brugia

Summary

Summary: A filarial worm of Southeast Asia, producing filariasis and elephantiasis in various mammals including man. It was formerly included in the genus WUCHERERIA.

Top Publications

  1. Melrose W, Rahmah N. Use of Brugia Rapid dipstick and ICT test to map distribution of lymphatic filariasis in the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2006;37:22-5 pubmed
    The newly-introduced Brugia Rapid dipstick for filarial antibodies and ICT filarial antigen card test were used to confirm historical data on the distribution of lymphatic filariasis in the Republic of Timor-Leste...
  2. Hamann K, Gleich G, Checkel J, Loegering D, McCall J, Barker R. In vitro killing of microfilariae of Brugia pahangi and Brugia malayi by eosinophil granule proteins. J Immunol. 1990;144:3166-73 pubmed
    ..namely, MBP, EPO, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN), for the mf of Brugia pahangi and Brugia malayi...
  3. Li B, Chandrashekar R, Alvarez R, Liftis F, Weil G. Identification of paramyosin as a potential protective antigen against Brugia malayi infection in jirds. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1991;49:315-23 pubmed
    Vaccination of jirds with irradiated infective larvae of Brugia malayi has been reported to provide partial immunity to larval challenge...
  4. Klei T, McVay C, Dennis V, Coleman S, Enright F, Casey H. Brugia pahangi: effects of duration of infection and parasite burden on lymphatic lesion severity, granulomatous hypersensitivity, and immune responses in jirds (Meriones unguiculatus). Exp Parasitol. 1990;71:393-405 pubmed
    The effects of Brugia pahangi infection duration and parasite burden on parasite-associated inflammatory and immune responses were determined over a 181-day period in jirds receiving from one to eight inoculations of infective larvae...
  5. Selkirk M, Gregory W, Yazdanbakhsh M, Jenkins R, Maizels R. Cuticular localisation and turnover of the major surface glycoprotein (gp29) of adult Brugia malayi. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1990;42:31-43 pubmed
    ..antiserum was raised to a gel purified preparation of the major water-soluble surface glycoprotein (gp29) of adult Brugia malayi, and used to define the stage specificity of expression, localisation (by immunoelectron microscopy) and ..
  6. Rathaur S, Robertson B, Selkirk M, Maizels R. Secretory acetylcholinesterases from Brugia malayi adult and microfilarial parasites. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1987;26:257-65 pubmed
    b>Brugia malayi, a lymphatic filarial parasite, secretes acetylcholinesterase during in vitro cultivation...
  7. Chandrashekar R, Rao U, Subrahmanyam D. Antibody-mediated cytotoxic effects in vitro and in vivo of rat cells on infective larvae of Brugia malayi. Int J Parasitol. 1990;20:725-30 pubmed
    Albino rat macrophages and neutrophils in the presence of immune serum adhered to and promoted killing of Brugia malayi infective larvae in vitro...
  8. Rao U, Vickery A, Kwa B, Nayar J. Brugia malayi: ivermectin inhibits the exsheathment of microfilariae. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1992;46:183-8 pubmed
    b>Brugia malayi-infected microfilaremic jirds (Meriones unguiculatus) were treated with ivermectin at a single dose of 200 micrograms/kg of body weight injected subcutaneously...
  9. Fischer P, Supali T, Maizels R. Lymphatic filariasis and Brugia timori: prospects for elimination. Trends Parasitol. 2004;20:351-5 pubmed
    b>Brugia timori is a pathogenic filarial nematode of humans, replacing the closely related species Brugia malayi on some islands in eastern Indonesia. Recent studies on Alor island show that, locally, B...

More Information

Publications75

  1. Zaridah M, Idid S, Omar A, Khozirah S. In vitro antifilarial effects of three plant species against adult worms of subperiodic Brugia malayi. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001;78:79-84 pubmed
    ..dried leaves (LA) of Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae) were tested in vitro against adult worms of subperiodic Brugia malayi...
  2. Dissanaike A, Bandara C, Padmini H, Ihalamulla R, Naotunne T. Recovery of a species of Brugia, probably B. ceylonensis, from the conjunctiva of a patient in Sri Lanka. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2000;94:83-6 pubmed
    A species of Brugia, probably B. ceylonensis, was recovered from the conjunctiva of a patient in Sri Lanka for the first time...
  3. Cross J, Hsu M. Development of Brugia malayi in Mongolian gerbils previously exposed to Wuchereria bancrofti. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1987;18:183-5 pubmed
    ..One month later these animals, along with 4 control animals, were given 100 third-stage larvae of Brugia malayi...
  4. Bockarie M, Pedersen E, White G, Michael E. Role of vector control in the global program to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. Annu Rev Entomol. 2009;54:469-87 pubmed publisher
    ..launched in 2000 with the principal objective of breaking the cycles of transmission of Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia spp. through the application of annual mass drug administrations (MDAs) to entire at-risk populations...
  5. Gounni A, Spanel Borowski K, Palacios M, Heusser C, Moncada S, Lobos E. Pulmonary inflammation induced by a recombinant Brugia malayi gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase homolog: involvement of humoral autoimmune responses. Mol Med. 2001;7:344-54 pubmed
    A major allergen from the lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi implicated in the pathogenesis of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (TPE) has recently been cloned and identified as the homolog of the membrane-bound mammalian enzyme ..
  6. Lal R, Kumaraswami V, Steel C, Nutman T. Phosphocholine-containing antigens of Brugia malayi nonspecifically suppress lymphocyte function. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1990;42:56-64 pubmed
    The immunosuppressive effect of Brugia malayi antigen (BmA) on phytohemagglutinin (PHA) driven T cell proliferation was evaluated in patients with filariasis (n = 14) and compared to control individuals (n = 12)...
  7. Fischer P, Bonow I, Supali T, Ruckert P, Rahmah N. Detection of filaria-specific IgG4 antibodies and filarial DNA, for the screening of blood spots for Brugia timori. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2005;99:53-60 pubmed
    ..In the simple and rapid Brugia Rapid (BR) test, an immunochromatographic dipstick is used to detect IgG(4) antibodies that are reactive with a ..
  8. Poole C, Williams S. A rapid DNA assay for the species-specific detection and quantification of Brugia in blood samples. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1990;40:129-36 pubmed
    This report describes a new assay for detecting filarial parasites of the genus Brugia in blood samples using labeled DNA probes. The sequences of these DNA probes are based on the HhaI repeat DNA family found in the genus Brugia...
  9. Weil G, Li B, Liftis F, Chandrashekar R. Brugia malayi: antibody responses to larval antigens in infected and immunized jirds. Exp Parasitol. 1992;74:315-23 pubmed
    Vaccination with irradiated third stage Brugia malayi larvae (L3) has been reported to induce partial protective immunity to L3 challenge in jirds...
  10. Chandrashekar R, Yates J, Weil G. Use of parasite antigen detection to monitor macrofilaricidal therapy in Brugia malayi-infected jirds. J Parasitol. 1990;76:122-4 pubmed
    ..developed a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme immunoassay to detect circulating parasite antigen in sera from Brugia malayi-infected jirds...
  11. Carlow C, Franke E, Lowrie R, Partono F, Philipp M. Monoclonal antibody to a unique surface epitope of the human filaria Brugia malayi identifies infective larvae in mosquito vectors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:6914-8 pubmed
    We describe properties of an IgM monoclonal antibody (NEB-D1E5) raised against the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi...
  12. Delves C, Rees H, Howells R. Egg production in Brugia pahangi (Nematoda: Filarioidea). Parasitology. 1989;98 ( Pt 1):105-13 pubmed
    Oogenesis in Brugia pahangi has been studied by means of the aceto-orcein chromosomal squash technique and light-microscope autoradiography...
  13. Nakanishi H, Horii Y, Terashima K, Fujita K. Effect of macrophage blockade on the resistance to a primary Brugia pahangi infection of female BALB/c mice. Trop Med Parasitol. 1989;40:75-6 pubmed
    Role of macrophages in the higher resistance of female BALB/c mice than males to a primary Brugia pahangi infection was investigated...
  14. Ibrahim M, Trpis M. The effect of Brugia pahangi infection on survival of susceptible and refractory species of the Aedes scutellaris complex. Med Vet Entomol. 1987;1:329-37 pubmed
    ..species of the Aedes scutellaris (Walker) group of mosquitoes, following infection with high and moderate doses of Brugia pahangi (Buckley & Edeson)...
  15. Osborne J, Devaney E. The L3 of Brugia induces a Th2-polarized response following activation of an IL-4-producing CD4-CD8- alphabeta T cell population. Int Immunol. 1998;10:1583-90 pubmed
    ..We have used the infective larval stage of the nematode parasite Brugia pahangi, a potent Th2 inducer in naive mice, to examine cytokine production during the initiation phase of the ..
  16. Bandi C, McCall J, Genchi C, Corona S, Venco L, Sacchi L. Effects of tetracycline on the filarial worms Brugia pahangi and Dirofilaria immitis and their bacterial endosymbionts Wolbachia. Int J Parasitol. 1999;29:357-64 pubmed
    ..of adult worms from third-stage larvae and the development of the microfilaraemia in jirds infected with Brugia pahangi...
  17. Supali T, Rahmah N, Djuardi Y, Sartono E, Ruckert P, Fischer P. Detection of filaria-specific IgG4 antibodies using Brugia Rapid test in individuals from an area highly endemic for Brugia timori. Acta Trop. 2004;90:255-61 pubmed
    The filarial parasite Brugia timori is of great public health importance in some islands of Eastern Indonesia. To establish a simple serological test for the identification and post-treatment monitoring of areas endemic for B...
  18. Barker G, Mercer J, Rees H, Howells R. The effect of ecdysteroids on the microfilarial production of Brugia pahangi and the control of meiotic reinitiation in the oocytes of Dirofilaria immitis. Parasitol Res. 1991;77:65-71 pubmed
    The effects of the ecdysteroids ecdysone and 20-hydroxyecdysone on microfilarial release in Brugia pahangi and on meiotic reinitiation in the oocytes of Dirofilaria immitis were studied...
  19. Kwan Lim G, Gregory W, Selkirk M, Partono F, Maizels R. Secreted antigens of filarial nematodes: a survey and characterization of in vitro excreted/secreted products of adult Brugia malayi. Parasite Immunol. 1989;11:629-54 pubmed
    We report here a broad analysis of the excretory/secretory (E/S) products of adult Brugia malayi, collected by in-vitro cultivation of the parasite...
  20. Wadee A, Vickery A, Piessens W. Characterization of immunosuppressive proteins of Brugia malayi microfilariae. Acta Trop. 1987;44:343-52 pubmed
    ..was used to monitor the partial purification and characterization of suppressor molecules from microfilariae of Brugia malayi...
  21. Van Kerckhoven I, Kumar V. Macrofilaricidal activity of oral flubendazole on Brugia pahangi. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1988;82:890-1 pubmed
    The macrofilaricidal effect of orally administered flubendazole on Brugia pahangi was studied in the multimammate rat, Mastomys natalensis...
  22. Schraermeyer U, Peters W, Zahner H. Lectin binding studies on adult filariae, intrauterine developing stages and microfilariae of Brugia malayi and Litomosoides carinii. Parasitol Res. 1987;73:550-6 pubmed
    Sections of macrofilariae of Brugia malayi and Litomosoides carinii revealed binding of the gold-labelled lectins WGA, DBA and PNA. Specificity of binding was controlled by competitive inhibition with the respective sugars...
  23. Snowden K, Hammerberg B. The lymphatic pathology of chronic Brugia pahangi infection in the dog. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1989;83:670-8 pubmed
    The dog infected with Brugia pahangi is an excellent model for studying the clinical and immunological pathogenesis of lymphatic filarial infection and disease...
  24. Joshi A, Saxena J, Murthy P, Sen A, Ghatak S. Brugia malayi: status of host during different stages of infection. Folia Parasitol (Praha). 1989;36:169-75 pubmed
    ..and a few enzymes of energy metabolism was studied in liver of Mastomys natalensis during the development of Brugia malayi infection...
  25. Hammerberg B, Nogami S, Nakagaki K, Hayashi Y, Tanaka H. Protective immunity against Brugia malayi infective larvae in mice. II. Induction by a T cell-dependent antigen isolated by monoclonal antibody affinity chromatography and SDS-PAGE. J Immunol. 1989;143:4201-7 pubmed
    A mAb directed against filarial worm secretory/excretory product and reactive with Brugia malayi larval worm surface was used in conjunction with preparative SDS-PAGE to isolate protective Ag from extracts of adult B. malayi...
  26. Nayar J, Knight J. Nutritional factors and antimicrobials on development of infective larvae of subperiodic Brugia malayi (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in Anopheles quadrimaculatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol. 1991;28:275-9 pubmed
    The effects of nutritional factors and antimicrobials on the development of infective larvae of subperiodic Brugia malayi in susceptible Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say and Aedes aegypti (L.) were investigated...
  27. Miller S, Schreuer D, Hammerberg B. Inhibition of antigen-driven proliferative responses and enhancement of antibody production during infection with Brugia pahangi. J Immunol. 1991;147:1007-13 pubmed
    Long standing Brugia pahangi infections in seven dogs, restricted to one rear limb popliteal lymph node and its afferent ducts, were monitored with regard to proliferative responses and antibody production specific for a PBS extract of B...
  28. Sakamoto M, Shimada M, Fujimaki Y, Ewert A. Degenerative changes in lymphatic endothelium of jirds infected with Brugia pahangi. J Parasitol. 1988;74:731-4 pubmed
    ..changes of cytoplasmic vesicles and vacuoles in lymphatic endothelial cells of the mongolian jirds associated with Brugia pahangi infections were observed by transmission electron microscopy...
  29. Xie H, Bain O, Williams S. Molecular phylogenetic studies on Brugia filariae using Hha I repeat sequences. Parasite. 1994;1:255-60 pubmed
    This paper is the first molecular phylogenetic study on Brugia parasites (family Onchocercidae) which includes 6 of the 10 species of this genus: B. beaveri Ash et Little, 1964; B. buckleyi Dissanaike et Paramananthan, 1961: B...
  30. Jeffers G, Klei T, Enright F, Henk W. The granulomatous inflammatory response in jirds, Meriones unguiculatus, to Brugia pahangi: an ultrastructural and histochemical comparison of the reaction in the lymphatics and peritoneal cavity. J Parasitol. 1987;73:1220-33 pubmed
    A granulomatous inflammatory response develops in jirds with lymphatic or intraperitoneal infections of Brugia pahangi...
  31. Vickery A, Albertine K, Nayar J, Kwa B. Histopathology of Brugia malayi-infected nude mice after immune-reconstitution. Acta Trop. 1991;49:45-55 pubmed
    Long term (greater than 200 day) Brugia malayi-infected nude mice with grossly dilated lymphatics were reconstituted with 10(8) primed spleen cells from heterozygous donors...
  32. Supali T, Ismid I, Ruckert P, Fischer P. Treatment of Brugia timori and Wuchereria bancrofti infections in Indonesia using DEC or a combination of DEC and albendazole: adverse reactions and short-term effects on microfilariae. Trop Med Int Health. 2002;7:894-901 pubmed
    Filariasis caused by Brugia timori and Wuchereria bancrofti is an important public health problem on Alor island, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia...
  33. Johnson P, Mackenzie C, Denham D, Suswillo R. The effect of diethylcarbamazine on the in vitro serum-mediated adherence of feline granulocytes to microfilariae of Brugia pahangi. Trop Med Parasitol. 1988;39:291-4 pubmed
    ..antifilarial drug diethylcarbamazine (DEC) on immunologically mediated destruction of the microfilariae (mf) of Brugia pahangi in vitro is addressed by studying the drug's influence on the granulocyte adherence to the surface of mf ..
  34. Rao R, Weil G, Fischer K, Supali T, Fischer P. Detection of Brugia parasite DNA in human blood by real-time PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:3887-93 pubmed
    Brugian filariasis (caused by the nematodes Brugia malayi and B. timori) is an important cause of disability in Southeast Asia...
  35. Takacs A, Denker J, Perrine K, Maroney P, Nilsen T. A 22-nucleotide spliced leader sequence in the human parasitic nematode Brugia malayi is identical to the trans-spliced leader exon in Caenorhabditis elegans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:7932-6 pubmed
    The mRNAs encoding a 63-kDa antigen in the human parasitic nematode Brugia Malayi contain a spliced leader sequence of 22 nucleotides (nt) that is identical to the trans-spliced leader found on certain actin mRNAs in the distantly related ..
  36. Nayar J, Knight J, Kaiser P, Seawright J, Narang S. Comparative susceptibility of species A, B and C of Anopheles quadrimaculatus complex to infection with subperiodic Brugia malayi and Brugia pahangi (Nematoda: Filarioidea). J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 1992;8:61-4 pubmed
    ..of sibling species A, B and C of the Anopheles quadrimaculatus complex and the colonized strain A to subperiodic Brugia malayi and Brugia pahangi were compared. All 3 sibling species showed varying degrees of susceptibility to both B...
  37. Jin L, Xu J. Quantitative studies on the development of inoculated Brugia malayi microfilariae in Anopheles sinensis and Culex quinquefasciatus. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1990;21:418-23 pubmed
    ..The results of our experiment might be useful to studies on the dynamics of filariasis transmission and the interaction between filariae and their insect hosts...
  38. Liu L, Buhlmann J, Weller P. Release of prostaglandin E2 by microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1992;46:520-3 pubmed
    ..the formation of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was examined in individual microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi...
  39. Fischer P, Djuardi Y, Ismid I, Ruckert P, Bradley M, Supali T. Long-lasting reduction of Brugia timori microfilariae following a single dose of diethylcarbamazine combined with albendazole. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2003;97:446-8 pubmed
    ..DEC) combined with 400 mg albendazole (ALB) on the microfilariae (mf) of the lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia timori was studied on Alor island, Indonesia from April 2001 to April 2002...
  40. Selkirk M, Yazdanbakhsh M, Freedman D, Blaxter M, Cookson E, Jenkins R, et al. A proline-rich structural protein of the surface sheath of larval Brugia filarial nematode parasites. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:11002-8 pubmed
    ..precursor protein of the sheath from microfilariae, the first stage larvae of the filarial nematode parasites Brugia pahangi and Brugia malayi...
  41. Horii Y, Nakanishi H, Mori A, Zaitsu M, Ueda M, Kurokawa K, et al. Eosinophil hyporesponse of jirds induced by microfilariae of Brugia pahangi. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1989;41:183-8 pubmed
    Male jirds (Meriones unguiculatus) were inoculated sc with 100 infective larvae of Brugia pahangi. After 16 weeks, the animals were reinoculated with a comparable number of organisms...
  42. Devaney E, Osborne J. The third-stage larva (L3) of Brugia: its role in immune modulation and protective immunity. Microbes Infect. 2000;2:1363-71 pubmed
    ..Studies in the mouse models of Brugia have been fundamental to our understanding of the mechanisms by which infection with L3 results in Th2 responses ..
  43. Beerntsen B, Luckhart S, Christensen B. Brugia malayi and Brugia pahangi: inherent difference in immune activation in the mosquitoes Armigeres subalbatus and Aedes aegypti. J Parasitol. 1989;75:76-81 pubmed
    The inherent ability of Brugia malayi and Brugia pahangi (Nematoda) to establish successful relationships with the mosquitoes Armigeres subalbatus and Aedes aegypti Liverpool strain was evaluated...
  44. Klonisch T, Bardehle G, Linder D, Boschek B, Schott H, Zahner H, et al. The sheaths of Brugia microfilariae: isolation and composition. Parasitol Res. 1991;77:448-51 pubmed
  45. Abraham D, Grieve R, Holy J, Christensen B. Immunity to larval Brugia malayi in BALB/c mice: protective immunity and inhibition of larval development. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1989;40:598-604 pubmed
    The objective of this study was to analyze the immune response of mice to the larval stages of Brugia malayi. Male BALB/c mice were inoculated with 3 doses of irradiated third-stage larvae (L-3) of B...
  46. Zahner H, Schares G. Experimental chemotherapy of filariasis: comparative evaluation of the efficacy of filaricidal compounds in Mastomys coucha infected with Litomosoides carinii, Acanthocheilonema viteae, Brugia malayi and B. pahangi. Acta Trop. 1993;52:221-66 pubmed
    ..were comparatively evaluated in Mastomys coucha infected with Litomosoides carinii, Acanthocheilonema viteae, Brugia malayi or B. pahangi...
  47. Supali T, Wibowo H, Ruckert P, Fischer K, Ismid I, Purnomo -, et al. High prevalence of Brugia timori infection in the highland of Alor Island, Indonesia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2002;66:560-5 pubmed
    To identify areas endemic for Brugia timori infection, a field survey was carried out in 2001 on Alor, East Nusa Tenggara Timor, Indonesia. Elephantiasis was reported on this island by villagers as a major health problem...
  48. Araujo A, Souto Padron T, De Souza W. An ultrastructural, cytochemical and freeze-fracture study of the surface structures of Brugia malayi microfilariae. Int J Parasitol. 1994;24:899-907 pubmed
    Ultrastructural analysis of the cuticle of Brugia malayi microfilariae indicated that it is composed of 2 regions: the inner one 15-20 nm thick with a homogeneous aspect and the outer one, designated as epicuticle, which is 15-20 nm thick...
  49. Rao C, Chandrasekharan A, Cherian C. Frequency and duration of acute filarial attacks in persons in Brugia malayi endemic community. Indian J Med Res. 1982;75:813-5 pubmed
  50. Petralanda I, Piessens W. Onchocerca volvulus, O. gutturosa, Brugia malayi, and Dirofilaria immitis: a comparative study of the immunochemical properties of cuticular proteins from filarial parasites. Exp Parasitol. 1991;72:164-73 pubmed
    ..gutturosa, Brugia malayi, and Dirofilaria immitis...
  51. Devaney E, Jecock R. The expression of the Mr 30,000 antigen in the third stage larvae of Brugia pahangi. Parasite Immunol. 1991;13:75-87 pubmed
    The expression of the Mr 30,000 surface antigen in the third stage larvae (L3) of Brugia pahangi has been investigated...
  52. Pax R, Williams J, Guderian R. In vitro motility of isolated adults and segments of Onchocerca volvulus, Brugia pahangi and Acanthocheilonema viteae. Trop Med Parasitol. 1988;39 Suppl 4:450-5 pubmed
    ..were made on the spontaneous motility in vitro of entire adult worms and segments of Onchocerca volvulus, Brugia pahangi and Acanthocheilonema viteae...
  53. Liu J, Liu X, Chen Z, Tu Z, Zheng G, Chen Y, et al. Filariasis and its control in Fujian, China. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1991;22:147-54 pubmed
    ..As a result malayan and bancroftian filariasis were proclaimed to have reached the criterion of basic elimination in 1985 and 1987 respectively. Surveillance was pursued thereafter and no signs of resurgence appeared...
  54. Franz M, Zahner H, Benten P. Fine-structure alterations in female Brugia malayi and Litomosoides carinii after in vivo treatment with flubendazole. Parasitol Res. 1990;76:401-5 pubmed
    Female filariae of the species Brugia malayi and Litomosoides carinii were investigated by means of electron microscopy after in vivo treatment with flubendazole...
  55. Fischer P, Wibowo H, Pischke S, Ruckert P, Liebau E, Ismid I, et al. PCR-based detection and identification of the filarial parasite Brugia timori from Alor Island, Indonesia. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2002;96:809-21 pubmed
    b>Brugia timori is widely distributed on Alor Island, Indonesia, where it causes a high degree of morbidity. The HhaI tandem repeat of B. timori was found to be identical to that of B...
  56. Weil G, Chandrashekar R, Liftis F, McVay C, Bosshardt S, Klei T. Circulating parasite antigen in Brugia pahangi-infected jirds. J Parasitol. 1990;76:78-84 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to evaluate parasite antigen detection as a means of noninvasively monitoring Brugia pahangi infection in jirds. A parasite antigen with Mr of 105-110 kDa was identified in sera from i.p.- and s.c...
  57. Rao U, Williams S, Klei T. Quantification of PCR amplification products of Brugia HhaI repeat DNA using a semiautomated Q-PCR system. Mol Cell Probes. 2002;16:13-23 pubmed
    The sensitive, rapid and species-specific diagnosis of Brugia infections in humans or animal models is important in determining the level of parasitemia and the efficacy of chemotherapy or vaccinations...
  58. Devaney E, Gillan V, Wheatley I, Jenson J, O CONNOR R, Balmer P. Interleukin-4 influences the production of microfilariae in a mouse model of Brugia infection. Parasite Immunol. 2002;24:29-37 pubmed
    Sub-cutaneous infection of interleukin (IL)-4-/- mice on the BALB/c background with third stage larva (L3) of Brugia pahangi revealed an altered cytokine profile consistent with the absence of the Th2 promoting cytokine IL-4...
  59. Sabesan S, Krishnamoorthy K, Panicker K, Vanamail P. The dynamics of microfilaraemia and its relation with development of disease in periodic Brugia malayi infection in south India. Epidemiol Infect. 1991;107:453-63 pubmed
    Rates of acquisition and loss of Brugia malayi microfilaraemia were estimated using the parasitological data of a cohort of population in Shertallai, South India...
  60. Zhang S, Zhang Q, Cheng F, Wang L, Pen G. Threshold of transmission of Brugia malayi by Anopheles sinensis. J Trop Med Hyg. 1991;94:245-50 pubmed
    In an area of central China where Brugia malayi is transmitted by Anopheles sinensis, three villages were followed for 4 years without any control measures...
  61. Nayar J, Knight J, Vickery A. Susceptibility of Anopheles quadrimaculatus (Diptera: Culicidae) to subperiodic Brugia malayi and Brugia pahangi (Nematoda: Filarioidea) adapted to nude mice and jirds. J Med Entomol. 1990;27:409-11 pubmed
    ..and nude mice (jird-jird infection, jird-mouse infection, and mouse-jird infection) infected with subperiodic Brugia malayi and B. pahangi. Microfilariae of B...
  62. Denham D, Medeiros F, Baldwin C, Kumar H, Midwinter I, Birch D, et al. Repeated infection of cats with Brugia pahangi: parasitological observations. Parasitology. 1992;104 ( Pt 3):415-20 pubmed
    Cats were repeatedly inoculated with infective larvae of Brugia pahangi. On parasitological grounds they could be divided into 5 groups...
  63. Nanduri J, Kazura J. Paramyosin-enhanced clearance of Brugia malayi microfilaremia in mice. J Immunol. 1989;143:3359-63 pubmed
    ..In the current study, antiserum to infective third-stage larvae of Brugia malayi was used to select potentially protective Ag shared by microfilariae (mf) and adult worms...
  64. Rao U, Vickery A, Kwa B, Nayar J, Subrahmanyam D. Effect of carrageenan on the resistance of congenitally athymic nude and normal BALB/c mice to infective larvae of Brugia malayi. Parasitol Res. 1992;78:235-40 pubmed
    Resistance of BALB/c mice to infective third-stage larvae (L3) of the human filarial parasite Brugia malayi is thymus-dependent, although the actual effector mechanisms that mediate larval killing are unknown...
  65. Luo H, Qu F. [Experimental infection index of Anopheles sinensis and melanization of periodic Brugia malayi larvae]. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi. 1990;8:260-3 pubmed
    ..infected with the blood meals of 9 different microfilarial densities (5-300 mf/10 microliters) of periodic Brugia malayi...
  66. Maizels R, Gregory W, Kwan Lim G, Selkirk M. Filarial surface antigens: the major 29 kilodalton glycoprotein and a novel 17-200 kilodalton complex from adult Brugia malayi parasites. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1989;32:213-27 pubmed
    Adult Brugia malayi nematode parasites possess a range of cuticular and epicuticular molecules which may be defined by various surface-labelling techniques...