dirofilaria

Summary

Summary: A genus of filarial nematodes. Various immature species have been found to infect the eyes or subcutaneous tissue in humans.

Top Publications

  1. Favia G, Lanfrancotti A, Della Torre A, Cancrini G, Coluzzi M. Polymerase chain reaction-identification of Dirofilaria repens and Dirofilaria immitis. Parasitology. 1996;113 ( Pt 6):567-71 pubmed
    On the basis of known DNA sequences of Dirofilaria repens and D. immitis we designed specific primers for the amplification by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) of the DNA from the two species...
  2. Tarello W. Dermatitis associated with Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens microfilariae in dogs from central Italy. Acta Vet Hung. 2002;50:63-78 pubmed
    Pruritic dermatitis associated with Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens microfilariae in the blood was diagnosed in 22 dogs from Fermo (Central Italy)...
  3. Tarello W. Cutaneous lesions in dogs with Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens infestation and concurrent tick-borne transmitted diseases. Vet Dermatol. 2002;13:267-74 pubmed
    ..the presence of erythema, papules, focal or multifocal alopecia, crusting and nodules was seen in 28 dogs with Dirofilaria repens microfilariae infestation in an endemic area in north-west Italy...
  4. Hermosilla C, Pantchev N, Dyachenko V, Gutmann M, Bauer C. First autochthonous case of canine ocular Dirofilaria repens infection in Germany. Vet Rec. 2006;158:134-5 pubmed
  5. Lee S, Song K, Liu J, Kim M, Park B, Cho K, et al. Comparison of the acid-phosphatase staining and polymerase chain reaction for detection of Dirofilaria repens infection in dogs in Korea. J Vet Med Sci. 2004;66:1087-9 pubmed
    ..to compare acid-phosphatase staining with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the diagnosis of Dirofilaria repens infection. The infection of D. repens was confirmed in Korean reared German shepherd dogs...
  6. Duscher G, Peschke R, Wille Piazzai W, Joachim A. Parasites on paper--The use of FTA Elute((R)) for the detection of Dirofilaria repens microfilariae in canine blood. Vet Parasitol. 2009;161:349-51 pubmed publisher
    ..technology was tested for its ability to stabilise DNA from blood samples of dogs naturally infected with Dirofilaria repens for storage prior to PCR...
  7. To K, Wong S, Poon R, Trendell Smith N, Ngan A, Lam J, et al. A novel Dirofilaria species causing human and canine infections in Hong Kong. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:3534-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Transected worms recovered from the resected abdominal subcutaneous mass were morphologically compatible with Dirofilaria. The cox1 gene sequences of the three human isolates were identical; however, they were only 96.2% and 89...
  8. Lee S, Kim H, Chong S, Klein T, Lee W. Molecular survey of Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens by direct PCR for wild caught mosquitoes in the Republic of Korea. Vet Parasitol. 2007;148:149-55 pubmed
    ..light traps were conducted to determine the potential vectors and the relative mosquito infection rates of Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens in Gyeonggi and Gangwon Provinces, Republic of Korea, 2005. Dirofilaria spp...
  9. Cancrini G, Pietrobelli M, Frangipane di Regalbono A, Tampieri M, Della Torre A. Development of Dirofilaria and Setaria nematodes in Aedes albopictus. Parassitologia. 1995;37:141-5 pubmed
    The development of Dirofilaria repens, D immitis and Setaria labiatopapillosa up to L3 stage was documented in a laboratory colony of Aedes albopictus originating from specimens collected in Civitavecchia (Central Italy)...

More Information

Publications73

  1. Gautam V, Rustagi I, Singh S, Arora D. Subconjunctival infection with Dirofilaria repens. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2002;55:47-8 pubmed
    Cases of zoonotic dirofilariasis infection, caused by Dirofilaria repens, occur widely throughout European, African, Middle Eastern, and Asian countries...
  2. Beaver P. Intraocular filariasis: a brief review. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1989;40:40-5 pubmed
    ..Three of these were identified as Dipetalonema spp., and one each as Wuchereria, Dirofilaria, and Loaina...
  3. Abou Bacar A, Diallo M, Waller J, Cribier B, Candolfi E. [Human subcutaneous dirofilariosis due to Dirofilaria repens. A case diagnosed in Strasbourg, France]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2007;100:269-70 pubmed
    ..examination unexpectedly established the diagnosis by the presence of nematode worm sections identified as Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens...
  4. Otranto D, Brianti E, Gaglio G, Dantas Torres F, Azzaro S, Giannetto S. Human ocular infection with Dirofilaria repens (Railliet and Henry, 1911) in an area endemic for canine dirofilariasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011;84:1002-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Dirofilaria repens, which is usually found in canine subcutaneous tissues, is the main causative agent of human dirofilariasis in the Old Word. However, a relationship between animal and human cases of dirofilariasis caused by D...
  5. Negahban S, Daneshbod Y, Atefi S, Daneshbod K, Sadjjadi S, Hosseini S, et al. Dirofilaria repens diagnosed by the presence of microfilariae in fine needle aspirates: a case report. Acta Cytol. 2007;51:567-70 pubmed
    Dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens with viable microfilariae outside the worm have not been reported before. A 40-year-old truck driver from rural Shiraz, Iran, had a firm mass, 2.5 x 2...
  6. Demiaszkiewicz A, Polańczyk G, Pyziel A, Kuligowska I, Lachowicz J. [The first foci of dirofilariosis of dogs evoked by Dirofilaria repens Railliet et Henry, 1911 in central Poland]. Wiad Parazytol. 2009;55:367-70 pubmed
    Dirofilariosis is caused by nematodes Dirofilaria repens Railliet et Henry, 1911. This parasitosis is widely distributed in south Europe among dogs, cats and wild carnivorous. It occurs also in Asia and Africa. Adult nematodes D...
  7. Sathyan P, Manikandan P, Bhaskar M, Padma S, Singh G, Appalaraju B. Subtenons infection by Dirofilaria repens. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2006;24:61-2 pubmed
    Zoonotic filariasis caused by Dirofilaria repens, a parasite of carnivores occurs mainly in countries surrounding Mediterranean region. The infection occurs in and around eye among animal handlers through vector transmission...
  8. Reifur L, Thomaz Soccol V, Montiani Ferreira F. Epidemiological aspects of filariosis in dogs on the coast of Paraná state, Brazil: with emphasis on Dirofilaria immitis. Vet Parasitol. 2004;122:273-86 pubmed
    The present study determined the prevalence and geographical distribution of Dirofilaria immitis and other filariae, from dogs in littoral areas of Paraná state, in Brazil...
  9. de Vries P, Visser L, Vetter H, Muller H, Polderman A. [Migrating subcutaneous swellings due to dirofilariasis after a visit to the South of France]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2003;147:566-9 pubmed
    ..Parasitological examination revealed Dirofilaria repens. After this the swellings did not recur...
  10. Eccher A, Dalfior D, Gobbo S, Martignoni G, Brunelli M, Decaminada W, et al. Periorbital subcutaneous tumor-like lesion due to Dirofilaria repens. Int J Surg Pathol. 2008;16:101-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional consecutive sections finally showed Dirofilaria repens, curled up in spirals with external cuticular ridges in an environment characterized by epithelioid ..
  11. Jacsó O, Fok E, Kiss G, Kokeny G, Lang Z. Preliminary findings on the efficacy of selamectin in the treatment of dogs naturally infected with Dirofilaria repens. Acta Vet Hung. 2010;58:405-12 pubmed publisher
    Subcutaneous dirofilariosis caused by Dirofilaria repens is common in dogs and it is an emerging helminthozoonosis in Europe, Asia, Africa and also in Hungary...
  12. Genchi C, Rinaldi L, Mortarino M, Genchi M, Cringoli G. Climate and Dirofilaria infection in Europe. Vet Parasitol. 2009;163:286-92 pubmed publisher
    ..dogs across Europe, have caused an increase in the geographical range of several vector borne parasites like Dirofilaria, and in the risk of infection for animals and humans...
  13. Tzanetou K, Gasteratos S, Pantazopoulou A, Gogou C, Konidaris D, Fragia K. Subcutaneous dirofilariasis caused by Dirofilaria repens in Greece: a case report. J Cutan Pathol. 2009;36:892-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Dirofilaria repens (formerly Dirofilaria conjunctiva) is a natural parasite of the subcutaneous tissues of dogs, cats and wild carnivores in Europe, Africa and Asia. Microfilariae are transmitted to humans by various species of mosquito...
  14. Miterpákovzá M, Hurníková Z, Antolová D, Dubinsky P. Climate changes implicated for Dirofilaria dissemination in Slovakia. Wiad Parazytol. 2009;55:429-31 pubmed
    Dirofilariosis is a parasitic disease caused by helminths of the genus Dirofilaria. Climatic changes are considered to be main risk factors for dirofilariosis spreading...
  15. Abdel Rahman S, Mahmoud A, Galal L, Gustinelli A, Pampiglione S. Three new cases of human infection with Dirofilaria repens, one pulmonary and two subcutaneous, in the Egyptian governorate of Assiut. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2008;102:499-507 pubmed publisher
    Human dirofilariasis caused by Dirofilaria repens is a parasitic infection, currently considered to be an emerging zoonosis, that has been observed in many areas of the Old World. Dogs are the main 'reservoir' host. In humans, D...
  16. Manescu R, Barascu D, Mocanu C, Pîrvănescu H, Mîndriă I, Balasoiu M, et al. [Subconjunctival nodule with Dirofilaria repens]. Chirurgia (Bucur). 2009;104:95-7 pubmed
    b>Dirofilaria repens infection, a zoonotic illness, is rarely seen in humans; it is more frequently met over the endemic areas of the Southern Europe and Sri Lanka...
  17. Brattig N, Racz P, Hoerauf A, Büttner D. Strong expression of TGF-beta in human host tissues around subcutaneous Dirofilaria repens. Parasitol Res. 2011;108:1347-54 pubmed publisher
    b>Dirofilaria repens and other Dirofilaria species are widely distributed parasitic nematodes of carnivores, which occasionally are transmitted to men, causing subcutaneous nodules...
  18. Duscher G, Feiler A, Wille Piazzai W, Bakonyi T, Leschnik M, Miterpakova M, et al. [Detection of Dirofilaria in Austrian dogs]. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2009;122:199-203 pubmed
    A recent increase in the occurrence of Dirofilaria repens and Dirofilaria immitis has been reported from the eastern neighbouring countries of Austria (Slovakia, Hungary)...
  19. Genchi C, Mortarino M, Rinaldi L, Cringoli G, Traldi G, Genchi M. Changing climate and changing vector-borne disease distribution: the example of Dirofilaria in Europe. Vet Parasitol. 2011;176:295-9 pubmed publisher
    ..with an increase in the movement of dogs across Europe, have caused an increase in the geographical range of Dirofilaria infections...
  20. Montoya J, Morales M, Juste M, Banares A, Simon F, Genchi C. Seroprevalence of canine heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis) on Tenerife Island: an epidemiological update. Parasitol Res. 2006;100:103-5 pubmed
    Blood samples from 823 dogs were tested for circulating Dirofilaria immitis antigen during a 1-year period (May 2002 to May 2003) on Tenerife Island, Canary Islands, Spain. Seroprevalence of heartworm infection was 21%...
  21. Saberi A, Maraghi S, Emad Mostowfi N, Radmanesh M. Dirofilaria repens: a dog parasite presenting as a paranasal subcutaneous nodule. Int J Dermatol. 2006;45:477-8 pubmed
  22. Traversa D, Aste G, Milillo P, Capelli G, Pampurini F, Tunesi C, et al. Autochthonous foci of canine and feline infections by Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens in central Italy. Vet Parasitol. 2010;169:128-32 pubmed publisher
    This survey was conducted to investigate the presence of Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens in native dogs and cats living in an area of Italy where animal and human dirofilarioses have been sporadically reported in the past few ..
  23. Raniel Y, Machamudov Z, Garzozi H. Subconjunctival infection with Dirofilaria repens. Isr Med Assoc J. 2006;8:139 pubmed
  24. Casiraghi M, Bazzocchi C, Mortarino M, Ottina E, Genchi C. A simple molecular method for discriminating common filarial nematodes of dogs (Canis familiaris). Vet Parasitol. 2006;141:368-72 pubmed
    ..and highly specific molecular methods that identify the three most common filarial nematodes of European dogs: Dirofilaria immitis, D. repens and Acanthocheilonema (syn...
  25. Ruiz Moreno J, Bornay Llinares F, Prieto Maza G, Medrano M, Simon F, Eberhard M. Subconjunctival infection with Dirofilaria repens: serological confirmation of cure following surgery. Arch Ophthalmol. 1998;116:1370-2 pubmed
    Cases of zoonotic dirofilariasis infection, caused by Dirofilaria repens, occur widely throughout European, African, Middle Eastern, and Asian countries...
  26. Bandi C, McCall J, Genchi C, Corona S, Venco L, Sacchi L. Effects of tetracycline on the filarial worms Brugia pahangi and Dirofilaria immitis and their bacterial endosymbionts Wolbachia. Int J Parasitol. 1999;29:357-64 pubmed
    ..pahangi and Dirofilaria immitis...
  27. Fioretti D, Diaferia M, Grelloni V, Maresca C. Canine filariosis in Umbria: an update of the occurrence one year after the first observation of autochthonous foci. Parassitologia. 2003;45:79-83 pubmed
    ..on prevalence and risk factors was conducted 12 months later to better understand the actual entity of the Dirofilaria problem in Umbria region...
  28. Pampiglione S, Fioravanti M, Piccolotti D, Pizzicannella G, Reale D. Human dirofilariasis in Italy: a new case in the spermatic cord. Parassitologia. 2002;44:93-6 pubmed
    A new case of human dirofilariasis associated with Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens (Nematoda, Filarioidea, Onchocercidae) located in the spermatic cord is reported in a 71-year-old man from the province of Campobasso (Central Italy)...
  29. Bazzocchi C, Genchi C, Paltrinieri S, Lecchi C, Mortarino M, Bandi C. Immunological role of the endosymbionts of Dirofilaria immitis: the Wolbachia surface protein activates canine neutrophils with production of IL-8. Vet Parasitol. 2003;117:73-83 pubmed
    Filarial nematodes, including Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens, harbour intracellular bacteria belonging to the genus Wolbachia...
  30. Anyanwu I, Agbede R, Ajanusi O, Umoh J, Ibrahim N. The incrimination of Aedes (stegomyia) aegypti as the vector of Dirofilaria repens in Nigeria. Vet Parasitol. 2000;92:319-27 pubmed
    ..They were each fed directly on a local dog naturally infected with Dirofilaria repens to evaluate their refractoriness/susceptibility to dirofilarial infection...
  31. Pampiglione S, Rivasi F. Human dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens: an update of world literature from 1995 to 2000. Parassitologia. 2000;42:231-54 pubmed
    ..the authors present an update of human cases of dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens (Nematoda, Filarioidea, Onchocercidae) reported in the world literature...
  32. Tilakaratne W, Pitakotuwage T. Intra-oral Dirofilaria repens infection: report of seven cases. J Oral Pathol Med. 2003;32:502-5 pubmed
    Cutaneous dirofilariasis usually affects animals such as cats and dogs which are known to be the natural host of Dirofilaria. Dirofilariasis displays a worldwide distribution...
  33. Baneth G, Volansky Z, Anug Y, Favia G, Bain O, Goldstein R, et al. Dirofilaria repens infection in a dog: diagnosis and treatment with melarsomine and doramectin. Vet Parasitol. 2002;105:173-8 pubmed
    Therapy of canine dirofilariois due to Dirofilaria repens is indicated for dogs suffering from clinical signs of this disease, such as dermal swelling, sub-cutaneous nodules and pruritus...
  34. Dzamić A, Colović I, Arsić Arsenijević V, Stepanovic S, Boricic I, Dzamic Z, et al. Human Dirofilaria repens infection in Serbia. J Helminthol. 2009;83:129-37 pubmed publisher
    Human infection by Dirofilaria repens in Serbia has been increasing steadily. The first case was reported in 1971, presented in the form of a single subcutaneous nodule on the back of a young boy...
  35. Peribanez M, Lucientes J, Arce S, Morales M, Castillo J, Gracia M. Histochemical differentiation of Dirofilaria immitis, Dirofilaria repens and Acanthocheilonema dracunculoides microfilariae by staining with a commercial kit, Leucognost-SP. Vet Parasitol. 2001;102:173-5 pubmed
    The diagnosis of canine heartworm infection is based upon the presence of circulating Dirofilaria immitis microfilariae or on techniques for the detection of serum antibodies or antigens. In the first of these, discrimination between D...
  36. Tarello W. Dermatitis associated with Dirofilaria repens microfilariae in a dog in Dubai. Vet Rec. 2002;151:738-9 pubmed
  37. Logar J, Novsak V, Rakovec S, Stanisa O. Subcutaneous infection caused by Dirofilaria repens imported to Slovenia. J Infect. 2001;42:72-4 pubmed
    ..on the basis of its anatomical and histological characteristics, as a nongravid adult female of the species Dirofilaria repens. The patient had probably been infected on the Canary Islands, Spain, 7 months previously...
  38. Rivasi F, Boldorini R, Criante P, Leutner M, Pampiglione S. Detection of Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens DNA by polymerase chain reaction in embedded paraffin tissues from two human pulmonary locations. APMIS. 2006;114:567-74 pubmed
    ..of a roundish subpleural infarct with a central thrombotic artery containing sections of an immature nematode: Dirofilaria repens was diagnosed histologically in one case, the necrotic condition of the worm allowing only genus ..
  39. Li Z, Yu L. Morphological studies on the larval stages of three species of Setaria and Dirofilaria repens. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1990;21:95-102 pubmed
    ..The anal ratios of all the above 3 species are below 3. Morphology of larval stages of Dirofilaria repens was also primarily described in China...
  40. Traversa D, Aste G, Di Cesare A, Paoletti B, Di Tommaso M, Di Giulio E, et al. Efficacy of a single administration of a spot-on solution containing imidacloprid 10%/moxidectin 2.5% in eliminating Dirofilaria repens microfilariae in naturally infected dogs. Vet Parasitol. 2011;179:107-12 pubmed publisher
    In the past decade reports of canine subcutaneous dirofilariosis, caused by the mosquito-transmitted nematode Dirofilaria repens, increased in number in several countries in Europe, along with a rise of human cases...
  41. Poppert S, Hodapp M, Krueger A, Hegasy G, Niesen W, Kern W, et al. Dirofilaria repens infection and concomitant meningoencephalitis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1844-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Dirofilaria repens, a filarial nematode of dogs and other carnivores, can accidentally infect humans. Clinical symptoms are usually restricted to a subcutaneous nodule containing a single infertile parasite. Here, we report a case of D...
  42. Simon L, Afonin A, López Díez L, González Miguel J, Morchon R, Carretón E, et al. Geo-environmental model for the prediction of potential transmission risk of Dirofilaria in an area with dry climate and extensive irrigated crops. The case of Spain. Vet Parasitol. 2014;200:257-64 pubmed publisher
    Zoonotic filarioses caused by Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens are transmitted by culicid mosquitoes. Therefore Dirofilaria transmission depends on climatic factors like temperature and humidity...
  43. Dang T, Nguyen T, Do T, Uga S, Morishima Y, Sugiyama H, et al. A human case of subcutaneous dirofilariasis caused by Dirofilaria repens in Vietnam: histologic and molecular confirmation. Parasitol Res. 2010;107:1003-7 pubmed publisher
    Human dirofilariasis caused by infection with Dirofilaria worms has been frequently reported...
  44. Bazzocchi C, Jamnongluk W, O Neill S, Anderson T, Genchi C, Bandi C. wsp gene sequences from the Wolbachia of filarial nematodes. Curr Microbiol. 2000;41:96-100 pubmed
    ..Complete gene sequences were obtained from the endosymbionts of two different species, Dirofilaria immitis and Brugia malayi...
  45. Cancrini G, Romi R, Gabrielli S, Toma L, Di Paolo M, Scaramozzino P. First finding of Dirofilaria repens in a natural population of Aedes albopictus. Med Vet Entomol. 2003;17:448-51 pubmed
    ..Also Italy has foci of canine filariasis caused by Dirofilaria (Spirurida: Onchocercidae), due to subcutaneous D. repens Railliet & Henry as well as the dog heartworm D...
  46. Tarello W. Retrospective study on the presence and pathogenicity of Dirofilaria repens in 5 dogs and 1 cat from Aosta Vally. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd. 2003;145:465-9 pubmed
    Aosta Valley is the only region of Italy free of reported human cases of dirofilariosis due to Dirofilaria repens. Nonetheless, the retrospective analysis of five locally acquired D...
  47. Mannino G, Contestabile M, Medori E, Mannino C, Maurizi Enrici M, Marangi M, et al. Dirofilaria repens in the eyelid: case report of subcutaneous manifestation. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2009;19:475-7 pubmed
    ..The authors report a case of eyelid subcutaneous filariasis...
  48. Medlock J, Barrass I, Kerrod E, Taylor M, Leach S. Analysis of climatic predictions for extrinsic incubation of Dirofilaria in the United kingdom. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2007;7:4-14 pubmed
    ..numbers of infected dogs, susceptible mosquitoes, and a suitable climate to permit extrinsic incubation of Dirofilaria in the mosquito intermediate host...
  49. Cancrini G, Scaramozzino P, Gabrielli S, Di Paolo M, Toma L, Romi R. Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens implicated as natural vectors of Dirofilaria repens in central Italy. J Med Entomol. 2007;44:1064-6 pubmed
    To identify the natural vectors of Dirofilaria repens Railliet et Henry, entomological samplings were carried out in four sites within the Lazio region, foci of canine subcutaneous dirofilariasis...
  50. Genchi M, Pengo G, Genchi C. Efficacy of moxidectin microsphere sustained release formulation for the prevention of subcutaneous filarial (Dirofilaria repens) infection in dogs. Vet Parasitol. 2010;170:167-9 pubmed publisher
    ..sustained release (SR) injectable formulation (Guardian SR Iniettabile, Fort Dodge) for the prevention of Dirofilaria repens infection in experimentally infected dogs...
  51. Fok E, Jacsó O, Szebeni Z, Gyorffy A, Sükösd L, Lukacs Z, et al. Elimination of Dirofilaria (syn. Nochtiella) repens microfilariae in dogs with monthly treatments of moxidectin 2.5%/imidacloprid 10% (Advocate, Bayer) spot-on. Parasitol Res. 2010;106:1141-9 pubmed publisher
    Elimination of microfilaria in dogs infected with zoonotic Dirofilaria repens would be desirable to reduce further spread...
  52. Tarello W. Autochthonous Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens infection in dogs in Kuwait. Zoonoses Public Health. 2008;55:328-30 pubmed publisher
    Human dirofilariasis caused by Dirofilaria repens is a rare but increasingly reported zoonosis in the Middle East. However, eligible animal reservoirs seldom have been investigated in the area until now. Seven (1...
  53. Simon F, Morchon R, González Miguel J, Marcos Atxutegi C, Siles Lucas M. What is new about animal and human dirofilariosis?. Trends Parasitol. 2009;25:404-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens, the causal agents of cardiopulmonary and subcutaneous dirofilariosis, respectively, affect canine, feline and human populations with an increasing incidence in temperate and tropical areas of the world...
  54. Tarello W. Dermatitis associated with Dirofilaria repens microfilariae in three dogs in Saudi Arabia. J Small Anim Pract. 2003;44:132-4 pubmed
    The presence of microfilariae of the zoonotic nematode Dirofilaria repens is reported in three dogs from Saudi Arabia, manifesting as pruritic dermatitis with signs including erythema, alopecia, papules, crusting and hyperkeratosis...
  55. Pantchev N, Norden N, Lorentzen L, Rossi M, Rossi U, Brand B, et al. Current surveys on the prevalence and distribution of Dirofilaria spp. in dogs in Germany. Parasitol Res. 2009;105 Suppl 1:S63-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Case reports on presumably autochthonous occurrence of Dirofilaria spp...
  56. Korten S, Büttner D, Schmetz C, Hoerauf A, Mand S, Brattig N. The nematode parasite Onchocerca volvulus generates the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Parasitol Res. 2009;105:731-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Onchocerca ochengi, Onchocerca armillata, Onchocerca fasciata, Onchocerca flexuosa, Wuchereria bancrofti, Dirofilaria sp., B. malayi, and infective larvae of W. bancrofti reacted with the antibody...
  57. Chopra R, Panhotra B, Al Marzooq Y, Al Mulhim A. Subcutaneous dirofilariasis caused by Dirofilaria repens. Saudi Med J. 2004;25:1694-6 pubmed
    Human dirofilariasis caused by Dirofilaria repens D. repens is a common zoonosis in the Mediterranean countries and parts of South Asia. During the last decade, it has been reported from countries previously considered non-endemic...
  58. Mazurkevich A, Vasylyk N, Avramenko T, Velichko S, Tarello W, Varodi E. Adult Dirofilaria repens nematodes in a cat from Kiev, Ukraine. Vet Rec. 2004;155:638-9 pubmed
  59. Sabu L, Devada K, Subramanian H. Dirofilariosis in dogs and humans in Kerala. Indian J Med Res. 2005;121:691-3 pubmed
    ..Parasitology, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Mannuthy from 2002 to 2004 were identified as Dirofilaria repens based on morphology...
  60. Otranto D, Diniz D, Dantas Torres F, Casiraghi M, de Almeida I, de Almeida L, et al. Human intraocular filariasis caused by Dirofilaria sp. nematode, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:863-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The nematode was morphologically and phylogenetically related to Dirofilaria immitis but distinct from reference sequences, including those of D. immitis infesting dogs in the same area...
  61. Scaramozzino P, Gabrielli S, Di Paolo M, Sala M, Scholl F, Cancrini G. Dog filariosis in the Lazio region (Central Italy): first report on the presence of Dirofilaria repens. BMC Infect Dis. 2005;5:75 pubmed
    ..Epidemiological investigations were carried out in the Lazio Region to assess the status of canine filariosis and to evaluate the actual risk for veterinary and medical public health...
  62. Grandi G, Morchon R, Kramer L, Kartashev V, Simon F. Wolbachia in Dirofilaria repens, an agent causing human subcutaneous dirofilariasis. J Parasitol. 2008;94:1421-3 pubmed publisher
    ..dirofilariasis is an increasingly reported zoonosis caused by several filarial species, in particular by Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens. Like many filarial worms, D...
  63. Zahler M, Glaser B, Gothe R. [Imported parasites in dogs: Dirofilaria repens and Dipetalonema reconditum]. Tierarztl Prax. 1997;25:388-92 pubmed
    ..Five animals were infected with Dirofilaria repens and three other dogs with Dipetalonema reconditum. One of the D...
  64. Hellmann K, Heine J, Braun G, Paran Dobesova R, Svobodová V. Evaluation of the therapeutic and preventive efficacy of 2.5 % moxidectin / 10 % imidacloprid (Advocate(®), Bayer animal health) in dogs naturally infected or at risk of natural infection by Dirofilaria repens. Parasitol Res. 2011;109 Suppl 1:S77-86 pubmed publisher
    ..0 mg/kg body weight) spot-on (Advocate(®)) as a preventive and therapeutic treatment of natural infection by Dirofilaria repens in dogs in the Czech Republic.There were two arms of the study, both negatively controlled...