filarioidea

Summary

Summary: A superfamily of nematodes of the order SPIRURIDA. Members possess a filiform body and a mouth surrounded by papillae.

Top Publications

  1. Babayan S, Read A, Lawrence R, Bain O, Allen J. Filarial parasites develop faster and reproduce earlier in response to host immune effectors that determine filarial life expectancy. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000525 pubmed publisher
    ..Enhancing protective immunity against filarial nematodes, for example through vaccination, may be less effective at reducing transmission than would be expected and may, at worst, lead to increased transmission and, hence, pathology. ..
  2. Bandi C, Anderson T, Genchi C, Blaxter M. Phylogeny of Wolbachia in filarial nematodes. Proc Biol Sci. 1998;265:2407-13 pubmed
    ..Thus, there is no evidence for recent Wolbachia transmission between arthropods and nematodes. Endosymbiont 16S ribosomal DNA sequences from a subset of filarial species support these findings. ..
  3. Alasaad S, Pascucci I, Jowers M, Soriguer R, Zhu X, Rossi L. Phylogenetic study of Setaria cervi based on mitochondrial cox1 gene sequences. Parasitol Res. 2012;110:281-5 pubmed publisher
    ..cervi, which may be useful for further molecular identification and differentiation of this filarial worm from other filarioid nematode species, especially in the earlier developmental stages of its life cycle. ..
  4. Morales Hojas R. Molecular systematics of filarial parasites, with an emphasis on groups of medical and veterinary importance, and its relevance for epidemiology. Infect Genet Evol. 2009;9:748-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, it is also intended to highlight the relevance of molecular systematic studies in the molecular epidemiology research area...
  5. Casiraghi M, Werren J, Bazzocchi C, Biserni A, Bandi C. dnaA gene sequences from Wolbachia pipientis support subdivision into supergroups and provide no evidence for recombination in the lineages infecting nematodes. Parassitologia. 2003;45:13-8 pubmed
    ..The congruence observed among the trees based on the different genes agrees with the hypothesis that recombination does not occur in nematode wolbachiae. ..
  6. Hübner M, Torrero M, Mitre E. Type 2 immune-inducing helminth vaccination maintains protective efficacy in the setting of repeated parasite exposures. Vaccine. 2010;28:1746-57 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that vaccines which induce type 2 immune responses can maintain their efficacy in the setting of repeated parasite exposures...
  7. Beaver P. Intraocular filariasis: a brief review. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1989;40:40-5 pubmed
    ..For 3 the original reports were inaccessible. Records of intraocular filariae that are not supported by morphological description are questionable...
  8. Jiménez Ruiz F, Gardner S, Cervantes F, Lorenzo C. A new species of Pelecitus (Filarioidea: Onchocercidae) from the endangered Tehuantepec jackrabbit Lepus flavigularis. J Parasitol. 2004;90:803-7 pubmed
    ..Pelecitus meridionaleporinus n. sp. occurs in the subcutaneous tissue at the base of both ears. This is the second species in Pelecitus Railliet and Henry, 1910 that occurs in New World lagomorphs, and the third found infecting mammals. ..
  9. Aliota M, Chen C, Dagoro H, Fuchs J, Christensen B. Filarial worms reduce Plasmodium infectivity in mosquitoes. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e963 pubmed publisher
    ..These results could have an impact on vector infection and transmission dynamics in areas where Anopheles transmit both parasites, i.e., the elimination of filarial worms in a co-endemic locale could enhance malaria transmission. ..

More Information

Publications75

  1. Bordenstein S, Paraskevopoulos C, Dunning Hotopp J, Sapountzis P, Lo N, Bandi C, et al. Parasitism and mutualism in Wolbachia: what the phylogenomic trees can and cannot say. Mol Biol Evol. 2009;26:231-41 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that the ancestry of mutualism and parasitism is not resolvable without more suitable outgroups or complete genome sequences from all Wolbachia supergroups. ..
  2. Casiraghi M, Anderson T, Bandi C, Bazzocchi C, Genchi C. A phylogenetic analysis of filarial nematodes: comparison with the phylogeny of Wolbachia endosymbionts. Parasitology. 2001;122 Pt 1:93-103 pubmed
    ..and Wuchereria spp.) and the sister group relationship of Dirofilaria spp. and Onchocerca spp. However, the placement of the Wolbachia-free filaria Acanthocheilonema viteae is ambiguous and dependent on the phylogenetic methods used. ..
  3. Notarnicola J, Digiani M, López P. Redescriptions of the nematodes Litomosoides patersoni (Mazza, 1928) (Onchocercidae) and Stilestrongylus stilesi Freitas, Lent, and Almeida, 1937 (Heligmonellidae) parasites of Holochilus chacarius (Rodentia, Cricetidae) from Salta, Argentina. J Parasitol. 2010;96:993-1001 pubmed publisher
    ..The present work validates and enlarges the original descriptions of both species and assigns the specimens from L. patersoni, recovered from the type locality and the type host species, as neotypes. ..
  4. Notarnicola J, Ruíz F, Gardner S. Litomosoides (Nemata: Filarioidea) of bats from Bolivia with records for three known species and the description of a new species. J Parasitol. 2010;96:775-82 pubmed publisher
    ..All 4 species of nematodes, including the new species, were found in sympatry at Chijchijpa, a locality in the Yungas of Bolivia. ..
  5. Junker K, Barbuto M, Casiraghi M, Martin C, Uni S, Boomker J, et al. Litomosa chiropterorum Ortlepp, 1932 (Nematoda: Filarioidea) from a South African miniopterid: redescription, Wolbachia screening and phylogenetic relationships with Litomosoides. Parasite. 2009;16:43-50 pubmed
    ..The absence of Wolbachia in a filarioid group considered ancient based on traditional and molecular approaches opens interesting scenarios on the evolution of the endosymbionts spread through filarial lineages...
  6. Yatawara L, Wickramasinghe S, Rajapakse R, Agatsuma T. The complete mitochondrial genome of Setaria digitata (Nematoda: Filarioidea): Mitochondrial gene content, arrangement and composition compared with other nematodes. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2010;173:32-8 pubmed publisher
    ..digitata. In conclusion, the present investigation provides new molecular data for future studies of the comparative mitochondrial genomics and systematic of parasitic nematodes of socio-economic importance...
  7. Uni S, Bain O, Suzuki K, Agatsuma T, Harada M, Motokawa M, et al. Acanthocheilonema delicata n. sp. (Nematoda: Filarioidea) from Japanese badgers (Meles anakuma): description, molecular identification, and Wolbachia screening. Parasitol Int. 2013;62:14-23 pubmed publisher
    Acanthocheilonema delicata n. sp. (Filarioidea: Onchocercidae: Onchocercinae) is described based on adult filarioids and microfilariae obtained from subcutaneous connective tissues and skin, respectively, of Japanese badgers (Meles ..
  8. Hübner M, Torrero M, McCall J, Mitre E. Litomosoides sigmodontis: a simple method to infect mice with L3 larvae obtained from the pleural space of recently infected jirds (Meriones unguiculatus). Exp Parasitol. 2009;123:95-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, this method allows for geographical separation of the facility maintaining the L. sigmodontis life cycle from the institution at which mice are infected...
  9. Taylor M, Van Der Werf N, Harris A, Graham A, Bain O, Allen J, et al. Early recruitment of natural CD4+ Foxp3+ Treg cells by infective larvae determines the outcome of filarial infection. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:192-206 pubmed publisher
    ..These CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cells are predominantly recruited from the 'natural' regulatory pool and act to inhibit protective immunity over the full course of infection...
  10. Otranto D, Brianti E, Dantas Torres F, Weigl S, Latrofa M, Gaglio G, et al. Morphological and molecular data on the dermal microfilariae of a species of Cercopithifilaria from a dog in Sicily. Vet Parasitol. 2011;182:221-9 pubmed publisher
  11. Ogbogu V, Bablis J, Ajanusi O. Prevalence of microfilariae in cattle at slaughter in Zaria, Nigeria. Vet Parasitol. 1990;36:171-5 pubmed
    ..gutturosa with a prevalence of 40% were isolated from the skin. The blood microfilariae were identified as those of Setaria labiatopapillosa...
  12. Uni S, Bain O, Takaoka H. Affinities between Cutifilaria (Nematoda: Filarioidea), parasites of deer, and Mansonella as seen in a new onchocercid, M. (C.) perforata n. sp., from Japan. Parasite. 2004;11:131-40 pubmed
    ..In addition, almost all females had cuticular pores near the vulva, on the ventral line. The prevalence of microfiloriae and adults of M. (C.) perforata in the skin of sika deer was 38% and 21%, respectively...
  13. Notarnicola J, Bain O, Navone G. Litomosoides anguyai n. sp. (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) from Oxymycterus misionalis (Rodentia: Muridae) in the rain forest of Misiones, Argentina. Syst Parasitol. 2002;52:129-35 pubmed
    ..legerae and L. oxymycteri. The new species is differentiated by the salient amphids, an asymmetrical annular thickening of the buccal capsule, by the arrangement of the head and tail papillae, and the shape and size of the microfilaria...
  14. Babayan S, Ungeheuer M, Martin C, Attout T, Belnoue E, Snounou G, et al. Resistance and susceptibility to filarial infection with Litomosoides sigmodontis are associated with early differences in parasite development and in localized immune reactions. Infect Immun. 2003;71:6820-9 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that events early in the infection determine susceptibility or resistance to subsequent microfilarial production and a parasite strategy to use specific immune responses to its own benefit...
  15. Saeftel M, Arndt M, Specht S, Volkmann L, Hoerauf A. Synergism of gamma interferon and interleukin-5 in the control of murine filariasis. Infect Immun. 2003;71:6978-85 pubmed
    ..Synergistic effects of the two cytokines may be mediated, at least in part, by neutrophils for the control of adult worms...
  16. Specht S, Saeftel M, Arndt M, Endl E, Dubben B, Lee N, et al. Lack of eosinophil peroxidase or major basic protein impairs defense against murine filarial infection. Infect Immun. 2006;74:5236-43 pubmed
    ..These data suggest a hitherto unknown interaction between eosinophil granule proteins, defense against filarial nematodes, and cytokine responses of macrophages and CD4 T cells...
  17. Notarnicola J, Navone G. A new species of Litomosoides Chandler, 1931 (Nematoda: Filarioidea) from the long-nosed hocicudo Oxymycterus nasutus Waterhouse (Rodentia: Cricetidae) in Uruguay. Syst Parasitol. 2009;73:87-94 pubmed publisher
    ..However, a new analysis is needed to include the recently described Argentinean species for a better understanding of the diversification of this genus...
  18. Loiseau P, Gayral P, Petek F. Purification and properties of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from Molinema dessetae (Nematoda: Filarioidea). Parasitology. 1993;106 ( Pt 1):55-61 pubmed
    ..The apparent Km value of 2.38 mmol for phosphoenolpyruvate for the carboxylation reaction was higher than previously reported values. The Km value for KHCO3 was found to be 1.6 mmol. PEP-carboxylase did not catalyse the reverse reaction...
  19. Notarnicola J. Description of adult and fourth-stage larva of Litomosoides navonae n. sp. (Nematoda: Onchocercidae), a parasite of five species of sigmodontine rodents from northeastern Argentina. Syst Parasitol. 2005;62:171-83 pubmed
    ..New regions, such as southern Brazil and northern Argentina, need to be studied in order to clarify these alternatives...
  20. Hoerauf A, Nissen Pähle K, Schmetz C, Henkle Dührsen K, Blaxter M, Buttner D, et al. Tetracycline therapy targets intracellular bacteria in the filarial nematode Litomosoides sigmodontis and results in filarial infertility. J Clin Invest. 1999;103:11-8 pubmed
    ..Investigation of such a mutualism in endobacteria-containing human filariae is warranted for a potential chemotherapeutic exploitation...
  21. Hoffmann W, Pfaff A, Schulz Key H, Soboslay P, Soboslav P. Determinants for resistance and susceptibility to microfilaraemia in Litomosoides sigmodontis filariasis. Parasitology. 2001;122:641-9 pubmed
    ..sigmodontis in mice is decisively regulated by the presence of adult female L. sigmodontis which will skew and exploit immune responses to facilitate the survival and persistence of their offspring in the infected host...
  22. Laaksonen S, Solismaa M, Orro T, Kuusela J, Saari S, Kortet R, et al. Setaria tundra microfilariae in reindeer and other cervids in Finland. Parasitol Res. 2009;104:257-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Captive reindeer were smf positive over the year. The prepatent period of S. tundra was estimated to be about 4 months, and the life span at least 14 months. This parasite likely has an important impact on boreal ecosystems...
  23. Fairlie Clarke K, Lamb T, Langhorne J, Graham A, Allen J. Antibody isotype analysis of malaria-nematode co-infection: problems and solutions associated with cross-reactivity. BMC Immunol. 2010;11:6 pubmed publisher
    ..The potential for cross-reactive antibodies to influence disease outcome is also discussed...
  24. Bain O, Casiraghi M, Martin C, Uni S. The nematoda Filarioidea: critical analysis linking molecular and traditional approaches. Parasite. 2008;15:342-8 pubmed
    The molecular analysis of the Filarioidea and the endobacteria Wolbachia is no more limited to the agents of human diseases and the diversified sampling permits a synthesis with the morphological and biological results...
  25. Martin C, Gavotte L. The bacteria Wolbachia in filariae, a biological Russian dolls' system: new trends in antifilarial treatments. Parasite. 2010;17:79-89 pubmed
    ..Potential directions for future research are also discussed...
  26. Hoerauf A, Satoguina J, Saeftel M, Specht S. Immunomodulation by filarial nematodes. Parasite Immunol. 2005;27:417-29 pubmed
  27. Ziewer S, Hübner M, Dubben B, Hoffmann W, Bain O, Martin C, et al. Immunization with L. sigmodontis microfilariae reduces peripheral microfilaraemia after challenge infection by inhibition of filarial embryogenesis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1558 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, there is an urgent need for alternative treatment ways, i.e. other effective drugs or vaccines...
  28. Casiraghi M, Bain O, Guerrero R, Martin C, Pocacqua V, Gardner S, et al. Mapping the presence of Wolbachia pipientis on the phylogeny of filarial nematodes: evidence for symbiont loss during evolution. Int J Parasitol. 2004;34:191-203 pubmed
    ..The mapping of the presence/absence of W. pipientis on the trees generated indicates that these bacteria have possibly been lost during evolution along some lineages of filarial nematodes...
  29. Taylor M, LeGoff L, Harris A, Malone E, Allen J, Maizels R. Removal of regulatory T cell activity reverses hyporesponsiveness and leads to filarial parasite clearance in vivo. J Immunol. 2005;174:4924-33 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that regulatory T cells act, in an IL-10-independent manner, to suppress host immunity to filariasis...
  30. Babu S, Blauvelt C, Kumaraswami V, Nutman T. Cutting edge: diminished T cell TLR expression and function modulates the immune response in human filarial infection. J Immunol. 2006;176:3885-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, diminished expression and function of T cell TLR is a novel mechanism underlying T cell immune tolerance in lymphatic filariasis...
  31. Martin C, Bain O, Jouvenet N, Raharimanga V, Robert V, Rousset D. First report of Litomosa spp. (Nematoda: Filarioidea) from Malagasy bats; review of the genus and relationships between species. Parasite. 2006;13:3-10 pubmed
    ..have two conical points. Relationships among Litomosa species appear to be dependent upon both the chiropteran host groups and the geographical region...
  32. Graham A, Lamb T, Read A, Allen J. Malaria-filaria coinfection in mice makes malarial disease more severe unless filarial infection achieves patency. J Infect Dis. 2005;191:410-21 pubmed
    ..Thus, in Mf(-) mice, filariasis upset a delicate immunological balance in malaria infection and exacerbated malaria-induced immunopathology...
  33. Strübing U, Lucius R, Hoerauf A, Pfarr K. Mitochondrial genes for heme-dependent respiratory chain complexes are up-regulated after depletion of Wolbachia from filarial nematodes. Int J Parasitol. 2010;40:1193-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support targeting the Wolbachia heme synthesis pathway for the discovery of new anti-filarial drugs...
  34. Volkmann L, Bain O, Saeftel M, Specht S, Fischer K, Brombacher F, et al. Murine filariasis: interleukin 4 and interleukin 5 lead to containment of different worm developmental stages. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2003;192:23-31 pubmed
    ..factor of 160 in full infection). In conclusion, IL-4 and IL-5 dependent effector pathways operate against different stages of filarial worms, and IL-5 has a greater impact on parasite containment than IL-4...
  35. Martin C, Saeftel M, Vuong P, Babayan S, Fischer K, Bain O, et al. B-cell deficiency suppresses vaccine-induced protection against murine filariasis but does not increase the recovery rate for primary infection. Infect Immun. 2001;69:7067-73 pubmed
    ..This outlines B2-cell-dependent mechanisms as favorable to the late maturation of L. sigmodontis...
  36. Le Goff L, Martin C, Oswald I, Vuong P, Petit G, Ungeheuer M, et al. Parasitology and immunology of mice vaccinated with irradiated Litomosoides sigmodontis larvae. Parasitology. 2000;120 ( Pt 3):271-80 pubmed
    ..In both vaccinated challenged and challenged only groups, the in vitro splenocyte proliferative capacity was reduced in microfilaraemic mice...
  37. Taubert A, Zahner H. Cellular immune responses of filaria (Litomosoides sigmodontis) infected BALB/c mice detected on the level of cytokine transcription. Parasite Immunol. 2001;23:453-62 pubmed
  38. Erickson S, Xi Z, Mayhew G, Ramirez J, Aliota M, Christensen B, et al. Mosquito infection responses to developing filarial worms. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2009;3:e529 pubmed publisher
    ..malayi in Ae. aegypti. The possibility of LF parasites evading mosquito immune responses during successful development is discussed...
  39. Volkmann L, Saeftel M, Bain O, Fischer K, Fleischer B, Hoerauf A. Interleukin-4 is essential for the control of microfilariae in murine infection with the filaria Litomosoides sigmodontis. Infect Immun. 2001;69:2950-6 pubmed
    ..IL-4 dependent effector pathways seem to operate on adult worms rather than directly on microfilariae...
  40. Oniki Y, Kinsella J, Willis E. Pelecitus helicinus Railliet & Henry, 1910 (Filarioidea, Dirofilariinae) and other nematode parasites of Brazilian birds. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2002;97:597-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, we report the first record of Aprocta golvani Diaz-Ungria, 1963 from Brazil and Monasa nigrifrons (Bucconidae), as well as a number of other nematode records from Neotropical birds...
  41. Ferri E, Bain O, Barbuto M, Martin C, Lo N, Uni S, et al. New insights into the evolution of Wolbachia infections in filarial nematodes inferred from a large range of screened species. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20843 pubmed publisher
    ..However, most data on Wolbachia and filaria relationships derive from studies on few species of Onchocercinae and Dirofilariinae, from mammals...
  42. McNulty S, Fischer K, Mehus J, Vaughan J, Tkach V, Weil G, et al. Absence of Wolbachia endobacteria in Chandlerella quiscali, an avian filarial parasite. J Parasitol. 2012;98:382-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies of C. quiscali and other Wolbachia-free filarial species may help to clarify the reason(s) that some filarial species require Wolbachia but others do not...
  43. Buchwalder R, Schuster R. [Finding Setaria equina in horses]. Angew Parasitol. 1989;30:127-30 pubmed
    ..Based on a thorough analysis of the international literature, the paper discusses geographical distribution, morphology, cycle and diagnosis of this nematode as well as clinical symptoms mainly caused by the stages of the larvae...
  44. Bain O, Guerrero R, Rodriguez B, Babayan S, Jouvenet N. Examination of type material of two species of Litomosoides (Filarioidea: Onchocercidae), parasites from bats; taxonomic consequences. Parasite. 2003;10:211-8 pubmed
    ..h. hamletti. L. guiterasi appears to be closely related to L. chandleri Esslinger, 1973; L. chitwoodi n. sp. (= Litomosoides sp. Chitwood, 1938) seems close to these species; all three are parasites of Artibeus spp...
  45. Guerrero R, Martin C, Bain O. Litomosoides yutajensis n. sp., first record of this filarial genus in a mormoopid bat. Parasite. 2003;10:219-25 pubmed
    Twenty-five bats were trapped in Yutaje (Amazonas, Venezuela) and examined for Litomosoides (Filarioidea: Onchocercidae)...
  46. Babayan S, Attout T, Specht S, Hoerauf A, Snounou G, Renia L, et al. Increased early local immune responses and altered worm development in high-dose infections of mice susceptible to the filaria Litomosoides sigmodontis. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2005;194:151-62 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the very early events determine subsequent immune response and infection outcome rather than competitive interactions between the worms...
  47. Pfarr K, Heider U, Hoerauf A. RNAi mediated silencing of actin expression in adult Litomosoides sigmodontis is specific, persistent and results in a phenotype. Int J Parasitol. 2006;36:661-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, the use of lower dsRNA concentrations and proper controls for off-target effects make RNAi a viable method to study the function of filarial genes...
  48. Attout T, Martin C, Babayan S, Kozek W, Bazzocchi C, Oudet F, et al. Pleural cellular reaction to the filarial infection Litomosoides sigmodontis is determined by the moulting process, the worm alteration, and the host strain. Parasitol Int. 2008;57:201-11 pubmed publisher
    ..In vitro neutrophil recruitment in resistant mice was similar to that observed in susceptible mice although they expressed less cell surface CD11b...
  49. Saeftel M, Volkmann L, Korten S, Brattig N, Al Qaoud K, Fleischer B, et al. Lack of interferon-gamma confers impaired neutrophil granulocyte function and imparts prolonged survival of adult filarial worms in murine filariasis. Microbes Infect. 2001;3:203-13 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, these data are the first to define an IFN-gamma-dependent immune effector mechanism in murine filarial infection, i.e. neutrophil-mediated control of the adult worm load...
  50. Czajka C, Becker N, Poppert S, Jöst H, Schmidt Chanasit J, Kruger A. Molecular detection of Setaria tundra (Nematoda: Filarioidea) and an unidentified filarial species in mosquitoes in Germany. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:14 pubmed publisher
    ..However, anticipated changes in the course of global warming and globalization may alter their status...
  51. Harnett W, Harnett M. Lymphocyte hyporesponsiveness during filarial nematode infection. Parasite Immunol. 2008;30:447-53 pubmed publisher
    ..As this information continues to be generated, the challenge will be to use it to find a way of reversing lymphocyte hyporesponsiveness in the hope that this will lead to rejection of filarial nematodes in the parasitized human host...
  52. Le Goff L, Lamb T, Graham A, Harcus Y, Allen J. IL-4 is required to prevent filarial nematode development in resistant but not susceptible strains of mice. Int J Parasitol. 2002;32:1277-84 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that the mechanisms that determine parasite clearance in a resistant/non-permissive host are Th2 dependent but that in a susceptible/permissive host, the parasite can develop in the face of a Th2 dominated response...
  53. Attout T, Babayan S, Hoerauf A, Taylor D, Kozek W, Martin C, et al. Blood-feeding in the young adult filarial worms Litomosoides sigmodontis. Parasitology. 2005;130:421-8 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that haematophagy is an important step in the life-cycle of L. sigmodontis. This hitherto undescribed phenomenon might be characteristic of other filarial species including human parasites...
  54. Orihel T, Eberhard M. Zoonotic filariasis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1998;11:366-81 pubmed
    ..Undoubtedly, additional species of filariae will continue to be isolated from humans in the future...
  55. Hartmann W, Marsland B, Otto B, Urny J, Fleischer B, Korten S. A novel and divergent role of granzyme A and B in resistance to helminth infection. J Immunol. 2011;186:2472-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests a novel and divergent role for gzms in helminth infection, with gzmA contributing to resistance and gzmB promoting susceptibility...
  56. Agatsuma T, Iwagami M, Uni S, Takaoka H, Katsumi A, Kimura E, et al. Molecular phylogenetic relationships among seven Japanese species of Cercopithifilaria. Parasitol Int. 2005;54:195-9 pubmed
    ..bulboidea, appeared as a derived species. C. multicauda was found to be basal in the analyses. It seems therefore that C. multicauda is the most primitive out of the seven species...
  57. Casiraghi M, Bordenstein S, Baldo L, Lo N, Beninati T, Wernegreen J, et al. Phylogeny of Wolbachia pipientis based on gltA, groEL and ftsZ gene sequences: clustering of arthropod and nematode symbionts in the F supergroup, and evidence for further diversity in the Wolbachia tree. Microbiology. 2005;151:4015-22 pubmed
    ..from arthropods to nematodes (or vice versa) probably occurred more than once...
  58. Santín Durán M, Alunda J, San Miguel J, Hoberg E, de la Fuente C. Elaeophorosis in red deer from Spain. J Wildl Dis. 2000;36:779-82 pubmed
    ..No differences were present between sex or age groups. Parasites were not found in a limited sample from fallow deer (Dama dama). Blood samples were negative for the presence of microfilariae...
  59. Babu S, Bhat S, Kumar N, Anuradha R, Kumaran P, Gopi P, et al. Attenuation of toll-like receptor expression and function in latent tuberculosis by coexistent filarial infection with restoration following antifilarial chemotherapy. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2009;3:e489 pubmed publisher
  60. Babayan S, Attout T, Harris A, Taylor M, Le Goff L, Vuong P, et al. Vaccination against filarial nematodes with irradiated larvae provides long-term protection against the third larval stage but not against subsequent life cycle stages. Int J Parasitol. 2006;36:903-14 pubmed
    ..Thus, long-term vaccination protocols generated a strong memory response that led to significant but incomplete protection that was limited to the infective larval stage suggesting alternative vaccination strategies are needed...
  61. Uni S, Bain O, Agatsuma T, Katsumi A, Baba M, Yanai T, et al. New filarial nematode from Japanese serows (Naemorhedus crispus: Bovidae) close to parasites from elephants. Parasite. 2006;13:193-200 pubmed
    A new onchocercid species, Loxodontofilaria caprini n. sp. (Filarioidea: Nematoda), found in subcutaneous tissues of 37 (33%) of 112 serows (Noemorhedus crispus) examined in Japan, is described...
  62. Uni S, Suzuki Y, Katsumi A. Cercopithifilaria shohoi n. sp. (Nematoda: Filarioidea) from the relict Bovidae, Capricornis crispus, in Japan. Parasite. 1998;5:119-26 pubmed
    ..sp. resembled species such as C. faini from an African bovid and C. rugosicauda from a European deer. From its morphological characteristics, C. shohoi n. sp. seems to be one of the more primitive species in the genus Cercopithifilaria...
  63. Jenkins S, Rückerl D, Cook P, Jones L, Finkelman F, Van Rooijen N, et al. Local macrophage proliferation, rather than recruitment from the blood, is a signature of TH2 inflammation. Science. 2011;332:1284-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, expansion of innate cells necessary for pathogen control or wound repair can occur without recruitment of potentially tissue-destructive inflammatory cells...
  64. Gregory W, Maizels R. Cystatins from filarial parasites: evolution, adaptation and function in the host-parasite relationship. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2008;40:1389-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, we hypothesise that CPI-2 has evolved to block mammalian proteases (including the antigen-processing enzyme AEP) while CPI-1 and -3 function in the milieu of the mosquito vector necessary for transmission of the parasite...
  65. Uni S, Bain O, Takaoka H, Katsumi A, Fujita H, Suzuki Y. Diversification of Cercopithifilaria species (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in Japanese wild ruminants with description of two new species. Parasite. 2002;9:293-304 pubmed
    ..longa type derived from Eurasiatic ancestors, which has disappeared or, more probably, not yet been discovered...
  66. Hübner M, Stocker J, Mitre E. Inhibition of type 1 diabetes in filaria-infected non-obese diabetic mice is associated with a T helper type 2 shift and induction of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells. Immunology. 2009;127:512-22 pubmed publisher
    ..This protection is associated with a Th2 shift, as demonstrated by cytokine and antibody production, and with an increase in CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells...