dracunculus nematode

Summary

Summary: A genus of nematode parasites which inhabit the body cavity, serous membranes, and connective tissues of vertebrates. The parasitic species in humans is Dracunculus medinensis.

Top Publications

  1. Cairncross S, Muller R, Zagaria N. Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) and the eradication initiative. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2002;15:223-46 pubmed
    ..Finally, some lessons for other disease control and eradication programs are outlined...
  2. Zhu W, Baggerman G, Secor W, Casares F, Pryor S, Fricchione G, et al. Dracunculus medinensis and Schistosoma mansoni contain opiate alkaloids. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2002;96:309-16 pubmed
  3. Wendo C. Uganda leads Africa's charge against guinea worm disease. Lancet. 2003;361:1446 pubmed
  4. Cairncross S, Tayeh A, Korkor A. Why is dracunculiasis eradication taking so long?. Trends Parasitol. 2012;28:225-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The variable success of dracunculiasis eradication in different countries provides lessons for future disease eradication programmes...
  5. Eberhard M, Brandt F. The role of tadpoles and frogs as paratenic hosts in the life cycle of Dracunculus insignis (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea). J Parasitol. 1995;81:792-3 pubmed
    ..These observations confirm the concept that paratenic hosts, such as tadpoles or frogs, may be important means of transporting infective larvae of Dracunculus species up the food chain and facilitate transmission to the definitive hosts...
  6. Bimi L, Freeman A, Eberhard M, Ruiz Tiben E, Pieniazek N. Differentiating Dracunculus medinensis from D. insignis, by the sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2005;99:511-7 pubmed
    ..medinensis that will permit the DEP to determine, rapidly and accurately, whether a worm recovered from an area considered dracunculiasis-free is a specimen of D. medinensis or not...
  7. Wijová M, Moravec F, Horak A, Modry D, Lukes J. Phylogenetic position of Dracunculus medinensis and some related nematodes inferred from 18S rRNA. Parasitol Res. 2005;96:133-5 pubmed
  8. Harrat Z, Halimi R. [Imported dracunculiasis: four cases confirmed in the south of Algeria]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2009;102:119-22 pubmed
    ..The risk of emergence of a new dracunculiasis indigenous focus in the south of Algeria should be seriously considered, especially as the number of immigrants from endemic countries is increasing considerably ..
  9. Hopkins D, Ruiz Tiben E. Surveillance for dracunculiasis, 1981-1991. MMWR CDC Surveill Summ. 1992;41:1-13 pubmed

More Information

Publications74

  1. Braide E, Egbe E, Okoro J, Inyang A. Prevalence and geographical distribution of dracunculiasis (guineaworm disease) in Cross River State, Nigeria. Trop Geogr Med. 1989;41:289-93 pubmed
    ..G.A.) which had no cases of guineaworm disease prior to 1986 and 1980 respectively. Observations in this study indicate that there is a gradual spread of the disease eastwards and southwards. ..
  2. Awofeso N. Towards global Guinea worm eradication in 2015: the experience of South Sudan. Int J Infect Dis. 2013;17:e577-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The author highlights areas in which substantial improvements are required in South Sudan's Guinea worm eradication program, and suggests improvement strategies. ..
  3. Anosike J, Azoro V, Nwoke B, Keke R, Okere A, Oku E, et al. Dracunculiasis in the north eastern border of Ebonyi State, south eastern Nigeria. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2003;206:45-51 pubmed
    ..The efforts of the endemic communities, government and international organizations in guinea worm eradication in these areas are discussed. ..
  4. Brandt F, Eberhard M. Distribution, behavior, and course of patency of Dracunculus insignis in experimentally infected ferrets. J Parasitol. 1990;76:515-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, male worms have been observed to survive for up to 330 days, suggesting that male or unmated female worms may carry over from one transmission season to the next. ..
  5. Bloch P, Vennervald B, Simonsen P. Studies on immunodiagnosis of dracunculiasis. II. Search for circulating antigens. Acta Trop. 1998;70:303-15 pubmed
    ..The reasons are analysed and possible explanations presented. The study provided no evidence that D. medinensis-specific circulating antigens, detectable by relatively simple means, occur in infected individuals. ..
  6. Brieger W, Otusanya S, Adeniyi J, Tijani J, Banjoko M. Eradicating guinea worm without wells: unrealized hopes of the Water Decade. Health Policy Plan. 1997;12:354-62 pubmed
    ..There is a need for financial investment in less expensive and more appropriate hamlet-level technologies, as well as community mobilization to dig and maintain hand-dug wells. ..
  7. Okulewicz A. [Non-indigenous and non-specific parasitic nematodes--the background and the consequences]. Wiad Parazytol. 2009;55:325-8 pubmed
    ..The increasingly frequent travels to countries with different climatic conditions contribute to introduction of non-native nematodes: Dirofilaria immitis--in dogs, D. repens or Ancylostoma brasiliense--in humans. ..
  8. Fitzpatrick C, Sankara D, Agua J, Jonnalagedda L, Rumi F, Weiss A, et al. The cost-effectiveness of an eradication programme in the end game: Evidence from guinea worm disease. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005922 pubmed publisher
    ..We analyze the cost-effectiveness of the GWEP in the end game, when the number of cases is lower and the cost per case is higher than at any other time. Ours is the first economic evaluation of the GWEP since a World Bank study in 1997...
  9. Guiguemde T, Ouedraogo J, Gbary A, Steib K. [Longitudinal study of Cyclopidae, intermediary hosts of the Guinea worm in the Sudano-Sahelian area (Burkina Faso)]. Ann Parasitol Hum Comp. 1987;62:484-91 pubmed
  10. Knopp S, Amegbo I, Hamm D, Schulz Key H, Banla M, Soboslay P. Antibody and cytokine responses in Dracunculus medinensis patients at distinct states of infection. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2008;102:277-83 pubmed publisher
    ..medinensis, which extended beyond the parasite-specific immune responsiveness. The detection of D. medinensis-specific IgG(1) and IgG(4) isotypes may help to distinguish newly exposed, patent and post-patent D. medinensis infections. ..
  11. Bimi L. Potential vector species of Guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) in Northern Ghana. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2007;7:324-9 pubmed
    ..The most important implicated potential vectors of Dracunculus medinensis evaluated in the area are Mesocyclops kieferi --> M. aspericornis --> Thermocyclops incisus --> T. inopinus --> T. oblongatus...
  12. Hopkins D, Withers P. Sudan's war and eradication of dracunculiasis. Lancet. 2002;360 Suppl:s21-2 pubmed
  13. Eberhard M, Ruiz Tiben E, Wallace S. Dracunculus insignis: experimental infection in the ferret, Mustela putorius furo. J Helminthol. 1988;62:265-70 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that the ferret is an excellent laboratory animal for dracunculiasis research...
  14. Imtiaz R, Anderson J, Long E, Sullivan J, Cline B. Monofilament nylon filters for preventing dracunculiasis: Durability and copepod retention after long term field use in Pakistan. Trop Med Parasitol. 1990;41:251-3 pubmed
    ..Considering the ease of use, popularity and effective filtration of potentially infective copepods following prolonged field use, we recommend that monofilament filters be considered in any program of guinea worm elimination...
  15. Garate T, Kliks M, Cabrera Z, Parkhouse R. Specific and cross-reacting antibodies in human responses to Onchocerca volvulus and Dracunculus medinensis infections. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1990;42:140-7 pubmed
    ..medinensis and 14, 18, and 27 kDa proteins from O. volvulus. Two Onchocerca specific ELISA systems non-reactive with antibodies to D. medinensis were devised...
  16. Okoye S, Onwuliri C, Anosike J. A survey of predilection sites and degree of disability associated with guineaworm (Dracunculus medinensis). Int J Parasitol. 1995;25:1127-9 pubmed
    ..Of the 5 species of cyclopoid copepods found in their main water source, only Thermocyclops nigerianus and Mesocyclops aequatorialis harboured guineaworm larvae...
  17. Eberhard M, Rab M, Dilshad M. Red Dracunculus medinensis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1989;41:479-81 pubmed
    ..The posterior end of 1 worm was recovered and appeared to be a female Dracunculus medinensis. Histologic sections provided insufficient information to determine the cause of the red color, although we could exclude blood as the cause...
  18. Barry M. The tail end of guinea worm - global eradication without a drug or a vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:2561-4 pubmed
  19. Bloch P, Lund M, Vennervald B, Simonsen P. Human serum albumin and immunoglobulin on Dracunculus medinensis. Acta Trop. 1999;73:135-41 pubmed
    ..A possible interference of these compounds should be considered in attempts to develop methods for immunological diagnosis of D. medinensis infections...
  20. Voelker R. Persistence pays off in Guinea worm fight. JAMA. 2007;298:1856-7 pubmed
  21. Bloch P, Simonsen P. Immunoepidemiology of Dracunculus medinensis infections II. Variation in antibody responses in relation to transmission season and patency. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1998;59:985-90 pubmed
    ..Seasonal variations in antibody responses may also occur in other helminth infections, especially those with seasonal transmission, and these should be taken into consideration when interpreting the results of immunologic studies...
  22. Sullivan J, Bishop H, Hightower A. Susceptibility of four species of copepods, from areas of endemic Dracunculus medinensis, to the North American D. insignis. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1991;85:637-43 pubmed
    ..insignis are the same as those of copepods exposed to D. medinensis, and indicate that D. insignis can be used to examine factors influencing the susceptibility of copepods to dracunculid infection...
  23. Bloch P, Simonsen P. Studies on immunodiagnosis of dracunculiasis. I. Detection of specific serum antibodies. Acta Trop. 1998;70:73-86 pubmed
    ..The results were encouraging for the prospects for developing an applicable immunodiagnostic test for patent D. medinensis infections based on detection of specific serum antibodies...
  24. Eberhard M, Ruiz Tiben E. Cutaneous emergence of Eustrongylides in two persons from South Sudan. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014;90:315-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report of such worms emerging from the skin; all five previous reports of human infection involved surgical removal of worms from the peritoneal cavity...
  25. Iriemenam N, Oyibo W, Fagbenro Beyioku A. Dracunculiasis--the saddle is virtually ended. Parasitol Res. 2008;102:343-7 pubmed
  26. Saleem T, Ahmed I. "Serpent" in the breast. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2006;18:67-8 pubmed
    ..Finding of a calcified worm in the breast tissue is very rare. We report a case of a fit and well African lady who was found to have a calcified guinea worm in the breast on a mammographic examination for investigation of a breast lump...
  27. Rwakimari J, Hopkins D, Ruiz Tiben E. Uganda's successful Guinea Worm Eradication Program. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;75:3-8 pubmed
    ..Strong support and dedicated leadership by government officials and external partners were keys to this program's dramatic success. This program cost approximately US dollar 5.6 million...
  28. Langlais L. Dracunculosis in a German shepherd dog. Can Vet J. 2003;44:682 pubmed
  29. Callaway E. Dogs thwart effort to eradicate Guinea worm. Nature. 2016;529:10-1 pubmed publisher
  30. Mathur S, Gahlot R. Calcified guinea worms in breast. J Assoc Physicians India. 2006;54:201 pubmed
  31. Issaka Tinorgah A, Magnussen P, Bloch P, Yakubu A. Lack of effect of ivermectin on prepatent guinea-worm: a single-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1994;88:346-8 pubmed
    ..No adverse reaction to treatment was seen. It appears that ivermectin can be used safely as mass chemotherapy against onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis in areas where guinea-worm is also endemic...
  32. Crocker M. The staff and the "fiery serpent". CMAJ. 2002;166:425 pubmed
  33. Hopkins D, Ruiz Tiben E, Ruebush T, Diallo N, Agle A, Withers P. Dracunculiasis eradication: delayed, not denied. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2000;62:163-8 pubmed
  34. Menon T. Incidental finding of Dracunculus medinensis in Australia. Med J Aust. 2005;183:51-2 pubmed
  35. Brandt F, Eberhard M. Inoculation of ferrets with ten third-stage larvae of Dracunculus insignis. J Parasitol. 1991;77:786-7 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates that once infective larvae traverse the gut and pass into the peritoneal cavity, very few larvae are required to establish infection...
  36. Ruiz Tiben E, Hopkins D. Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) eradication. Adv Parasitol. 2006;61:275-309 pubmed
    ..Asia is now free of dracunculiasis...
  37. Prakash D, Parab P, Sharma R. Immunodiagnosis of dracunculiasis by dot-ELISA. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1993;87:195-9 pubmed
    ..The dot-ELISA described here was found to be time-saving and easy to perform, and its possible use as a diagnostic and epidemiological tool under field conditions is therefore discussed...
  38. Visser B. Dracunculiasis eradication--finishing the job before surprises arise. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2012;5:505-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus there is no reason that this disabling parasitic disease cannot be eradicated soon before surprises arise such as new civil conflicts in currently endemic countries. ..
  39. Ogunniyi T, Oni P, Juba A, Asaolu S, Kolawole D. Disinfectants/antiseptics in the management of guinea worm ulcers in the rural areas. Acta Trop. 2000;74:33-8 pubmed
  40. Eberhard M, Brandt F, Ruiz Tiben E, Hightower A. Chemoprophylactic drug trials for treatment of dracunculiasis using the Dracunculus insignis-ferret model. J Helminthol. 1990;64:79-86 pubmed
    ..It would appear that existing drugs commonly used to treat helminthic infections are poor candidates for use in the campaign to eradicate guinea worm disease...
  41. Morenikeji O, Odaibo A. Perception and management of Guinea worm disease in infected and at risk non-infected communities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Ann Afr Med. 2008;7:51-4 pubmed
  42. . Progress toward global eradication of dracunculiasis, January 2008-June 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2009;58:1123-5 pubmed
    ..Currently, insecurity (e.g., sporadic violence or civil unrest) in areas of Sudan and Mali where dracunculiasis is endemic poses the greatest threat to the success of the global dracunculiasis eradication program...
  43. Yelifari L, Frempong E, Olsen A. The intermediate hosts of Dracunculus medinensis in northern region, Ghana. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1997;91:403-9 pubmed
    ..No conclusion as to the most important intermediate host(s) in the area could be made...
  44. Brandt F, Eberhard M. Dracunculus insignis in ferrets: comparison of inoculation routes. J Parasitol. 1990;76:93-5 pubmed
    ..p. or s.c. route greatly simplifies the infection procedure and produces more consistent results. A simple procedure is described, which permits rapid recovery of L3s to be used in the i.p. or s.c. inoculations...
  45. Eberhard M, Ruiz Tiben E, Korkor A, Roy S, Downs P. Emergence of Onchocerca volvulus from skin mimicking Dracunculiasis medinensis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;83:1348-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe 11 cases of suspected Dracunculus medinensis infection in which the worm recovered was identified as Onchocerca volvulus. Identification was based on morphology of the examined specimen...
  46. Bloch P, Simonsen P, Vennervald B. The antibody response to Dracunculus medinensis in an endemic human population of northern Ghana. J Helminthol. 1993;67:37-48 pubmed
    ..The highest specificity in the ELISA and the most homogenous Western blots were obtained when detecting for antibodies of the IgG4 isotype...
  47. Hunter J. Bore holes and the vanishing of guinea worm disease in Ghana's upper region. Soc Sci Med. 1997;45:71-89 pubmed
    ..Despite crises of fee payment and pump maintenance, the rural bore hole project has struck a mortal blow against guinea worm, and permanently raised the quality of life in the Upper Region...
  48. Fagbemi B, Hillyer G. Immunodiagnosis of dracunculiasis by Falcon assay screening test-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (FAST-ELISA) and by enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) technique. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1990;43:665-8 pubmed
    ..The 16 kDa and 17 kDa antigens of D. medinensis may be useful in the immunodiagnosis of dracunculiasis...
  49. Biswas G, Sankara D, Agua Agum J, Maiga A. Dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease): eradication without a drug or a vaccine. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2013;368:20120146 pubmed publisher
    ..The challenges of intensifying surveillance are discussed, particularly in insecure areas containing the last foci of the disease. It also summarizes the broader benefits uniquely linked to interventions against dracunculiasis...
  50. Hoyos C, Jara G, Monzon C. [Report of a case of dracunculosis in a dog in the Province of Formosa--Argentina]. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 1995;37:273-5 pubmed
    ..It is reported Dracunculus sp. in a dog from Fontana city, department of Patiño, in the Formosa Province, Argentina. This is the fourth report of Dracunculosis occurred in animals all from the same geographic area of Formosa...
  51. Morenikeji O, Asiatu A. Progress in dracunculiasis eradication in Oyo state, South-west Nigeria: a case study. Afr Health Sci. 2010;10:297-301 pubmed
    ..Dracunculiasis currently occurs in only 5 countries, Nigeria inclusive...
  52. Petit M, Deniau M, Tourte Schaefer C, Amegbo K. [Longitudinal epidemiologic study of dracunculosis in the south of Togo]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot Filiales. 1989;82:520-30 pubmed
    ..Finally, the authors underline that presently, all the conditions have been met to allow a control of dracunculiasis in this prefecture...
  53. Iqbal Z, Lateef M, Jabbar A, Gilani A. In vivo anthelmintic activity of Azadirachta indica A. Juss seeds against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. Vet Parasitol. 2010;168:342-5 pubmed publisher
    ..001). Though of low efficacy compared with levamisole, the use of A. indica seeds against gastrointestinal nematodes may be justified in some situations, depending on the nature and intensity of the helminth infections...
  54. Adoh A, Konin C, Adoubi A, Anzouan Kacou J, Niamkey T, Koffi J, et al. [Unusual association of endomyocardial fibrosis and aberrant migration of Dracunculus medinensis in the pericardium]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2009;102:88-90 pubmed
    ..The evolution has been marked by the appearance of thrombus in the right atrium. The patient died on the 49th day of hospitalization following an refractory cardiac insufficiency...
  55. Bloch P, Simonsen P. Immunoepidemiology of Dracunculus medinensis infections I. Antibody responses in relation to infection status. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1998;59:978-84 pubmed
  56. Aikhomu S, Brieger W, Kale O. Acceptance and use of communal filtration units in guinea worm eradication. Trop Med Int Health. 2000;5:47-52 pubmed
    ..1% compared to 77.8% in HSF villages. Although CFUs were more expensive in the short run, their greater acceptance by villagers is a factor to recommend their wider implementation to speed up elimination of guinea worm from Nigeria...
  57. Birare S, Kamble M, Lanjewar D, Parija S, Girji D, Kulkarni P, et al. Guinea worm infection of urinary bladder manifesting as obstructive uropathy in rural Maharashtra. Trop Doct. 2005;35:242 pubmed
    ..To the best of our knowledge, adult guinea worm occurring in the urinary bladder has not been previously described...
  58. Eberhard M, Ruiz Tiben E, Hopkins D, Farrell C, Toe F, Weiss A, et al. The peculiar epidemiology of dracunculiasis in Chad. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014;90:61-70 pubmed publisher
  59. Mbong E, Sume G, Danbe F, Kum W, Mbi V, Fouda A, et al. Not every worm wrapped around a stick is a guinea worm: a case of Onchocerca volvulus mimicking Dracunculus medinensis. Parasit Vectors. 2015;8:374 pubmed publisher
    ..Strategies used to successfully control guinea worm in Cameroon could be adapted for Onchocerca volvulus control. ..
  60. Burnier M, Hidayat A, Neafie R. Dracunculiasis of the orbit and eyelid. Light and electron microscopic observations of two cases. Ophthalmology. 1991;98:919-24 pubmed
    ..The eyelid lesion contained a well-preserved gravid female worm filled with larvae. The results of transmission and scanning electron microscopic studies are discussed...
  61. Tanowitz H, Machado F. Other helminthic infections: Ascariasis, Dracontiasis, Lagochilascariasis, Micronemiasis. Handb Clin Neurol. 2013;114:263-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Lagochiloascaris minor infection may cause diseases of the head and neck and the central nervous system. Halicephalobus (Micronema) parasitizes horses and may also involve the human central nervous system. ..
  62. Bloch P, Simonsen P, Weiss N, Nutman T. The significance of guinea worm infection in the immunological diagnosis of onchocerciasis and bancroftian filariasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1998;92:518-21 pubmed
    ..Possible implications of applying these diagnostic assays in areas endemic for dracunculiasis are discussed...
  63. Glenshaw M, Roy S, Ruiz Tiben E, Downs P, Williamson J, Eberhard M. Guinea worm disease outcomes in Ghana: determinants of broken worms. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;81:305-12 pubmed
    ..Adherence to established treatment protocols should be facilitated through improved provider training and supervision to reduce the disabling consequences of broken worms...
  64. Barry M. Slaying little dragons: lessons from the dracunculiasis eradication program. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;75:1-2 pubmed
  65. Beyer T, Pinckney R, Cooley A. Massive Dracunculus insignis infection in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1999;214:366-8, 351 pubmed
    ..The dog was treated with ivermectin, fenbendazole, and metronidazole, but the owner was still able to recover worms from multiple nodules for the next year...