Two types of microfilariae, identified as Onchocerca armillata, with a percentage prevalence of 64%, and O...
  22. Townson S, Connelly C, Dobinson A, Muller R. Drug activity against Onchocerca gutturosa males in vitro: a model for chemotherapeutic research on onchocerciasis. J Helminthol. 1987;61:271-81 pubmed
    An in vitro system for chemotherapeutic research using adult male Onchocerca gutturosa has been developed as a model for O. volvulus...
  23. Wu Y, Egerton G, Underwood A, Sakuda S, Bianco A. Expression and secretion of a larval-specific chitinase (family 18 glycosyl hydrolase) by the infective stages of the parasitic nematode, Onchocerca volvulus. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:42557-64 pubmed
    ..reported chitinase gene, expressed in the infective, third-stage (L3) larvae of the human filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus, belongs to the family 18 glycosyl hydrolases and has been designated Ov-chi-1...
  24. Egyed Z, Sréter T, Széll Z, Nyiro G, Marialigeti K, Varga I. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Onchocerca lupi and its Wolbachia endosymbiont. Vet Parasitol. 2002;108:153-61 pubmed
    The morphology of Onchocerca lupi, responsible for canine ocular onchocercosis, is unique within the genus...
  25. Cho Ngwa F, Zhu X, Metuge J, Daggfeldt A, Grönvik K, Orlando R, et al. Identification of in vivo released products of Onchocerca with diagnostic potential, and characterization of a dominant member, the OV1CF intermediate filament. Infect Genet Evol. 2011;11:778-83 pubmed publisher
    A sensitive and specific test for the routine diagnosis of active Onchocerca infection is currently lacking...
  26. Trees A, McCall P, Davies J. On the possibility of bovine Onchocerca species infecting Simulium damnosum s.l. in the forest zone of Sierra Leone. I. Parasitological aspects. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1989;83:595-601 pubmed
    As part of a study to assess to what extent Onchocerca-like infections in S. damnosum s.l...
  27. Ndjonka D, Agyare C, Luersen K, Djafsia B, Achukwi D, Nukenine E, et al. In vitro activity of Cameroonian and Ghanaian medicinal plants on parasitic (Onchocerca ochengi) and free-living (Caenorhabditis elegans) nematodes. J Helminthol. 2011;85:304-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Cameroon and Ghana were assessed for their in vitro anthelmintic activity by using the bovine filarial parasite Onchocerca ochengi and the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a model organism for research on nematode parasites...
  28. Trpis M, Childs J, Fryauff D, Greene B, Williams P, Munoz B, et al. Effect of mass treatment of a human population with ivermectin on transmission of Onchocerca volvulus by Simulium yahense in Liberia, West Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1990;42:148-56 pubmed
    The impact of mass treatment with ivermectin on the intensity of Onchocerca volvulus transmission by the black fly (Simulium yahense) was evaluated on the Liberian Agricultural Company rubber plantation in Liberia, West Africa...
  29. Awadzi K, Attah S, Addy E, Opoku N, Quartey B. The effects of high-dose ivermectin regimens on Onchocerca volvulus in onchocerciasis patients. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1999;93:189-94 pubmed
    Ivermectin, at the standard dose of 150 micrograms/kg bodyweight, does not kill the adult worms of Onchocerca volvulus and does not disrupt embryogenesis or spermatogenesis...
  30. Takaoka H, Yanagi T, Daa T, Anzai S, Aoki C, Fukuda M, et al. An Onchocerca species of wild boar found in the subcutaneous nodule of a resident of Oita, Japan. Parasitol Int. 2005;54:91-3 pubmed
    ..the right infraclavicular region of a 69-year-old woman from Oita, Kyushu, Japan, revealed a young female of Onchocerca dewittei japonica, a common parasite of wild boar in the Oita region...
  31. Uni S, Bain O, Takaoka H, Miyashita M, Suzuki Y. Onchocerca dewittei japonica n. subsp., a common parasite from wild boar in Kyushu Island, Japan. Parasite. 2001;8:215-22 pubmed
    We describe Onchocerca dewittei japonica n. subsp. from the Japanese wild boar, Sus scrofa leucomystax, in Oita, Kyushu Island, where all seven animals examined were found to be infected...
  32. McNulty S, Mullin A, Vaughan J, Tkach V, Weil G, Fischer P. Comparing the mitochondrial genomes of Wolbachia-dependent and independent filarial nematode species. BMC Genomics. 2012;13:145 pubmed publisher
    ..genomes of 5 species of filarial nematodes, Acanthocheilonema viteae, Chandlerella quiscali, Loa loa, Onchocerca flexuosa, and Wuchereria bancrofti, were sequenced, annotated and compared with available mitochondrial genome ..
  33. Fukuda M, Otsuka Y, Uni S, Bain O, Takaoka H. Molecular identification of infective larvae of three species of Onchocerca found in wild-caught females of Simulium bidentatum in Japan. Parasite. 2010;17:39-45 pubmed
    ..c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene revealed that types A and B were represented by a single unknown species of Onchocerca and two species, i.e...
  34. Cho Ngwa F, Abongwa M, Ngemenya M, Nyongbela K. Selective activity of extracts of Margaritaria discoidea and Homalium africanum on Onchocerca ochengi. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2010;10:62 pubmed publisher
    ..we investigated the selective activity of crude extracts of Margaritaria discoidea and Homalium africanum on Onchocerca ochengi, a model parasite for O. volvulus. These plants are used to treat the disease in North West Cameroon.
  35. Egyed Z, Sréter T, Széll Z, Beszteri B, Oravecz O, Marialigeti K, et al. Morphologic and genetic characterization of Onchocerca lupi infecting dogs. Vet Parasitol. 2001;102:309-19 pubmed
    In the past decades, sporadic cases of ocular Onchocerca infection have been reported in canids in US and Europe...
  36. Wampande E, Richard McIntosh J, Lubega G. Classical ligands interact with native and recombinant tubulin from Onchocerca volvulus with similar rank order of magnitude. Protein Expr Purif. 2007;55:236-45 pubmed
    The alpha- and beta-tubulin genes from Onchocerca volvulus were individually expressed for the first time in Escherichia coli (DH5alpha)...
  37. Nfon C, Makepeace B, Njongmeta L, Tanya V, Bain O, Trees A. Eosinophils contribute to killing of adult Onchocerca ochengi within onchocercomata following elimination of Wolbachia. Microbes Infect. 2006;8:2698-705 pubmed
    Many filarial nematodes, including Onchocerca volvulus (the cause of human 'River Blindness'), have a mutually dependent relationship with Wolbachia bacteria...
  38. Hogarth P, Folkard S, Taylor M, Bianco A. Accelerated clearance of Onchocerca microfilariae and resistance to reinfection in interleukin-4 gene knockout mice. Parasite Immunol. 1995;17:653-7 pubmed
    Immunity to Onchocerca microfilariae (mf) in mice is associated with CD4+ Th2 cells and is dependent on IL-5...
  39. Zarfoss M, Dubielzig R, Eberhard M, Schmidt K. Canine ocular onchocerciasis in the United States: two new cases and a review of the literature. Vet Ophthalmol. 2005;8:51-7 pubmed
    ..Positive identification of adult Onchocerca within episcleral granulomas was made based on light-microscopy features...
  40. McNulty S, Abubucker S, Simon G, Mitreva M, McNulty N, Fischer K, et al. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of a Wolbachia-free filarial parasite provide evidence of trans-kingdom horizontal gene transfer. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45777 pubmed publisher
    ..We used an integrated transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of Onchocerca flexuosa to explore the molecular mechanisms that allow worms of this species to survive without a bacterial ..
  41. Albiez E, Walter G, Kaiser A, Newland H, White A, Greene B, et al. Effects of high doses of diethylcarbamazine on adult Onchocerca volvulus examined by the collagenase technique and by histology. Trop Med Parasitol. 1988;39:87-92 pubmed
    ..volvulus after a treatment with high doses of diethylcarbamazine...
  42. Duke B, Zea Flores G, Gannon R. On the reproductive activity of the female Onchocerca volvulus. Trop Med Parasitol. 1990;41:387-402 pubmed
    b>Onchocerca volvulus worms, extracted from nodules by collagenase digestion, stained with haematoxylin and cleared in glycerol, were unravelled for longitudinal examination and later embedded in brain blocks for study of serial transverse ..
  43. Cabrera Z, Parkhouse R, Forsyth K, Gomez Priego A, Pabon R, Yarzabal L. Specific detection of human antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus. Trop Med Parasitol. 1989;40:454-9 pubmed
    Specific diagnosis of antibodies to Onchocerca was achieved through (1) the construction of direct and indirect ELISA systems, and (2) restricting ELISA assays to the IgG4 class...
  44. Faisca P, Morales Hojas R, Alves M, Gomes J, Botelho M, Melo M, et al. A case of canine ocular onchocercosis in Portugal. Vet Ophthalmol. 2010;13:117-21 pubmed publisher
    ..the Algarve region (South Portugal) who had a retrobulbar granuloma containing a filaroid nematode of the genus Onchocerca. A gravid adult female parasite was embedded in a granulomatous inflammation adjacent to the sclera beyond the ..
  45. Graham S, Trees A, Collins R, Moore D, Guy F, Taylor M, et al. Down-regulated lymphoproliferation coincides with parasite maturation and with the collapse of both gamma interferon and interleukin-4 responses in a bovine model of onchocerciasis. Infect Immun. 2001;69:4313-9 pubmed
    Onchocerciasis is a debilitating parasitic infection caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus. Infections are chronic, and persistence of the parasites for several years argues for highly adapted mechanisms of immune evasion...
  46. Otranto D, Dantas Torres F, Papadopoulos E, Petrić D, Ćupina A, Bain O. Tracking the vector of Onchocerca lupi in a rural area of Greece. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:1196-200 pubmed publisher
    ..Thrace, northeastern Greece, near the Turkish border, on the track of the vector of the little-known nematode Onchocerca lupi...
  47. McNulty S, Fischer K, Curtis K, Weil G, Brattig N, Fischer P. Localization of Wolbachia-like gene transcripts and peptides in adult Onchocerca flexuosa worms indicates tissue specific expression. Parasit Vectors. 2013;6:2 pubmed publisher
    Most filarial species in the genus Onchocerca depend on Wolbachia endobacteria to successfully carry out their life cycle. O...
  48. Eberhard M, Ostovar G, Chundu K, Hobohm D, Feiz Erfan I, Mathison B, et al. Zoonotic Onchocerca lupi infection in a 22-month-old child in Arizona: first report in the United States and a review of the literature. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013;88:601-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Examination of stained tissue revealed the presence of a parasitic worm that was identified as a gravid female Onchocerca lupi...
  49. Komnenou A, Eberhard M, Kaldrymidou E, Tsalie E, Dessiris A. Subconjunctival filariasis due to Onchocerca sp. in dogs: report of 23 cases in Greece. Vet Ophthalmol. 2002;5:119-26 pubmed
    ..Diagnosis of parasitic granulomas was made and the parasite was identified as Onchocerca sp...
  50. Eberhard M, Dickerson J, Boyer A, Tsang V, Zea Flores R, Walker E, et al. Experimental Onchocerca volvulus infections in mangabey monkeys (Cercocebus atys) compared to infections in humans and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1991;44:151-60 pubmed
    ..three mangabey monkeys (Cercocebus atys), and 14 patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) were inoculated with L3 Onchocerca volvulus of Guatemalan origin...
  51. Fukuda M, Takaoka H, Uni S, Bain O. Infective larvae of five Onchocerca species from experimentally infected Simulium species in an area of zoonotic onchocerciasis in Japan. Parasite. 2008;15:111-9 pubmed
    Microfilariae of five Onchocerca species, O. dewittei japonica (the causative agent of zoonotic onchocerciasis in Oita, Kyushu, Japan) from wild boar (Sus scrofa), O. skrjabini and O. eberhardi from sika deer (Cenus nippon), O...
  52. Koehsler M, Soleiman A, Aspöck H, Auer H, Walochnik J. Onchocerca jakutensis filariasis in humans. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:1749-52 pubmed publisher
    We identified Onchocerca jakutensis as the causative agent of an unusual human filariasis in a patient with lupus erythematosus. To our knowledge, this is the first case of human infection with O...
  53. Cho Ngwa F, Mbua E, Nchamukong K, Titanji V. Detection, purification and characterisation of a secretory alkaline phosphatase from Onchocerca species. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2007;156:136-43 pubmed
    An Onchocerca secretory alkaline phosphatase (E.C. 3.1.3.1) of molecular weight 90 kDa when in crude extract, but which dimerises to about 180 kDa upon purification, was detected, purified and characterised...
  54. Enyong P, Traore S, Demanou M, Esum M, Fobi G, Noma M, et al. [African Programme for Onchocerdasis Control (APOC): Onchocerca Simulium squamosum in two regions in the Republic of Cameroon]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2006;99:272-7 pubmed
    ..The Simulium populations studied in both sites, even though the ATP in Kahn is 19 times lower than that of Bolo, showed a pattern of an onchocerciasis hyperendemic zone in terms of vector capacities and entomological indices...
  55. Beytut E, Akca A, Bain O. Teat onchocercosis in cows with reference to prevalence, species involved and pathology. Res Vet Sci. 2005;78:45-51 pubmed
    ..and 145 (24%) were found to have various lesions on their teats, of which 45 (31%) were infected with three Onchocerca species (Onchocerca gutturosa, O. lienalis and an unidentified Onchocerca spp...
  56. Achukwi M, Harnett W, Bradley J, Renz A. Onchocerca ochengi acquisition in zebu Gudali cattle exposed to natural transmission: parasite population dynamics and IgG antibody subclass responses to Ov10/Ov11 recombinant antigens. Vet Parasitol. 2004;122:35-49 pubmed
    ..l. and Culicoides spp. bites were examined during 4 years for O. ochengi adult worm acquisition, Onchocerca ochengi and Onchocerca gutturosa skin microfilaria dynamics, and IgG1 and IgG2 antibody subclass responses...
  57. Porter C, Collins R. Transmission of Onchocerca volvulus by secondary vectors in Guatemala. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1988;39:559-66 pubmed
    A comprehensive study of the transmission of Onchocerca volvulus at 4 locations in Guatemala with different prevalence rates of onchocerciasis included observations on potential secondary vectors, the most prevalent of which were Simulium ..
  58. Labelle A, Daniels J, Dix M, Labelle P. Onchocerca lupi causing ocular disease in two cats. Vet Ophthalmol. 2011;14 Suppl 1:105-10 pubmed publisher
    ..and molecular diagnosis of two domestic short hair cats residing in the United States infected with Onchocerca lupi causing episcleritis and orbital cellulitis. The results of this report suggest that O...
  59. Sréter Lancz Z, Széll Z, Sréter T. Molecular genetic comparison of Onchocerca sp. infecting dogs in Europe with other spirurid nematodes including Onchocerca lienalis. Vet Parasitol. 2007;148:365-70 pubmed
    ..oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (ND5) genes of three European strains of canine Onchocerca sp...
  60. Morales Hojas R, Cheke R, Post R. Molecular systematics of five Onchocerca species (Nematoda: Filarioidea) including the human parasite, O. volvulus, suggest sympatric speciation. J Helminthol. 2006;80:281-90 pubmed
    The genus Onchocerca (Nematoda: Filarioidea) consists of parasites of ungulate mammals with the exception of O. volvulus, which is a human parasite. The relationship between O. volvulus, O. ochengi and O. gibsoni remains unresolved...
  61. Cross H, Renz A, Trees A. In-vitro uptake of ivermectin by adult male Onchocerca ochengi. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1998;92:711-20 pubmed
    Ivermectin is not lethal to the adult worms of Onchocerca volvulus or to those of O. ochengi, a cattle parasite closely related to O. volvulus...
  62. Takaoka H, Bain O, Uni S, Korenaga M, Kozek W, Shirasaka C, et al. Zoonotic onchocerciasis caused by a parasite from wild boar in Oita, Japan. A comprehensive analysis of morphological characteristics of the worms for its diagnosis. Parasite. 2004;11:285-92 pubmed
    ..of a nodule removed from the back of the hand of a 58-year-old woman from Oita, Kyushu, Japan showed an Onchocerca female sectioned through the posterior region of the worm (ovaries identifiable) and young (thin cuticle)...