Summary: A superfamily of nematodes of the order RHABDITIDA. Characteristics include an open tube stoma and an excretory system with lateral canals.

Top Publications

  1. Campbell J, Koppenhöfer A, Kaya H, Chinnasri B. Are there temporarily non-infectious dauer stages in entomopathogenic nematode populations: a test of the phased infectivity hypothesis. Parasitology. 1999;118 ( Pt 5):499-508 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that phased infectivity is not a common phenomenon in entomopathogenic nematode dauers, despite the widespread acceptance of this hypothesis...
  2. Preisser E, Dugaw C, Dennis B, Strong D. Plant facilitation of a belowground predator. Ecology. 2006;87:1116-23 pubmed
    ..Similar cases of predator facilitation in seasonally stressful environments are probably common in nature...
  3. Ahn I, Winter C. The genome of Oscheius tipulae: determination of size, complexity, and structure by DNA reassociation using fluorescent dye. Genome. 2006;49:1007-15 pubmed
    ..elegans or C. briggsae subtelomeric regions. DAPI staining of hermaphrodite gonad cells show that, as detected in C. elegans and other rhabditids, O. tipulae have a haploid complement of 6 chromosomes...
  4. Bai X, Grewal P. Identification of two down-regulated genes in entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora infective juveniles upon contact with insect hemolymph. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2007;156:162-6 pubmed
    ..This first report of H. bacteriophora differential gene expression provides a glimpse at the gene expression profile of H. bacteriophora IJ recovery process...
  5. Adhikari B, Lin C, Bai X, Ciche T, Grewal P, Dillman A, et al. Transcriptional profiling of trait deterioration in the insect pathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. BMC Genomics. 2009;10:609 pubmed publisher
    ..We generated transcriptional profiles of two experimental lines of Hb, identified the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and validated their differential expression in the deteriorated line...
  6. Zhou X, Kaya H, Heungens K, Goodrich Blair H. Response of ants to a deterrent factor(s) produced by the symbiotic bacteria of entomopathogenic nematodes. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2002;68:6202-9 pubmed
  7. Joyce S, Clarke D. A hexA homologue from Photorhabdus regulates pathogenicity, symbiosis and phenotypic variation. Mol Microbiol. 2003;47:1445-57 pubmed
    ..This suggests that, during a normal infection, pathogenicity and symbiosis must be temporally separated and that HexA is involved in the regulation of this pathogen-symbiont transition...
  8. Duchaud E, Rusniok C, Frangeul L, Buchrieser C, Givaudan A, Taourit S, et al. The genome sequence of the entomopathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens. Nat Biotechnol. 2003;21:1307-13 pubmed
    ..Moreover, newly identified insecticidal proteins may be effective alternatives for the control of insect pests...
  9. Jagdale G, Saeb A, Somasekhar N, Grewal P. Genetic variation and relationships between isolates and species of the entomopathogenic nematode genus Heterorhabditis deciphered through isozyme profiles. J Parasitol. 2006;92:509-16 pubmed
    ..bacteriophora is relatively independent of geographic distance. Overall, these results demonstrate strong subspecies structuring in H. bacteriophora...

More Information

Publications145 found, 100 shown here

  1. Hallem E, Rengarajan M, Ciche T, Sternberg P. Nematodes, bacteria, and flies: a tripartite model for nematode parasitism. Curr Biol. 2007;17:898-904 pubmed
  2. Ciche T, Sternberg P. Postembryonic RNAi in Heterorhabditis bacteriophora: a nematode insect parasite and host for insect pathogenic symbionts. BMC Dev Biol. 2007;7:101 pubmed
    ..RNA interference is an excellent reverse genetic tool to study gene function in C. elegans, and it would be useful in H. bacteriophora to exploit the H. bacteriophora genome project, currently in progress...
  3. Ciche T, Kim K, Kaufmann Daszczuk B, Nguyen K, Hall D. Cell Invasion and Matricide during Photorhabdus luminescens Transmission by Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Nematodes. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:2275-87 pubmed publisher
    ..g., adherence versus invasion). Thus, Photorhabdus symbionts are maternally transmitted by an elaborate infectious process involving multiple selective steps in order to achieve symbiont-specific transmission...
  4. Akamine R, Winter C. Oscheius tipulae as an example of eEF1A gene diversity in nematodes. J Mol Evol. 2008;67:278-90 pubmed publisher
    ..As shown by our data on O. tipulae, careful and extensive examination of intron positions in the eEF1A gene across the phylum is necessary to define their potential for use as valid phylogenetic markers...
  5. Somvanshi V, Sloup R, Crawford J, Martin A, Heidt A, Kim K, et al. A single promoter inversion switches Photorhabdus between pathogenic and mutualistic states. Science. 2012;337:88-93 pubmed publisher
  6. Ciche T, Ensign J. For the insect pathogen Photorhabdus luminescens, which end of a nematode is out?. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003;69:1890-7 pubmed
    ..This and the partial characterization of a component of hemolymph triggering release of the bacteria render this fascinating example of both a mutualistic symbiosis and disease transmission amenable to future genetic and molecular study...
  7. Bai X, Grewal P, Hogenhout S, Adams B, Ciche T, Gaugler R, et al. Expressed sequence tag analysis of gene representation in insect parasitic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. J Parasitol. 2007;93:1343-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analysis also revealed that parasitic nematode-specific ESTs in this H. bacteriophora data set had more homologs in animal-parasitic nematodes than those parasitizing humans or plants...
  8. Bai X, Adams B, Ciche T, Clifton S, Gaugler R, Hogenhout S, et al. Transcriptomic analysis of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora TTO1. BMC Genomics. 2009;10:205 pubmed publisher
    ..This large-scale expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis effort enables gene discovery and development of microsatellite markers. These ESTs will also aid in the annotation of the upcoming complete genome sequence of H. bacteriophora...
  9. Waterfield N, Ciche T, Clarke D. Photorhabdus and a host of hosts. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2009;63:557-74 pubmed publisher
    ..As Photorhabdus has never been found outside a host animal, its niche represents an entirely biotic landscape. In this review we discuss what molecular adaptations allow this bacterium to complete this fascinating and complex life cycle...
  10. Laznik Z, Trdan S. An investigation on the chemotactic responses of different entomopathogenic nematode strains to mechanically damaged maize root volatile compounds. Exp Parasitol. 2013;134:349-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These results expand our knowledge of volatile compounds as the cues that may be used by EPNs for finding hosts or other aspects of navigation in the soil. ..
  11. Patel M, Wright D. Fatty acid composition of neutral lipid energy reserves in infective juveniles of entomopathogenic nematodes. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 1997;118:341-8 pubmed
    ..During storage, the relative levels (%) of C16:0, C18:0, and C18:ln-9 in the neutral lipids declined significantly, suggesting they were preferentially utilised. ..
  12. MacMillan K, Blok V, Young I, Crawford J, Wilson M. Quantification of the slug parasitic nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita from soil samples using real time qPCR. Int J Parasitol. 2006;36:1453-61 pubmed
    ..The technique could be modified for detection and quantification of all soil borne parasitic nematodes. ..
  13. Toth T, Lakatos T. Photorhabdus temperata subsp. cinerea subsp. nov., isolated from Heterorhabditis nematodes. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2008;58:2579-81 pubmed publisher
    ..cinerea subsp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain 3107(T) (=DSM 19724(T) =NCAIM B 02271(T)). ..
  14. Wright D, Grewal P, Stolinski M. Relative importance of neutral lipids and glycogen as energy stores in dauer larvae of two entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema carpocapsae and Steinernema feltiae. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 1997;118:269-73 pubmed
    ..Thus, unlike S. carpocapsae, neutral lipids remain an important energy store in S. feltiae during storage, although glycogen also appears to be important, at least initially. ..
  15. de Oliveira Vasconcelos V, Furlong J, de Freitas G, Dolinski C, Aguillera M, Rodrigues R, et al. Steinernema glaseri Santa Rosa strain (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora CCA Strain (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) as biological control agents of Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). Parasitol Res. 2004;94:201-6 pubmed
    ..The results show the potential of S. glaseri and H. bacteriophora as biological control agents for the control of B. microplus under laboratory conditions. ..
  16. Al Siyabi A, Kinawy M, Al Ansri M, Mahar A, Gowen S, Hague N. The susceptibility of onion thrips, Thrips tabaci to Heterorhabditis indicus. Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 2006;71:239-43 pubmed
    ..5 million/m2. Probably this is because the nematodes are more effective against the soil dwelling prepupae and pupae stages of the thrips. The possible explanations for the differences are discussed. ..
  17. Anderson R, Linder K, Peregrine A. Halicephalobus gingivalis (Stefanski, 1954) from a fatal infection in a horse in Ontario, Canada with comments on the validity of H. deletrix and a review of the genus. Parasite. 1998;5:255-61 pubmed
    ..First-stage larvae were unusually large and variable in length (136-199 microns x = 168). Inactive third-stage larvae were 180-240 microns (x = 203) in length. The possible route of infection in horses and humans is briefly discussed...
  18. LaMunyon C, Ward S. Evolution of sperm size in nematodes: sperm competition favours larger sperm. Proc Biol Sci. 1999;266:263-7 pubmed
    ..Larger sperm have thus evolved in species with a greater risk of sperm competition. Our results support recent studies contending that sperm size may increase in response to sperm competition. ..
  19. Boyle S, Kakouli Duarte T. The effects of chromium VI on the fitness and on the beta-tubulin genes during in vivo development of the nematode Steinernema feltiae. Sci Total Environ. 2008;404:56-67 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings constitute this organism appropriate for further investigation for the development of sub-lethal end points and biomarkers for the detection and biomonitoring of chromium VI contamination in soil. ..
  20. Fall D, Sambou B, Seck M, Wele A, Ndoye I, Gleye C, et al. [Enhancing the anthelminthic activity roots of Annona sengalensis]. Dakar Med. 2008;53:61-7 pubmed
    ..The presence of this molecule could explain the anthelminthic activity of this plant. ..
  21. Rae R, Tourna M, Wilson M. The slug parasitic nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita associates with complex and variable bacterial assemblages that do not affect its virulence. J Invertebr Pathol. 2010;104:222-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This is in marked contrast to the entomopathogenic nematodes that form highly specific mutualistic associations with Enterobacteriaceae that are specifically retained during in vivo growth. ..
  22. Pizzatto L, Shilton C, Shine R. Infection dynamics of the lungworm Rhabdias pseudosphaerocephala in its natural host, the cane toad (Bufo marinus), and in novel hosts (native Australian frogs). J Wildl Dis. 2010;46:1152-64 pubmed
    ..Evolution has resulted in an enhanced ability of the lungworm to locate the target organ (the lungs) of the toad, and an increase in rates of parasite survival within this host...
  23. Langford G, Vhora M, Bolek M, Janovy J. Co-occurrence of Haematoloechus complexus and Rhabdias joaquinensis in the plains leopard frog from Nebraska. J Parasitol. 2013;99:558-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that H. complexus and R. joaquinensis do not competitively exclude each other from the lungs of L. blairi in southeastern Nebraska...
  24. Martínez Salazar E, Falcón Ordaz J, González Bernal E, Parra Olea G, de León G. Helminth parasites of Pseudacris hypochondriaca (Anura: Hylidae) from Baja California, Mexico, with the description of two new species of nematodes. J Parasitol. 2013;99:1077-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, the species of Cosmocercoides represents the 20th species assigned to the genus and the first representative of this genus described from Mexico...
  25. Liu J, Berry R, Blouin M. Identification of symbiotic bacteria (Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus) from the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis marelatus and Steinernema oregonense based on 16S rDNA sequence. J Invertebr Pathol. 2001;77:87-91 pubmed
    ..We also verified a monoxenic association between each isolate and its nematode by amplifying and sequencing bacterial 16S sequence from crushed adult and juvenile nematodes and from bacterial cultures isolated from infected hosts...
  26. Ferreira T, Van Reenen C, Endo A, Tailliez P, Pages S, Sproer C, et al. Photorhabdus heterorhabditis sp. nov., a symbiont of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis zealandica. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2014;64:1540-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Strains SF41T, SF783 and Q614 represent a novel species of the genus Photorhabdus, for which the name Photorhabdus heterorhabditis sp. nov. is proposed (type strain SF41T=ATCC BAA-2479T=DSM 25263T). ..
  27. Ryder J, Griffin C. Phased infectivity in Heterorhabditis megidis: the effects of infection density in the parental host and filial generation. Int J Parasitol. 2003;33:1013-8 pubmed
    ..F(1) infective juveniles emerge several days before F(2) infective juveniles, and we suggest that filial generation and infection density in the parental host function as indicators of the potential risk of competition within new hosts. ..
  28. Narayanan K, Gopalakrishnan C. Evaluation of entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema feltiae against field population of mustard sawfly, Athalia lugens proxima (Klug) on radish. Indian J Exp Biol. 2003;41:376-8 pubmed
    ..95 larvae / plant in untreated control plots. Similarly, the yield of radish in all the nematode treated plots was significantly higher by way of recording 2.80 to 2.87 tons/ha as compared to 1.63 tons/ha in the case of control...
  29. Lhermitte Vallarino N, Bain O, Deharo E, Bertani S, Voza T, Attout T, et al. A new rhabdiasid nematode, Chabirenia cayennensis n. g., n. sp., parasitic in the glands of the buccal mucosa of a South American saurian. Syst Parasitol. 2005;62:151-60 pubmed
    ..Several characters of this new rhabdiasid suggest the Strongylida. ..
  30. Fenske C, Daeschlein G, Günther B, Knauer A, Rudolph P, Schwahn C, et al. Comparison of different biological methods for the assessment of ecotoxicological risks. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2006;209:275-84 pubmed
    ..Of the single heavy metals tested, copper produced the strongest effects. Therefore, the reduction of heavy metal emissions, especially of copper-which can amplify the toxicity of other heavy metals-should be a task of highest priority. ..
  31. Mihalca A, Miclaus V, Lefkaditis M. Pulmonary lesions caused by the nematode Rhabdias fuscovenosa in a grass snake, Natrix natrix. J Wildl Dis. 2010;46:678-81 pubmed
    ..Eosinophils were the most common inflammatory cell observed in the areas of necrosis and interstitium. Herein we describe histopathologic changes due to R. fuscovenosa in a free-ranging grass snake. ..
  32. Patel M, Perry R, Wright D. Desiccation survival and water contents of entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema spp. (Rhabditida:Steinernematidae). Int J Parasitol. 1997;27:61-70 pubmed
    ..h. greatly improved the survival of all 4 species, particularly S. glaseri and S. feltiae. The work is discussed in relation to possible mechanisms for survival of IJs during fast and slow drying. ..
  33. Lee D, Choo H, Kaya H, Lee S, Smitley D, Shin H, et al. Laboratory and field evaluation of Korean entomopathogenic nematode isolates against the oriental beetle Exomala orientalis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). J Econ Entomol. 2002;95:918-26 pubmed
    ..longicaudum Nonsan (45.9% mortality) or a full rate of chlorpyrifos-methyl (28.7% mortality). The interactions of Heterorhabditis sp. and S. longicaudum Nonsan with chlorpyrifos-methyl in our field trials appear to be synergistic. ..
  34. Azevedo R, Lohaus R, Braun V, Gumbel M, Umamaheshwar M, Agapow P, et al. The simplicity of metazoan cell lineages. Nature. 2005;433:152-6 pubmed
    ..We propose that selection for decreased complexity has played a major role in moulding metazoan cell lineages. ..
  35. Hapca S, Crawford J, Young I. Anomalous diffusion of heterogeneous populations characterized by normal diffusion at the individual level. J R Soc Interface. 2009;6:111-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The conclusions and methodology presented are relevant to any heterogeneous population of individuals with widely different diffusion rates. ..
  36. Ratnappan R, Vadnal J, Keaney M, Eleftherianos I, O Halloran D, Hawdon J. RNAi-mediated gene knockdown by microinjection in the model entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Parasit Vectors. 2016;9:160 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we describe for the first time the successful use of microinjection to knockdown gene transcripts in H. bacteriophora. This technique can be used widely to study the molecular basis of parasitism. ..
  37. Hazir S, Stock S, Kaya H, Koppenhöfer A, Keskin N. Developmental temperature effects on five geographic isolates of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema feltiae (Nematoda: Steinernematidae). J Invertebr Pathol. 2001;77:243-50 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that quality of food for the nematode and temperature (that is, developmental time) influence the body length of the infective juvenile. ..
  38. Acevedo J, Samuels R, Machado I, Dolinski C. Interactions between isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae and the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora JPM4 during infection of the sugar cane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). J Invertebr Pathol. 2007;96:187-92 pubmed
    ..The results show that faster time to death, a moderately virulent fungal isolate could be combined with the nematode, however at the expense of IJ production. ..
  39. Qiu X, Han R, Yan X, Liu M, Cao L, Yoshiga T, et al. Identification and characterization of a novel gene involved in the trans-specific nematicidal activity of Photorhabdus luminescens LN2. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:4221-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Tn5 disrupted the namA gene, encoding a novel 364-residue protein and involving the nematicidal activity. The green fluorescent protein-labeled namA mutant was unable to colonize the intestines of H06 IJs. ..
  40. Kumar S, Siji J, Nambisan B, Mohandas C. Activity and synergistic interactions of stilbenes and antibiotic combinations against bacteria in vitro. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;28:3143-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The in vitro synergistic activity of stilbenes and antibiotics against bacteria is reported here for the first time. ..
  41. Orozco R, Hill T, Stock S. Characterization and phylogenetic relationships of Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. sonorensis (?-Proteobacteria: Enterobacteriaceae), the bacterial symbiont of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis sonorensis (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae). Curr Microbiol. 2013;66:30-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Evolutionary relationships of this new Photorhabdus subsp. were inferred considering maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses. ..
  42. Loya L, Hower A. Infectivity and reproductive potential of the Oswego strain of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora associated with life stages of the clover root curculio, Sitona hispidulus. J Invertebr Pathol. 2003;83:63-72 pubmed
    ..Reproductive potential in pupae decreased with an increased nematode dose, indicating potential crowding effects. Host larval and pupal mass were positively correlated with nematode progeny production...
  43. Stock S, Rivera Orduño B, Flores Lara Y. Heterorhabditis sonorensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae), a natural pathogen of the seasonal cicada Diceroprocta ornea (Walker) (Homoptera: Cicadidae) in the Sonoran desert. J Invertebr Pathol. 2009;100:175-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparison of ITS rDNA sequences with other available sequences of described species depicted the two isolates as a new species. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequence data placed H. sonorensis n. sp. as a member of the indica-group. ..
  44. El Assal F, El Lakwah S, Hasheesh W, El Mahdi M. Effect of the change in energy reserves on the entomopathogenic nematode efficacy. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2008;38:929-44 pubmed
    ..The results showed that there was an increase in the penetration rate and the virulence through the new progenies of S. riobrave and H. bacteriophora than in the original progenies, with an increase in the energy reserves. ..
  45. Fenske C, Gunther B. "Electro-fishing" in the lab: a new method to detect acute effects of heavy metals and organic pollutants in invertebrate indicator organisms. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2001;204:157-63 pubmed
    ..The organic pollutants, in contrast, did not cause detectable changes in ciliates and only led to slight reductions in the migration activity of nematodes, without concentration-dependent gradations. ..
  46. Enright M, Griffin C. Effects of Paenibacillus nematophilus on the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis megidis. J Invertebr Pathol. 2005;88:40-8 pubmed
    ..megidis for wax moth larvae in sand, but not in a close contact (filter paper) assay. The results suggest that P. nematophilus may reduce the transmission potential of H. megidis through impeding the motility of IJs...
  47. Rae R, Robertson J, Wilson M. Chemoattraction and host preference of the gastropod parasitic nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita. J Parasitol. 2009;95:517-26 pubmed publisher
    ..These necromenic species represent ideal hosts for P. hermaphrodita in terms of providing protection against abiotic and biotic factors as well as transport to many diverse areas. ..
  48. van Niekerk S, Malan A. Potential of South African entomopathogenic nematodes (Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae) for control of the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Pseudococcidae). J Invertebr Pathol. 2012;111:166-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Results also showed that the first 2-4h post application is the most decisive time for establishing successful infection of mealybugs. This is the first report on the potential use of nematodes for the control of P. citri. ..
  49. Chapman C, Tisa L. Identification and characterization of Photorhabdus temperata mutants altered in hemolysis and virulence. Can J Microbiol. 2016;62:657-67 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support the role of RNA turnover in insect pathogenesis and other physiological functions. ..
  50. Bursey C, Goldberg S. New species of Oswaldocruzia (Nematoda: Molineoidae), new species of Rhabdias (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae), and other helminths in Rana cf. forreri (Anura: Ranidae) from Costa Rica. J Parasitol. 2005;91:600-5 pubmed
    ..Cosmocerca panamaensis is considered to be a synonym of Cosmocerca podicipinus. ..
  51. Mowlavi G, Mikaeili E, Mobedi I, Kia E, Masoomi L, Vatandoost H. A survey of dung beetles infected with larval nematodes with particular note on Copris lunaris beetles as a vector for Gongylonema sp. in Iran. Korean J Parasitol. 2009;47:13-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our new findings introduce C. lunaris as a potential biological vector for transmission of Gongylonema sp. to vertebrates in the surveyed region...
  52. Jagdale G, Grewal P, Salminen S. Both heat-shock and cold-shock influence trehalose metabolism in an entomopathogenic nematode. J Parasitol. 2005;91:988-94 pubmed
    ..This is the first report of the relationship between trehalose metabolism and heat-shock for the Nematoda. ..
  53. Glockling S, Beakes G. Structural and developmental studies of Chlamydomyzium oviparasiticum from Rhabditis nematodes and in culture. Mycol Res. 2006;110:1119-26 pubmed
    ..It was still not possible to unequivocably decide whether these were chlamydospores or parthenogenically formed oospores. The phylogenetic significance of these observations is discussed. ..
  54. Derycke S, Remerie T, Backeljau T, Vierstraete A, Vanfleteren J, Vincx M, et al. Phylogeography of the Rhabditis (Pellioditis) marina species complex: evidence for long-distance dispersal, and for range expansions and restricted gene flow in the northeast Atlantic. Mol Ecol. 2008;17:3306-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The allopatric distribution of some intraspecific phylogroups and of closely related cryptic species points to the potential for allopatric speciation in R. (P.) marina. ..
  55. Hashmi S, Hashmi G, Glazer I, Gaugler R. Thermal response of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora transformed with the Caenorhabditis elegans hsp70 encoding gene. J Exp Zool. 1998;281:164-70 pubmed
    ..Our observations establish that overexpression of hsp70 A gene resulted an enhanced thermotolerance in the transgenic nematodes. The transgenic nematodes displayed normal growth and development. ..
  56. Tan L, Grewal P. Pathogenicity of Moraxella osloensis, a bacterium associated with the nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita, to the slug Deroceras reticulatum. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2001;67:5010-6 pubmed
    ..hermaphrodita acts only as a vector to transport the bacterium into the shell cavity of the slug. The identification of the toxic metabolites produced by M. osloensis is being pursued. ..
  57. Rodger S, Griffiths B, McNicol J, Wheatley R, Young I. The impact of bacterial diet on the migration and navigation of Caenorhabditis elegans. Microb Ecol. 2004;48:358-65 pubmed
    ..We discuss this important finding with respect to the variation in response exhibited within a given nematode population, and the impact nematode migration has on bacterial dispersal in the environment...
  58. Tkach V, Kuzmin Y, Pulis E. A new species of Rhabdias from lungs of the wood frog, Rana sylvatica, in North America: the last sibling of Rhabdias ranae?. J Parasitol. 2006;92:631-6 pubmed
    ..sylvatica and Ra. pipiens, and supports the status of R. bakeri as a new species. ..
  59. Karagoz M, Gulcu B, Cakmak I, Kaya H, Hazir S. Predation of entomopathogenic nematodes by Sancassania sp. (Acari: Acaridae). Exp Appl Acarol. 2007;43:85-95 pubmed
    ..feltiae IJs than Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae). No phoretic relationship was observed between mites and nematodes and the nematodes did not infect the mites. ..
  60. Lahl V, Schulze J, Schierenberg E. Differences in embryonic pattern formation between Caenorhabditis elegans and its close parthenogenetic relative Diploscapter coronatus. Int J Dev Biol. 2009;53:507-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Cell distribution in advanced embryos is essentially indistinguishable between both species. ..
  61. Chaudhuri J, Kache V, Pires daSilva A. Regulation of sexual plasticity in a nematode that produces males, females, and hermaphrodites. Curr Biol. 2011;21:1548-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are of significance to understanding the evolution of complex mating systems present in parasitic nematodes. ..
  62. Castillo J, Shokal U, Eleftherianos I. A novel method for infecting Drosophila adult flies with insect pathogenic nematodes. Virulence. 2012;3:339-47 pubmed publisher
    ..The protocol we present can be readily adapted for studying parasitic strategies of other insect nematodes using Drosophila as the host infection model. ..
  63. Zółtowska K. Content of saccharides and activity of alpha-glycosidases in Galleria mellonella larvae infected with entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis zealandica. Wiad Parazytol. 2004;50:495-501 pubmed
    ..05) than in the controls. The concentration of maltose and glycogen were similar in both groups despite the fact that the activity of all examined alpha-glycosidases was generally much higher in the infected insects than in the controls. ..
  64. Ruisheng A, Grewal P. purL gene expression affects biofilm formation and symbiotic persistence of Photorhabdus temperata in the nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Microbiology. 2011;157:2595-603 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these data indicate that the purine metabolic pathway is important in microbe-animal symbioses, and that it may influence symbiotic interactions at the level of biofilm formation. ..
  65. Easom C, Clarke D. HdfR is a regulator in Photorhabdus luminescens that modulates metabolism and symbiosis with the nematode Heterorhabditis. Environ Microbiol. 2012;14:953-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, HdfR plays an important role in coordinating the interaction between P. luminescens and its nematode partner during transmission. ..
  66. Sommer R. Comparative genetics: a third model nematode species. Curr Biol. 2000;10:R879-81 pubmed
    ..A group of vulva-defective mutants in Oscheius has been identified, with defects not seen in C. elegans. ..
  67. Rosa J, Cabral C, Simoes N. Differences between the pathogenic processes induced by Steinernema and Heterorhabditis (Nemata: Rhabditida) in Pseudaletia unipuncta (Insecta: Lepidoptera). J Invertebr Pathol. 2002;80:46-54 pubmed
    ..Insect mortality in treatments with complexes S. carpocapsae and S. glaseri was significantly higher than that which was observed in insects injected with symbiotic bacteria...
  68. Shrestha Y, Lee K. Oral toxicity of Photorhabdus culture media on gene expression of the adult sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. J Invertebr Pathol. 2012;109:91-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide information for the understanding of the mechanism of symbiont pathogenic factors for the manipulation of host physiology at the transcription level. ..
  69. McFrederick Q, Taylor D. Evolutionary history of nematodes associated with sweat bees. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2013;66:847-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, all halictid hosts come from eusocial or socially polymorphic lineages, suggesting that sociality may be a factor in the suitability of hosts for Acrostichus. ..
  70. Grewal S, Grewal P. Effect of osmotic desiccation on longevity and temperature tolerance of Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita (Nematoda: Rhabditidae). J Parasitol. 2003;89:434-8 pubmed
    ..hermaphrodita at temperature extremes (35 and -20 C) for short periods but has no effect on nematode longevity at the optimum temperature range of 5-15 C. ..
  71. Morley N, Morritt D. The effects of the slug biological control agent, Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita (Nematoda), on non-target aquatic molluscs. J Invertebr Pathol. 2006;92:112-4 pubmed
    ..stagnalis was significantly reduced at both application levels but P. fontinalis suffered no mortalities over the experimental period. The possible differential mechanisms of pathology between the two host species are discussed. ..
  72. Ferreira T, Souza R, Dolinski C. Assessing the influence of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis baujardi LPP7 (Rhabiditina) on embryogenesis and hatching of the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne mayaguensis (Tylenchina). J Invertebr Pathol. 2011;107:164-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Embryogenesis was not affected, whereas second-stage juveniles hatching was delayed probably because of the eggs permeability to noxious metabolites released by Photorhabdus luminescens, which is the bacterial symbiont of H. baujardi...
  73. Marokhazi J, Lengyel K, Pekár S, Felföldi G, Patthy A, Gráf L, et al. Comparison of proteolytic activities produced by entomopathogenic Photorhabdus bacteria: strain- and phase-dependent heterogeneity in composition and activity of four enzymes. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70:7311-20 pubmed
    ..These proteases appear not to be directly involved in the pathogenicity of Photorhabdus, since strains or phase variants lacking any of these proteases do not show reduced virulence when they are injected into G. melonella larvae. ..
  74. Akendengue B, Champy P, Nzamba J, Roblot F, Loiseau P, Bories C. Antifungal and anthelmintic activities of Cleistopholis patens (Annonaceae). Planta Med. 2009;75:1143-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The methanolic extract displayed anthelmintic activity against Rhabditis pseudoelongata. Purification of the neutral CH2Cl2 extract yielded bornyl-p-transcoumarate and bornyl-p-cis-coumarate. ..
  75. Santos J, Melo F, Nascimento L, Nascimento D, Giese E, Furtado A. Rhabdias paraensis sp. nov.: a parasite of the lungs of Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae) from Brazilian Amazonia. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2011;106:433-40 pubmed
    The nematode parasites of Rhinella marina include species of the genus Rhabdias (Rhabdiasidae: Rhabditoidea). The present study describes Rhabdias paraensis sp. nov., which parasitizes the lungs of R. marina in Brazilian Amazonia...
  76. Shapiro Ilan D, Lewis E, Campbell J, Kim Shapiro D. Directional movement of entomopathogenic nematodes in response to electrical field: effects of species, magnitude of voltage, and infective juvenile age. J Invertebr Pathol. 2012;109:34-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These results expand our knowledge of electrical fields as cues that may be used by entomopathogenic nematodes for host-finding or other aspects of navigation in the soil. ..
  77. Mohamed M. Purification and characterization of alpha-amylase from the infective juveniles of the nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2004;139:1-9 pubmed
    ..The enzyme activity was severely inhibited by EDTA, p-CMB and iodoacetic acid, but potentiated by CaCl2 and NaCl. These results are discussed and compared with previously reported alpha-amylases in the insect hosts of the parasite. ..
  78. Ivanova E, Spiridonov S. Angiostoma glandicola sp. n. (Nematoda: Angiostomatidae): a parasite in the land snail Megaustenia sp. from the Cat Tien Forest, Vietnam. J Helminthol. 2010;84:297-304 pubmed publisher
    ..no cephalic probolae and the specific number and disposition of male GP. A partial sequence of D2D3 large subunit (LSU) rDNA was obtained and subjected to phylogenetic analyses. Relationships within the Angiostoma genus are discussed. ..
  79. Tkach V, Halajian A, Kuzmin Y. Phylogenetic affinities and systematic position of Entomelas sylvestris Baker, 1982 (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae), a parasite of Breviceps sylvestris FitzSimons (Amphibia: Brevicipitidae) in South Africa. Syst Parasitol. 2014;87:293-8 pubmed publisher
    ..sylvestris appears, albeit with weak support, as a basal/sister taxon to the rest of Rhabdias spp. which explains to some extent the differences in the buccal capsule morphology between this species and other Rhabdias spp. ..
  80. Bursey C, Goldberg S. Helminths in Mesaspis monticola (Squamata: Anguidae) from Costa Rica, with the description of a new species of Entomelas (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae) and a new species of Skrjabinodon (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae). Parasite. 2006;13:183-91 pubmed
    ..Skrjabinodon cartagoensis is the 24th species assigned to the genus and differs from other neotropical species in the genus by female tail morphology...
  81. Rae R, Verdun C, Grewal P, Robertson J, Wilson M. Biological control of terrestrial molluscs using Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita--progress and prospects. Pest Manag Sci. 2007;63:1153-64 pubmed
    ..The many critical gaps in present knowledge are highlighted, and future research is proposed that will lead to greater understanding of this unusual parasite and may enable its more widespread use in the management of mollusc pests. ..
  82. Martínez Salazar E, León Règagnon V. New species of Rhabdias (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae) from Bufo occidentalis (Anura: Bufonidae) from Sierra Madre del Sur, Mexico. J Parasitol. 2007;93:1171-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the 16th species described in the Neotropical Realm and the first species of Rhabdias described from endemic anurans in México. ..
  83. Geldenhuys J, Malan A, Dicks L. First Report of the Isolation of the Symbiotic Bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. laumondii Associated with Heterorhabditis safricana from South Africa. Curr Microbiol. 2016;73:790-795 pubmed
    ..luminescens subsp. laumondii strains SF281B and SF351B was confirmed by comparing 16S rDNA, recA, gyrB and gltX sequences with sequences of P. luminescens subsp. laumondii, including the type strain (TT01T) and strain E21. ..
  84. Patel M, Wright D. Glycogen: its importance in the infectivity of aged juveniles of Steinernema carpocapsae. Parasitology. 1997;114 ( Pt 6):591-6 pubmed
    ..05). The evidence suggests that glycogen is an important source of energy for maintaining infectivity in aged IJs of S. carpocapsae. ..
  85. Rashmir Raven A, Black S, Rickard L, Akin M. Papillomatous pastern dermatitis with spirochetes and Pelodera strongyloides in a Tennessee Walking Horse. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2000;12:287-91 pubmed
    ..Verrucous pododermatitis of horses may be the same as or similar to bovine papillomatous digital dermatitis, and these conditions have similar etiologies...
  86. Torr P, Heritage S, Wilson M. Vibrations as a novel signal for host location by parasitic nematodes. Int J Parasitol. 2004;34:997-9 pubmed
    ..All species showed strong, significant taxes towards the vibrations. We also show that in soils, the utility of chemical cues as attractants is substantially reduced by the presence of organic matter. ..
  87. Zhang C, Yang S, Xu M, Sun J, Liu H, Liu J, et al. Serratia nematodiphila sp. nov., associated symbiotically with the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditidoides chongmingensis (Rhabditida: Rhabditidae). Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2009;59:1603-8 pubmed publisher
    ..nov. is proposed; the type strain is DZ0503SBS1(T) (=KCTC 22130(T) =CGMCC 1.6853(T))...
  88. Anbesse S, Sumaya N, Dörfler A, Strauch O, Ehlers R. Selective breeding for desiccation tolerance in liquid culture provides genetically stable inbred lines of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2013;97:731-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared to nematodes from in vivo propagation, production in liquid media yielded EPN of higher virulence. ..
  89. Grenier E, Catzeflis F, Abad P. Genome sizes of the entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Nematoda:Rhabditida). Parasitology. 1997;114 ( Pt 5):497-501 pubmed
    ..Genome sizes were estimated at 2.3 x 10(8) bp for S. carpocapsae and 3.9 x 10(7) bp for H. bacteriophora and repetitive DNA contents were found to represent 39% and 51% of these respective genomes. ..
  90. Dare O, Forbes M. Rates of development in male and female Wood Frogs and patterns of parasitism by lung nematodes. Parasitology. 2008;135:385-93 pubmed
    ..Further, male hosts might prove to be a more important source of infective stages of worms than female hosts. ..
  91. Giblin Davis R, Nong G, Preston J, Williams D, Center B, Brito J, et al. 'Candidatus Pasteuria aldrichii', an obligate endoparasite of the bacterivorous nematode Bursilla. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2011;61:2073-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Because members of the genus Pasteuria cannot yet be isolated, definitive type strains could not be maintained; therefore, the name 'Candidatus Pasteuria aldrichii' is proposed for this organism. ..
  92. Pizzatto L, Kelehear C, Dubey S, Barton D, Shine R. Host-parasite relationships during a biologic invasion: 75 years postinvasion, cane toads and sympatric Australian frogs retain separate lungworm faunas. J Wildl Dis. 2012;48:951-61 pubmed publisher
    ..are widely distributed geographically and across host taxa but are more common in some frog species (especially, large-bodied species) than they are in others...