dirofilaria immitis

Summary

Summary: A filarial parasite primarily of dogs but occurring also in foxes, wolves, and humans. The parasite is transmitted by mosquitoes.

Top Publications

  1. Chandrashekar R, Tsuji N, Morales T, Ozols V, Mehta K. An ERp60-like protein from the filarial parasite Dirofilaria immitis has both transglutaminase and protein disulfide isomerase activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:531-6 pubmed
    ..Herein we report the identification and cloning of a cDNA encoding a TGase from the dog heartworm Dirofilaria immitis (DiTG)...
  2. Hou H, Shen G, Wu W, Gong P, Liu Q, You J, et al. Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs from Dandong, China. Vet Parasitol. 2011;183:189-93 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs from Dandong, China. A total of 886 dogs were examined for D...
  3. Hoch H, Strickland K. Canine and feline dirofilariasis: life cycle, pathophysiology, and diagnosis. Compend Contin Educ Vet. 2008;30:133-40; quiz 141 pubmed
    Infection with the intravascular parasite Dirofilaria immitis is an increasingly recognized problem in domestic dogs and cats...
  4. Brown H, Harrington L, Kaufman P, McKay T, Bowman D, Nelson C, et al. Key factors influencing canine heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis, in the United States. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:245 pubmed publisher
    ..Factors thought to influence the spatial risk of disease, as identified in a recent CAPC workshop, are discussed. ..
  5. Zytoon E, el Belbasi H, Matsumura T. Transovarial transmission of chikungunya virus by Aedes albopictus mosquitoes ingesting microfilariae of Dirofilaria immitis under laboratory conditions. Microbiol Immunol. 1993;37:419-21 pubmed
    ..fed on defibrinated sheep blood containing 5 x 10(7) PFU of chikungunya virus and 20,000 microfilariae of Dirofilaria immitis per milliliter...
  6. Nelson C. Dirofilaria immitis in cats: anatomy of a disease. Compend Contin Educ Vet. 2008;30:382-9; quiz 389 pubmed
    ..However, this does not mean that the parasite and resulting disease behave the same way in both species. For example, heartworms rarely reach the adult stage in cats, but they can cause respiratory sequelae nonetheless. ..
  7. Yaman M, Guzel M, Koltas I, Demirkazik M, Aktas H. Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis in dogs from Hatay province, Turkey. J Helminthol. 2009;83:255-60 pubmed publisher
    ..enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques to detect circulating microfilariae and antigens of Dirofilaria immitis, respectively. Seventy out of 269 dogs (26.0%) were positive for D. immitis. However, 61...
  8. Chambers E, McClintock S, Avery M, King J, Bradley M, Schmaedick M, et al. Xenomonitoring of Wuchereria bancrofti and Dirofilaria immitis infections in mosquitoes from American Samoa: trapping considerations and a comparison of polymerase chain reaction assays with dissection. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;80:774-81 pubmed
    ..The overall prevalences of Wuchereria bancrofti and Dirofilaria immitis infections in Ae. polynesiensis were, respectively, 0.16% and 1.06% by dissection and 0.69% and 1...
  9. Gasser R, Cantacessi C. Heartworm genomics: unprecedented opportunities for fundamental molecular insights and new intervention strategies. Top Companion Anim Med. 2011;26:193-9 pubmed publisher
    ..have provided insights into CHWD, to date there has been limited study of fundamental molecular aspects of Dirofilaria immitis itself, its relationship with the canine host, its vectors, as well as the potential of drug resistance to ..

More Information

Publications129 found, 100 shown here

  1. Genchi C, Rinaldi L, Cascone C, Mortarino M, Cringoli G. Is heartworm disease really spreading in Europe?. Vet Parasitol. 2005;133:137-48 pubmed
    ..filarial worm (Filarioidea) infections in Europe, with particular emphasis on canine heartworm infection (Dirofilaria immitis)...
  2. Arther R, Atkins C, Ciszewski D, Davis W, Ensley S, Settje T. Safety of imidacloprid plus moxidectin topical solution applied to cats heavily infected with adult heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis). Parasitol Res. 2005;97 Suppl 1:S70-S75 pubmed publisher
    ..developed for monthly application to cats for the prevention of feline heartworm (HW) disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis; and for the treatment and control of flea infestations, ear mite infestations, and intestinal nematode ..
  3. Bourguinat C, Keller K, Bhan A, Peregrine A, Geary T, Prichard R. Macrocyclic lactone resistance in Dirofilaria immitis. Vet Parasitol. 2011;181:388-92 pubmed publisher
    ..3% in microfilariae that survived repeated treatments with high doses of ML anthelmintics. The data show phenotypic and genotypic evidence of ML resistance in Dirofilaria immitis.
  4. Fu Y, Lan J, Zhang Z, Hou R, Wu X, Yang D, et al. Novel insights into the transcriptome of Dirofilaria immitis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41639 pubmed publisher
    The heartworm Dirofilaria immitis is the causal agent of cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis in dogs and cats, and also infects a wide range of wild mammals as well as humans...
  5. Arther R, Bowman D, Slone R, Travis L. Imidacloprid plus moxidectin topical solution for the prevention of heartworm disease (Dirofiloria immitis) in dogs. Parasitol Res. 2005;97 Suppl 1:S76-S80 pubmed publisher
    ..developed for monthly application to dogs for the prevention of canine heartworm (HW) disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis; and for the treatment and control of flea infestations, mite infestations, and intestinal nematode ..
  6. Yildirim A, Ica A, Atalay O, Duzlu O, Inci A. Prevalence and epidemiological aspects of Dirofilaria immitis in dogs from Kayseri Province, Turkey. Res Vet Sci. 2007;82:358-63 pubmed
    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection and to investigate the risk factors related to heartworm disease in dogs from Kayseri, Turkey...
  7. Genchi C, Venco L, Ferrari N, Mortarino M, Genchi M. Feline heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection: a statistical elaboration of the duration of the infection and life expectancy in asymptomatic cats. Vet Parasitol. 2008;158:177-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Heartworm-infected cats survived significantly longer than heartworm-negative cats affected by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, chronic renal failure, or neoplastic diseases. ..
  8. Morchon R, Bazzocchi C, Lopez Belmonte J, Martín Pacho J, Kramer L, Grandi G, et al. iNOs expression is stimulated by the major surface protein (rWSP) from Wolbachia bacterial endosymbiont of Dirofilaria immitis following subcutaneous injection in mice. Parasitol Int. 2007;56:71-5 pubmed
    ..This effect is not observed when mice are inoculated with a recombinant heat shock protein from Wolbachia (GroEL). ..
  9. Yoshida M, Nogami S, Nakagaki K. Experimental infection of Dirofilaria immitis in raccoon dogs. J Parasitol. 2007;93:432-4 pubmed
    Canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) is a nematode that naturally parasitizes in the pulmonary arteries and the right ventricle of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) as final hosts...
  10. Shea C, Hough D, Xiao J, Tzertzinis G, Maina C. An rxr/usp homolog from the parasitic nematode, Dirofilaria immitis. Gene. 2004;324:171-82 pubmed
    ..A useful model system for the study of the human parasites is the closely related nematode Dirofilaria immitis, the causative agent of dog heartworm disease. In D...
  11. Xia Z, Yu D, Mao J, Zhang Z, Yu J. The occurrence of Dirofilaria immitis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophium in dogs in China. J Helminthol. 2012;86:185-9 pubmed publisher
    A survey of the occurrence of Dirofilaria immitis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophium in dogs was undertaken in the People's Republic of China between October 2008 and October 2009...
  12. Courtney C, Zeng Q. Relationship between microfilaria count and sensitivity of the direct smear for diagnosis of canine dirofilariosis. Vet Parasitol. 2001;94:199-204 pubmed
    ..204 microfilaremic canine blood samples as determined by the modified Knott test for microfilariae (mff) of Dirofilaria immitis (using 1 ml of whole blood)...
  13. Shea C, Richer J, Tzertzinis G, Maina C. An EcR homolog from the filarial parasite, Dirofilaria immitis requires a ligand-activated partner for transactivation. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2010;171:55-63 pubmed publisher
    ..However, unlike most insect EcRs, DiEcR requires a ligand-activated RXR partner to exhibit ligand-dependent transcriptional activation of a reporter gene in tissue culture. ..
  14. Couto C, Lorentzen L, Beall M, Shields J, Bertolone N, Couto J, et al. Serological study of selected vector-borne diseases in shelter dogs in central Spain using point-of-care assays. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2010;10:885-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The SNAP 4DX detects Dirofilaria immitis (Di) antigen and antibodies against Ehrlichia canis (Ec), Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), and Anaplasma ..
  15. Colby K, Levy J, Dunn K, Michaud R. Diagnostic, treatment, and prevention protocols for canine heartworm infection in animal sheltering agencies. Vet Parasitol. 2011;176:333-41 pubmed publisher
    ..agencies and companion animal health industries should develop guidelines that are feasible for use in sheltering agencies and provide improved access to preventive and treatment strategies for management of Dirofilaria immitis.
  16. Lee A, Montgomery S, Theis J, Blagburn B, Eberhard M. Public health issues concerning the widespread distribution of canine heartworm disease. Trends Parasitol. 2010;26:168-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Future efforts should focus on the development of a non-invasive diagnostic test for people, and on epidemiological surveys for both animals and people...
  17. Belanger D, Perkins S. Wolbachia infection and mitochondrial diversity in the canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis). Mitochondrial DNA. 2010;21:227-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Patterns of mitochondrial diversity were examined in Dirofilaria immitis, a Wolbachia-infected species...
  18. Kim M, Kim C, Yeom B, Park S, Choi S, Choi J. The first human case of hepatic dirofilariasis. J Korean Med Sci. 2002;17:686-90 pubmed
    ..These microscopic findings were consistent with degenerated Dirofilaria immitis. Antibody test by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for patient serum reacted positively against adult D...
  19. Simon F, Kramer L, Roman A, Blasini W, Morchon R, Marcos Atxutegi C, et al. Immunopathology of Dirofilaria immitis infection. Vet Res Commun. 2007;31:161-71 pubmed
    Heartworm disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis affects canine and feline hosts, with infections occasionally being reported in humans...
  20. McCall J, Genchi C, Kramer L, Guerrero J, Dzimianski M, Supakorndej P, et al. Heartworm and Wolbachia: therapeutic implications. Vet Parasitol. 2008;158:204-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Preliminary observations suggest that administration of DOXY+IVM for several months prior to (or without) MEL will eliminate adult HW with less potential for severe thromboembolism than MEL alone...
  21. Traversa D, Aste G, Milillo P, Capelli G, Pampurini F, Tunesi C, et al. Autochthonous foci of canine and feline infections by Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens in central Italy. Vet Parasitol. 2010;169:128-32 pubmed publisher
    This survey was conducted to investigate the presence of Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens in native dogs and cats living in an area of Italy where animal and human dirofilarioses have been sporadically reported in the past few ..
  22. Atkins C. Comparison of results of three commercial heartworm antigen test kits in dogs with low heartworm burdens. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2003;222:1221-3 pubmed
    ..For all 3 test kits, specificity was 97%. All 3 test kits yielded false-positive and false-negative results for some dogs with low heartworm burdens. ..
  23. Carleton R, Tolbert M. Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis and gastrointestinal helminths in cats euthanized at animal control agencies in northwest Georgia. Vet Parasitol. 2004;119:319-26 pubmed
    Cats euthanized at six northwest Georgia animal control agencies were examined for adult Dirofilaria immitis in heart and lung tissue and presence of gastrointestinal helminth ova by fecal flotation. D...
  24. Liu J, Song K, Lee S, Lee J, Lee J, Hayasaki M, et al. Serological and molecular survey of Dirofilaria immitis infection in stray cats in Gyunggi province, South Korea. Vet Parasitol. 2005;130:125-9 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to carry out a serological and molecular survey for the presence of Dirofilaria immitis infection in stray cats using an ELISA kit and PCR assay...
  25. Sacks B, Caswell Chen E. Reconstructing the spread of Dirofilaria immitis in California coyotes. J Parasitol. 2003;89:319-23 pubmed
    b>Dirofilaria immitis is a filarial nematode parasite that is currently widely enzootic in dog and coyote (Canis latrans) populations of California. Weak historical evidence suggests that the initial focus of D...
  26. Simsek S, Utuk A, Koroglu E, Rishniw M. Serological and molecular studies on Dirofilaria immitis in dogs from Turkey. J Helminthol. 2008;82:181-6 pubmed publisher
    We estimated the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection in domestic dogs in five Turkish provinces - Sakarya, Kocaeli, Ankara, Elazig and Mersin - using a commercial ELISA kit for detecting circulating antigen and a PCR test for ..
  27. Thanchomnang T, Intapan P, Lulitanond V, Sangmaneedet S, Chungpivat S, Taweethavonsawat P, et al. Rapid detection of Dirofilaria immitis in mosquito vectors and dogs using a real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer PCR and melting curve analysis. Vet Parasitol. 2010;168:255-60 pubmed publisher
    ..energy transfer (FRET) PCR supplemented with melting curve analysis for the rapid molecular detection of Dirofilaria immitis in mosquito vectors and dog blood samples was developed...
  28. Snyder D, Wiseman S, Cruthers L, Slone R. Ivermectin and milbemycin oxime in experimental adult heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection of dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2011;25:61-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This is important in guiding clients on expectations of product effectiveness. ..
  29. Srinivasan N, Rao G, Harris B. Phosphofructokinase from Dirofilaria immitis: effect of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate and AMP on the non-phosphorylated and phosphorylated forms of the enzyme. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1990;38:151-8 pubmed
    ..2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P2), 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase, was shown to be present in the heart worm, Dirofilaria immitis. The level of Fru-2,6-P2 was determined to be 4 +/- 0.3 nmol(g wet weight)-1 in the tissues of the filariid...
  30. Pampiglione S, Rivasi F, Gustinelli A. Dirofilarial human cases in the Old World, attributed to Dirofilaria immitis: a critical analysis. Histopathology. 2009;54:192-204 pubmed publisher
    To review 28 cases of human dirofilariasis reported in the last 30 years in the Old World and attributed, by their respective authors, to Dirofilaria immitis or a species of Dirofilaria other than D. repens.
  31. Grandi G, Quintavalla C, Mavropoulou A, Genchi M, Gnudi G, Bertoni G, et al. A combination of doxycycline and ivermectin is adulticidal in dogs with naturally acquired heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis). Vet Parasitol. 2010;169:347-51 pubmed publisher
    Canine heartworm disease is caused by infection with Dirofilaria immitis, a filarial nematode that resides in the pulmonary arteries and occasionally in the right heart chambers of infected dogs...
  32. Schnyder M, Deplazes P. Cross-reactions of sera from dogs infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum in commercially available Dirofilaria immitis test kits. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:258 pubmed publisher
    b>Dirofilaria immitis and Angiostrongylus vasorum are both important potentially fatal canine nematodes with overlapping endemic areas, especially in Europe...
  33. Furuhashi Y, Imai S, Tezuka H, Fujita K. Recombinant Dirofilaria immitis-derived antigen can suppress passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reactions. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2001;125:144-51 pubmed
    ..IgE production induced during filarial infections, we previously constructed rDiAg (recombinant Dirofilaria immitis-derived antigen) in Escherichia coli...
  34. Rishniw M, Schukken Y, Greiner E. Sex ratios of Dirofilaria immitis in naturally infected dogs show female bias at low worm intensities. Res Vet Sci. 2012;93:1324-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined sex ratios in Dirofilaria immitis (heartworms) obtained from naturally-infected dogs...
  35. Godel C, Kumar S, Koutsovoulos G, Ludin P, Nilsson D, Comandatore F, et al. The genome of the heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis, reveals drug and vaccine targets. FASEB J. 2012;26:4650-61 pubmed publisher
    The heartworm Dirofilaria immitis is an important parasite of dogs. Transmitted by mosquitoes in warmer climatic zones, it is spreading across southern Europe and the Americas at an alarming pace...
  36. Wang J, Tung K, Huang C, Lai C. Alteration of extracellular collagen matrix in the myocardium of canines infected with Dirofilaria immitis. Vet Parasitol. 2005;131:261-5 pubmed
    ..09+/-0.72, RV=15.16+/-0.83, LV=14.91+/-0.89 microg/mg, n=8). These results indicated that heartworm infection induced the remodeling of the extracellular matrix, thus markedly altering the architecture and function of the heart. ..
  37. Marks C, Bloomfield T. Canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) detected in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in urban Melbourne. Vet Parasitol. 1998;78:147-54 pubmed
    Canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) was detected by antigen ELISA in 8 (6.4%) of 125 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) captured in the Melbourne (Australia) metropolitan area...
  38. Bourguinat C, Keller K, Prichard R, Geary T. Genetic polymorphism in Dirofilaria immitis. Vet Parasitol. 2011;176:368-73 pubmed publisher
    b>Dirofilaria immitis is the causative agent of heartworm disease. Reports of macrocyclic lactone inefficacy prompted an investigation of genetic polymorphism in D. immitis...
  39. Dimri U, Singh S, Sharma M, Behera S, Kumar D, Tiwari P. Oxidant/antioxidant balance, minerals status and apoptosis in peripheral blood of dogs naturally infected with Dirofilaria immitis. Res Vet Sci. 2012;93:296-9 pubmed publisher
    ..From the present study, it is concluded that significant alterations in oxidant/antioxidant balance, mineral status and rate of apoptosis in peripheral blood may be implicated in the pathogenesis of clinical canine dirofilariosis. ..
  40. Weil G. Dirofilaria immitis: identification and partial characterization of parasite antigens in the serum of infected dogs. Exp Parasitol. 1987;64:244-51 pubmed
    We have recently developed a sensitive and specific immunodiagnostic test for canine Dirofilaria immitis infection based on detection of soluble parasite antigens in dog sera by monoclonal antibody-based enzyme immunoassay...
  41. Theis J. Public health aspects of dirofilariasis in the United States. Vet Parasitol. 2005;133:157-80 pubmed
    ..The human medical literature contains many misconceptions about the life cycle of Dirofilaria immitis, including the method of entry of the infective-stage larvae and the development of the young adult worm...
  42. Kramer L, Passeri B, Corona S, Simoncini L, Casiraghi M. Immunohistochemical/immunogold detection and distribution of the endosymbiont Wolbachia of Dirofilaria immitis and Brugia pahangi using a polyclonal antiserum raised against WSP (Wolbachia surface protein). Parasitol Res. 2003;89:381-6 pubmed
    ..bacteria in filarial nematodes were described as early as the 1970s, yet it was only with the work on Dirofilaria immitis, the agent of canine and feline heartworm disease, that these microorganisms were identified as belonging ..
  43. Bazzocchi C, Mortarino M, Grandi G, Kramer L, Genchi C, Bandi C, et al. Combined ivermectin and doxycycline treatment has microfilaricidal and adulticidal activity against Dirofilaria immitis in experimentally infected dogs. Int J Parasitol. 2008;38:1401-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Like many filarial nematodes, Dirofilaria immitis, the causative agent of canine heartworm disease, harbours the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia, which has ..
  44. Fu Y, Lan J, Wu X, Yang D, Zhang Z, Nie H, et al. Identification of Dirofilaria immitis miRNA using illumina deep sequencing. Vet Res. 2013;44:3 pubmed publisher
    The heartworm Dirofilaria immitis is the causative agent of cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis in dogs and cats, which also infects a wide range of wild mammals and humans. The complex life cycle of D...
  45. Weller P, Longworth D, Jaffe J. Leukotriene C4 synthesis catalyzed by Dirofilaria immitis glutathione S-transferase. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1989;40:171-5 pubmed
    ..Glutathione S-transferase was purified from the cytosol of adult Dirofilaria immitis by glutathione-agarose affinity chromatography and was reacted with 25 microM leukotriene A4 methyl ester ..
  46. Bargues M, Morchon R, Latorre J, Cancrini G, Mas Coma S, Simon F. Ribosomal DNA second internal transcribed spacer sequence studies of Culicid vectors from an endemic area of Dirofilaria immitis in Spain. Parasitol Res. 2006;99:205-13 pubmed
    Studies were performed in an endemic area of Dirofilaria immitis in Spain to genetically characterize the potential mosquito vector species present by means of DNA sequencing and elucidate which of these species may be involved in the ..
  47. Genchi C, Poglayen G, Kramer L, Venco L, Agostini A. Efficacy of moxidectin for the prevention of adult heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection in dogs. Parassitologia. 2001;43:139-41 pubmed
    ..No adverse reactions to moxidectin were observed. In the study areas, prevalence values for Dirofilaria immitis infection calculated on the basis of the untreated controls and testing dogs which had no preventive ..
  48. Atkins C, Arther R, Ciszewski D, Davis W, Ensley S, Guity P, et al. Echocardiographic quantification of Dirofilaria immitis in experimentally infected cats. Vet Parasitol. 2008;158:164-70 pubmed publisher
    The safety of heartworm preventives in heartworm-positive cats has traditionally been evaluated using adult Dirofilaria immitis removed from infected dogs and surgically implanted into the cats...
  49. Schwan E, Durand D. Canine filariosis caused by Dirofilaria immitis in Mozambique: a small survey based on the identification of microfilariae. J S Afr Vet Assoc. 2002;73:124-6 pubmed
    b>Dirofilaria immitis was diagnosed in 4 of 13 indigenous dogs from the Province of Zambézia, Mozambique, by acid phosphatase staining of microfilariae...
  50. Nelson C, McCall J, Rubin S, Buzhardt L, Dorion D, Graham W, et al. 2005 Guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention and management of heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection in cats. Vet Parasitol. 2005;133:267-75 pubmed
  51. Rossi M, Aguiar Alves F, Santos S, Paiva J, Bendas A, Fernandes O, et al. Detection of Wolbachia DNA in blood from dogs infected with Dirofilaria immitis. Exp Parasitol. 2010;126:270-2 pubmed publisher
    b>Dirofilaria immitis is the causative agent of heartworm disease in canines and felines, and pulmonary dirofilariasis in man...
  52. Huang H, Wang T, Yang G, Zhang Z, Wang C, Yang Z, et al. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Dirofilaria immitis of China based on COI and 12S rDNA genes. Vet Parasitol. 2009;160:175-9 pubmed publisher
    ..I (COI) and small subunit ribosomal RNA (12S rDNA) were used to examine the phylogenetic position of Dirofilaria immitis from dogs and red pandas in the evolutionary tree of filarial...
  53. Capelli G, Drago A, Martini S, Montarsi F, Soppelsa M, Delai N, et al. First report in Italy of the exotic mosquito species Aedes (Finlaya) koreicus, a potential vector of arboviruses and filariae. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:188 pubmed publisher
    ..During the routine monitoring activity in a tiger mosquito-free area, an unexpected mosquito was noticed, which clearly did not belong to the recorded Italian fauna...
  54. Akao N, Kondo K, Fujita K. Immunoblot analysis of Dirofilaria immitis recognized by infected humans. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1991;85:455-60 pubmed
    ..5, 17.5-17 and 14 derived from Dirofilaria immitis adult works...
  55. Rhee J, Yang S, Kim H. Periodicity exhibited by Dirofilaria immitis microfilariae identified in dogs of Korea. Korean J Parasitol. 1998;36:235-9 pubmed
    Microfilarial periodicity of Dirofilaria immitis (the dog heartworm) was determined at two hr intervals for 72 consecutive hrs in 10 naturally infected war dogs, 3-9 years old, in Korea to facilitate harvest of the microfilariae for ..
  56. Rossi L, Pollono F, Meneguz P, Cancrini G. [Four species of mosquito as possible vectors for Dirofilaria immitis piedmont rice-fields]. Parassitologia. 1999;41:537-42 pubmed
    ..conditions, artificially fed until day 10 post-infection (PI) and then dissected for the presence of Dirofilaria immitis larvae. Mortality of Ae. caspius and Cx modestus was significantly higher than controls on day 3 PI (89...
  57. Cancrini G, Frangipane di Regalbono A, Ricci I, Tessarin C, Gabrielli S, Pietrobelli M. Aedes albopictus is a natural vector of Dirofilaria immitis in Italy. Vet Parasitol. 2003;118:195-202 pubmed
  58. Levy J, Edinboro C, Glotfelty C, Dingman P, West A, Kirkland Cady K. Seroprevalence of Dirofilaria immitis, feline leukemia virus, and feline immunodeficiency virus infection among dogs and cats exported from the 2005 Gulf Coast hurricane disaster area. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2007;231:218-25 pubmed
    ..To determine seroprevalence of dirofilariasis in dogs and seroprevalences of dirofilariasis, FeLV infection, and FIV infection in cats exported from the Gulf Coast region following the 2005 hurricanes...
  59. Hamada A, Young J, Chmielewski R, Greene B. C1q enhancement of antibody-dependent granulocyte-mediated killing of nonphagocytosable targets in vitro. J Clin Invest. 1988;82:945-9 pubmed
    ..targets was investigated utilizing IgG-dependent granulocyte cytotoxicity directed against microfilariae of Dirofilaria immitis. Granulocyte-mediated killing of microfilariae is enhanced by addition of fresh serum...
  60. Tezuka H, Imai S, Tsukidate S, Fujita K. A Dirofilaria immitis polyprotein up-regulates nitric oxide production. Infect Immun. 2002;70:5283-6 pubmed
    We investigated the effect of recombinant Dirofilaria immitis polyprotein (rDiAg) on nitric oxide (NO) production by peritoneal macrophages...
  61. Gioia G, Lecová L, Genchi M, Ferri E, Genchi C, Mortarino M. Highly sensitive multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection and discrimination of Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens in canine peripheral blood. Vet Parasitol. 2010;172:160-3 pubmed publisher
    b>Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens are the most common species of filarial nematodes described in the dogs with increasing spread into new geographical areas...
  62. Bowman D, Mannella C. Macrocyclic lactones and Dirofilaria immitis microfilariae. Top Companion Anim Med. 2011;26:160-72 pubmed publisher
  63. Narine K, Brennan B, Gilfillan I, Hodge A. Pulmonary presentation of Dirofilaria immitis (canine heartworm) in man. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 1999;16:475-7 pubmed
    Canine heartworm or Dirofilaria immitis can occasionally infect man. We present the case of a 36-year-old Balkan woman referred to us for a thoracoscopic biopsy of a well defined pulmonary mass...
  64. Polizopoulou Z, Koutinas A, Saridomichelakis M, Patsikas M, Leontidis L, Roubies N, et al. Clinical and laboratory observations in 91 dogs infected with Dirofilaria immitis in northern Greece. Vet Rec. 2000;146:466-9 pubmed
    The medical records of 91 dogs with heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection were reviewed, and diagnoses were established by using parasitological and immunological methods...
  65. Cringoli G, Rinaldi L, Veneziano V, Capelli G. A prevalence survey and risk analysis of filariosis in dogs from the Mt. Vesuvius area of southern Italy. Vet Parasitol. 2001;102:243-52 pubmed
    ..6%) microfilariae of both D. reconditum and D. repens and two dogs (0.6%) microfilariae of both Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens. High D...
  66. Simon F, Lopez Belmonte J, Marcos Atxutegi C, Morchon R, Martín Pacho J. What is happening outside North America regarding human dirofilariasis?. Vet Parasitol. 2005;133:181-9 pubmed
    The etiologic agents of human dirofilariasis in the Old World are Dirofilaria immitis, which cause pulmonary and subcutaneous nodules, and Dirofilaria repens, which cause ocular lesions...
  67. Yin Y, Martin J, McCarter J, Clifton S, Wilson R, Mitreva M. Identification and analysis of genes expressed in the adult filarial parasitic nematode Dirofilaria immitis. Int J Parasitol. 2006;36:829-39 pubmed
    The heartworm Dirofilaria immitis is a filarial parasitic nematode infecting dogs and other mammals worldwide causing fatal complications...
  68. Venco L, Mortarino M, Carro C, Genchi M, Pampurini F, Genchi C. Field efficacy and safety of a combination of moxidectin and imidacloprid for the prevention of feline heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection. Vet Parasitol. 2008;154:67-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Throughout the treatment, transitory hypersalivation and generic signs of annoyance were reported by owners in 6 cats (4.5%). All signs regressed spontaneously...
  69. Kramer L, Grandi G, Leoni M, Passeri B, McCall J, Genchi C, et al. Wolbachia and its influence on the pathology and immunology of Dirofilaria immitis infection. Vet Parasitol. 2008;158:191-5 pubmed publisher
    ..in 1995 of the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia that resides in different tissues of the filarial worm Dirofilaria immitis, there has been increasing interest to understand whether and what role it plays in the pathogenesis of and ..
  70. Simon F, Morchon R, González Miguel J, Marcos Atxutegi C, Siles Lucas M. What is new about animal and human dirofilariosis?. Trends Parasitol. 2009;25:404-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens, the causal agents of cardiopulmonary and subcutaneous dirofilariosis, respectively, affect canine, feline and human populations with an increasing incidence in temperate and tropical areas of the world...
  71. Tezuka H, Imai S, Hidano S, Tsukidate S, Fujita K. Various types of Dirofilaria immitis polyproteins selectively induce a Th2-Type immune response. Infect Immun. 2003;71:3802-11 pubmed
    b>Dirofilaria immitis polyproteins (DiAgs) are found as 15-kDa monomeric and 30-kDa dimeric forms in excretory-secretory products of the adult worm...
  72. Tiawsirisup S, Khlaikhayai T, Nithiuthai S. A preliminary study on in vitro transmission of Dirofilaria immitis infective stage larvae by Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2005;36 Suppl 4:86-9 pubmed
    ..No larvae were detected in the solution in capillary tubes of all experiments...
  73. Morchon R, Bargues M, Latorre J, Melero Alcíbar R, Pou Barreto C, Mas Coma S, et al. Haplotype H1 of Culex pipiens implicated as natural vector of Dirofilaria immitis in an endemic area of Western Spain. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2007;7:653-8 pubmed
    Seven hundred and twenty five female culicid mosquitoes were captured in an area of Western Spain where Dirofilaria immitis is endemic. PCR was applied for the detection of larval D. immitis DNA in mosquitoes...
  74. Song K, Park J, Lee D, Lee S, Shin H. Serological update and molecular characterization of Dirofilaria immitis in dogs, South Korea. Res Vet Sci. 2010;88:467-9 pubmed publisher
    Eighty-one dogs in the Chungnam province were tested for heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection by ELISA (SNAP test, IDEXX Laboratories, Maine, USA). Seventeen (20...
  75. Bourguinat C, Keller K, BLAGBURN B, Schenker R, Geary T, Prichard R. Correlation between loss of efficacy of macrocyclic lactone heartworm anthelmintics and P-glycoprotein genotype. Vet Parasitol. 2011;176:374-81 pubmed publisher
    ..However, in recent years, there have been reports of loss of efficacy of ML heartworm preventatives against Dirofilaria immitis in some locations in the United States...
  76. Latrofa M, Montarsi F, Ciocchetta S, Annoscia G, Dantas Torres F, Ravagnan S, et al. Molecular xenomonitoring of Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens in mosquitoes from north-eastern Italy by real-time PCR coupled with melting curve analysis. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:76 pubmed publisher
    b>Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens are transmitted by bloodsucking culicid mosquitoes belonging to Culex, Aedes, Ochlerotatus, Anopheles and Mansonia genera...
  77. Rawlings C, Tonelli Q, Lewis R, Duncan J. Semiquantitative test for Dirofilaria immitis as a predictor of thromboembolic complications associated with heartworm treatment in dogs. Am J Vet Res. 1993;54:914-9 pubmed
    ..Seventeen dogs with naturally acquired infections of Dirofilaria immitis (heartworms) were studied before and after thiacetarsamide treatment, using physical examinations, arterial ..
  78. Chandrashekar R, Tsuji N, Morales T, Carmody A, Ozols V, Welton J, et al. Removal of hydrogen peroxide by a 1-cysteine peroxiredoxin enzyme of the filarial parasite Dirofilaria immitis. Parasitol Res. 2000;86:200-6 pubmed
    ..and on immunolocalization of a recombinant peroxiredoxin (Prx) enzyme from the dog filarial parasite Dirofilaria immitis. A full-length cDNA encoding a 1-Cys Prx enzyme from the dog heartworm D...
  79. Serrão M, Labarthe N, Lourenco de Oliveira R. Vectorial competence of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus 1762) Rio de Janeiro strain, to Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy 1856). Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2001;96:593-8 pubmed
    b>Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy 1856), a nematode parasite, is the etiologic agent of canine heartworm disease and mosquitoes are essential intermediate hosts...
  80. Atwell R, Litster A. Surgical extraction of transplanted adult Dirofilaria immitis in cats. Vet Res Commun. 2002;26:301-8 pubmed
    A jugular venotomy technique was developed to attempt extraction of Dirofilaria immitis in cats. Seven cats were first examined by cardiac ultrasound to establish the location of adult D...
  81. Lee S, Kim H, Chong S, Klein T, Lee W. Molecular survey of Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens by direct PCR for wild caught mosquitoes in the Republic of Korea. Vet Parasitol. 2007;148:149-55 pubmed
    ..light traps were conducted to determine the potential vectors and the relative mosquito infection rates of Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens in Gyeonggi and Gangwon Provinces, Republic of Korea, 2005. Dirofilaria spp...
  82. Avellis F, Kramer L, Mora P, Bartolino A, Benedetti P, Rivasi F. A case of human conjunctival dirofilariosis by Dirofilaria immitis in Italy. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011;11:451-2 pubmed publisher
    This short communication describes a case of human conjunctival dirofilariosis by Dirofilaria immitis. A 51-year-old man from the Emilia-Romagna region of northeastern Italy referred for ocular foreign body sensation in his right eye...
  83. McCall J, Kramer L, Genchi C, Guerrero J, Dzimianski M, Supakorndej P, et al. Effects of doxycycline on early infections of Dirofilaria immitis in dogs. Vet Parasitol. 2011;176:361-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Tetracyclines are also now known to have activity against microfilariae and adult Dirofilaria immitis, but assessment of their activity against larval and juvenile heartworms has not been reported previously...
  84. Fan C, Su K, Lin Y, Liao C, Du W, Chiou H. Seroepidemiologic survey of Dirofilaria immitis infection among domestic dogs in Taipei City and mountain aboriginal districts in Taiwan (1998-1999). Vet Parasitol. 2001;102:113-20 pubmed
    To estimate the seroprevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection in domestic dogs in Taiwan, we utilized a commercial ELISA kit (Snap, IDEXX, USA) for detecting circulating antigens released by adult female worms...
  85. Murata K, Yanai T, Agatsuma T, Uni S. Dirofilaria immitis infection of a snow leopard (Uncia uncia) in a Japanese zoo with mitochondrial DNA analysis. J Vet Med Sci. 2003;65:945-7 pubmed
    Three dog heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis) were detected in the lumen of the right cardiac ventriculus and of the pulmonary artery of a captive female snow leopard (Uncia uncia) that died of pancreatic carcinoma at a zoo in Japan...
  86. Yates D, Wolstenholme A. An ivermectin-sensitive glutamate-gated chloride channel subunit from Dirofilaria immitis. Int J Parasitol. 2004;34:1075-81 pubmed
    b>Dirofilaria immitis is a filarial nematode that infects dogs and causes cardiopulmonary disease...
  87. Kramer L, Tamarozzi F, Morchon R, Lopez Belmonte J, Marcos Atxutegi C, Martín Pacho R, et al. Immune response to and tissue localization of the Wolbachia surface protein (WSP) in dogs with natural heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2005;106:303-8 pubmed
    Human and animal parasitic filarial nematodes, including the agent of canine and feline heartworm disease Dirofilaria immitis, harbour intracellular bacteria of the genus Wolbachia (Rickettsiaies)...
  88. Vezzani D, Eiras D, Wisnivesky C. Dirofilariasis in Argentina: historical review and first report of Dirofilaria immitis in a natural mosquito population. Vet Parasitol. 2006;136:259-73 pubmed
    Argentina is one of the four South American countries where the presence of Dirofilaria immitis is currently confirmed...
  89. Byeon K, Kim B, Kim S, Yu H, Jeong H, Ock M. A serological survey of Dirofilaria immitis infection in pet dogs of Busan, Korea, and effects of chemoprophylaxis. Korean J Parasitol. 2007;45:27-32 pubmed
    The status of Dirofilaria immitis infection was assessed in pet dogs of Busan, Korea, and chemoprophylactic effects of microfilaricidal medication were evaluated...
  90. Arther R, Bowmann D, McCall J, Hansen O, Young D. Feline Advantage Heart (imidacloprid and moxidectin) topical solution as monthly treatment for prevention of heartworm infection (Dirofilaria immitis) and control of fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) on cats. Parasitol Res. 2003;90 Suppl 3:S137-9 pubmed
  91. Reifur L, Thomaz Soccol V, Montiani Ferreira F. Epidemiological aspects of filariosis in dogs on the coast of Paraná state, Brazil: with emphasis on Dirofilaria immitis. Vet Parasitol. 2004;122:273-86 pubmed
    The present study determined the prevalence and geographical distribution of Dirofilaria immitis and other filariae, from dogs in littoral areas of Paraná state, in Brazil...
  92. Kim Y, Huh S. Prevalence of Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina and Dirofilaria immitis in dogs in Chuncheon, Korea (2004). Korean J Parasitol. 2005;43:65-7 pubmed
    The intestines and hearts of dogs were examined for Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, and Dirofilaria immitis, after necropsy between June 26 and September 29, 2004 in Chuncheon, Korea. Of the 662 dogs examined, 6 were infected with T...