Summary: An order of nematodes of the subclass SECERNENTEA. Its organisms are characterized by an annulated or smooth cuticle and the absence of caudal glands.

Top Publications

  1. Isaacson P, Webster J. Antimicrobial activity of Xenorhabdus sp. RIO (Enterobacteriaceae), symbiont of the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema riobrave (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae). J Invertebr Pathol. 2002;79:146-53 pubmed
    ..The changing pH, relatively high growth rate of Xenorhabdus sp. RIO compared with that of other Gram negative bacterial species and of collapse of the Enterococcus sp. population enabled Xenorhabdus sp. RIO to out-compete other species...
  2. Rosa J, Cabral C, Simoes N. Differences between the pathogenic processes induced by Steinernema and Heterorhabditis (Nemata: Rhabditida) in Pseudaletia unipuncta (Insecta: Lepidoptera). J Invertebr Pathol. 2002;80:46-54 pubmed
    ..Insect mortality in treatments with complexes S. carpocapsae and S. glaseri was significantly higher than that which was observed in insects injected with symbiotic bacteria...
  3. Lacey L, Unruh T, Headrick H. Interactions of two idiobiont parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae). J Invertebr Pathol. 2003;83:230-9 pubmed
    ..The ability of these parasitoids to avoid nematode-treated larvae and to seek out and kill cocooned CM larvae that survive nematode treatments enhances the complementarity of entomopathogenic nematodes and M. ridibundus and L. caudatus...
  4. Sicard M, Le Brun N, Pages S, Godelle B, Boemare N, Moulia C. Effect of native Xenorhabdus on the fitness of their Steinernema hosts: contrasting types of interaction. Parasitol Res. 2003;91:520-4 pubmed
    ..Thus, the symbiont transmission appeared to become more efficient as the relationship between the nematode and the bacteria became tighter...
  5. Rasmann S, Köllner T, Degenhardt J, Hiltpold I, Toepfer S, Kuhlmann U, et al. Recruitment of entomopathogenic nematodes by insect-damaged maize roots. Nature. 2005;434:732-7 pubmed
    ..Development of new varieties that release the attractant in adequate amounts should help enhance the efficacy of nematodes as biological control agents against root pests like D. v. virgifera...
  6. Barbara K, Buss E. Integration of insect parasitic nematodes (Rhabditida steinernematidae) with insecticides for control of pest mole crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae: Scapteriscus spp.). J Econ Entomol. 2005;98:689-93 pubmed
    ..to control mole crickets were tested for compatibility with Steinernema scapterisci Nguyen & Smart (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) in the laboratory. Survival of S...
  7. Sicard M, Ramone H, Le Brun N, Pages S, Moulia C. Specialization of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema scapterisci with its mutualistic Xenorhabdus symbiont. Naturwissenschaften. 2005;92:472-6 pubmed
    ..scapterisci showed a dramatically higher compatibility with non-native Xenorhabdus spp. strains than did S. carpocapsae, suggesting differences in the co-evolutionary processes between nematodes and bacteria in these two model systems...
  8. Patel M, Wright D. The ultrastructure of the cuticle and sheath of infective juveniles of entomopathogenic steinernematid nematodes. J Helminthol. 1998;72:257-66 pubmed
    ..feltiae and S. glaseri was also examined and, apart from S. glaseri having a thicker sheath, the structure of the sheath in both species was similar, with the epicuticle and striated layer still visible...
  9. Brivio M, Pagani M, Restelli S. Immune suppression of Galleria mellonella (Insecta, Lepidoptera) humoral defenses induced by Steinernema feltiae (Nematoda, Rhabditida): involvement of the parasite cuticle. Exp Parasitol. 2002;101:149-56 pubmed
    ..proPO inhibition was also achieved by injected isolated cuticle fragments, suggesting that the parasite body surface plays an important role in the early parasitation phase...

More Information

Publications126 found, 100 shown here

  1. Wharton D, Goodall G, Marshall C. Freezing survival and cryoprotective dehydration as cold tolerance mechanisms in the Antarctic nematode Panagrolaimus davidi. J Exp Biol. 2003;206:215-21 pubmed
    ..P. davidi thus has a variety of mechanisms that ensure its survival in its harsh terrestrial Antarctic habitat...
  2. Li G, Shen Y, Zhang K. Nematicidal activity and chemical component of Poria cocos. J Microbiol. 2005;43:17-20 pubmed
    ..Of these, 2, 4, 6-triacetylenic octane diacid could kill 83.9% Meloidogyne arenaria and 73.4% Panagrellus redivivus at 500 ppm within 12 hours. Here, it is reported for the first time that Poria cocos has nematicidal activity...
  3. Lengyel K, Lang E, Fodor A, Szállás E, Schumann P, Stackebrandt E. Description of four novel species of Xenorhabdus, family Enterobacteriaceae: Xenorhabdus budapestensis sp. nov., Xenorhabdus ehlersii sp. nov., Xenorhabdus innexi sp. nov., and Xenorhabdus szentirmaii sp. nov. Syst Appl Microbiol. 2005;28:115-22 pubmed
    ..nov., type strain DSM 16336T isolated from Steinernema scapterisci; and Xenorhabdus szentirmaii sp. nov., type strain DSM 16338T, isolated from Steinernema rarum...
  4. Laws T, Smith S, Smith M, Harding S, Atkins T, Titball R. The nematode Panagrellus redivivus is susceptible to killing by human pathogens at 37 degrees C. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2005;250:77-83 pubmed
    ..We believe B. multivorans may kill P. redivivus by a temperature-regulated mechanism similar to B. pseudomallei killing of C. elegans...
  5. Gouge D, Snyder J. Temporal association of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) and bacteria. J Invertebr Pathol. 2006;91:147-57 pubmed
    ..Other Enterobacteriaceae could then be isolated from the steinernematid nematodes including S. marcescens, Salmonella sp., and E. gergoviae, indicating the ability of the nematodes to associate with other bacteria in laboratory culture...
  6. Toubarro D, Lucena Robles M, Nascimento G, Costa G, Montiel R, Coelho A, et al. An apoptosis-inducing serine protease secreted by the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae. Int J Parasitol. 2009;39:1319-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In vitro assays demonstrated that Sc-SP-3 digested extracellular proteins and induced apoptosis in Sf9 insect cells, thus suggesting Sc-SP-3 is a multifunctional chymotrypsin-like protease involved in pathogenesis...
  7. Huang X, Liu J, Ding J, He Q, Xiong R, Zhang K. The investigation of nematocidal activity in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia G2 and characterization of a novel virulence serine protease. Can J Microbiol. 2009;55:934-42 pubmed publisher
    ..maltophilia, suggesting a novel virulence serine protease was obtained. Our study is the first to show the nematocidal activity of S. maltophilia, and we identified a novel serine protease as an important pathogenicity factor...
  8. Ali J, Alborn H, Stelinski L. Subterranean herbivore-induced volatiles released by citrus roots upon feeding by Diaprepes abbreviatus recruit entomopathogenic nematodes. J Chem Ecol. 2010;36:361-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that Swingle citrus roots release induced volatiles as an indirect defense in response to herbivore feeding, and that some of these induced volatiles function as attractants for entomopathogenic nematodes...
  9. El Borai F, Campos Herrera R, Stuart R, Duncan L. Substrate modulation, group effects and the behavioral responses of entomopathogenic nematodes to nematophagous fungi. J Invertebr Pathol. 2011;106:347-56 pubmed publisher
  10. Patricia Stock S, Lee M, Flores Lara Y. The rectal glands of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) hermaphrodites and their role in symbiont transmission. J Invertebr Pathol. 2012;110:135-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations indicate that Photorhabdus bacteria do not colonize the rectal glands of H. bacteriophora hermaphrodites, but rather are present in the most posterior-intestinal cells...
  11. Hempel M, Chau Y, Dutka B, McInnis R, Kwan K, Liu D. Toxicity of organomercury compounds: bioassay results as a basis for risk assessment. Analyst. 1995;120:721-4 pubmed
    ..A ranking of the toxicity of the organomercurial is shown. The SOS-Chromotest indicated genotoxicity for 5-7 organomercurials...
  12. Sicard M, Ferdy J, Pages S, Le Brun N, Godelle B, Boemare N, et al. When mutualists are pathogens: an experimental study of the symbioses between Steinernema (entomopathogenic nematodes) and Xenorhabdus (bacteria). J Evol Biol. 2004;17:985-93 pubmed
    ..The pathogenicity of some non-native bacterial strains against S. carpocapsae could result from the incapacity of the nematode to resist specific virulence factors produced by these bacteria...
  13. Sicard M, Brugirard Ricaud K, Pages S, Lanois A, Boemare N, Brehelin M, et al. Stages of infection during the tripartite interaction between Xenorhabdus nematophila, its nematode vector, and insect hosts. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70:6473-80 pubmed
    ..This work shows that the extracellular matrix acts as a particular colonization site for X. nematophila within insects...
  14. Shannon A, Browne J, Boyd J, Fitzpatrick D, Burnell A. The anhydrobiotic potential and molecular phylogenetics of species and strains of Panagrolaimus (Nematoda, Panagrolaimidae). J Exp Biol. 2005;208:2433-45 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that Panagrolaimus has the potential to be an excellent model system for the investigation of molecular aspects of nematode anhydrobiosis...
  15. Torr P, Spiridonov S, Heritage S, Wilson M. Habitat associations of two entomopathogenic nematodes: a quantitative study using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reactions. J Anim Ecol. 2007;76:238-45 pubmed
    ..5. Real-time PCR offers a rapid and accurate method of detecting individual nematode species from soil samples without the need for a specialist taxonomist, and has much potential for use in studies of nematode population ecology...
  16. Zhang C, Liu J, Xu M, Sun J, Yang S, An X, et al. Heterorhabditidoides chongmingensis gen. nov., sp. nov. (Rhabditida: Rhabditidae), a novel member of the entomopathogenic nematodes. J Invertebr Pathol. 2008;98:153-68 pubmed publisher
  17. Shannon A, Tyson T, Dix I, Boyd J, Burnell A. Systemic RNAi mediated gene silencing in the anhydrobiotic nematode Panagrolaimus superbus. BMC Mol Biol. 2008;9:58 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated whether Panagrolaimus is susceptible to RNAi to determine whether this nematode could be used in large scale RNAi studies in functional genomics...
  18. Garcia L, Raetano C, Leite L. Application technology for the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis indica and Steinernema sp. (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae) to control Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in corn. Neotrop Entomol. 2008;37:305-11 pubmed
    ..01% ethoxylate tensoactive agent, or at the same volume followed by artificial rain (6 mm water depth) was not sufficient to control S. frugiperda in a controlled environment...
  19. Walter T, Dunphy G, Mandato C. Steinernema carpocapsae DD136: metabolites limit the non-self adhesion responses of haemocytes of two lepidopteran larvae, Galleria mellonella (F. Pyralidae) and Malacosoma disstria (F. Lasiocampidae). Exp Parasitol. 2008;120:161-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Dead-nematode exudate did not affect these parameters thus immunosuppressant activity by live nematodes may represent the release of inhibitors not associated with their cuticle. The third stage juveniles released the inhibitors...
  20. Koppenhöfer A, Fuzy E. Effect of white grub developmental stage on susceptibility to entomopathogenic nematodes. J Econ Entomol. 2004;97:1842-9 pubmed
  21. Derycke S, Backeljau T, Vlaeminck C, Vierstraete A, Vanfleteren J, Vincx M, et al. Seasonal dynamics of population genetic structure in cryptic taxa of the Pellioditis marina complex (Nematoda: Rhabditida). Genetica. 2006;128:307-21 pubmed
    ..It is emphasized that a complete and correct interpretation of processes causing genetic structuring within species and of the genetic structure itself can only be done when analyses are performed at several time points...
  22. Bumbarger D, Crum J, Ellisman M, Baldwin J. Three-dimensional fine structural reconstruction of the nose sensory structures of Acrobeles complexus compared to Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematoda: Rhabditida). J Morphol. 2007;268:649-63 pubmed
    ..elegans. The existence of a novel form of mechanoreceptor in A. complexus and spatial relationships between sensillum dendrites suggest differences between two classes of sensillae in how a touch-response behavior may be mediated...
  23. Bert W, Leliaert F, Vierstraete A, Vanfleteren J, Borgonie G. Molecular phylogeny of the Tylenchina and evolution of the female gonoduct (Nematoda: Rhabditida). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2008;48:728-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Ancestral state reconstruction further revealed that the gonoduct of the morphologically and ecologically dissimilar tylenchid and cephalobid nematodes evolved from a common ancestor...
  24. Nguyen K, Ginarte C, Leite L, Santos J, Harakava R. Steinernema brazilense n. sp. (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), a new entomopathogenic nematode from Mato Grosso, Brazil. J Invertebr Pathol. 2010;103:8-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The new species can be distinguished further from other members of Steinernema glaseri group by characteristics of rDNA of ITS and D2D3 regions...
  25. Balasubramanian N, Toubarro D, Simoes N. Biochemical study and in vitro insect immune suppression by a trypsin-like secreted protease from the nematode Steinernema carpocapsae. Parasite Immunol. 2010;32:165-75 pubmed publisher
    ..carpocapsae and Steinernema glaseri were not recognized. We provide experimental evidence that the purified trypsin has the potential to alter host haemocytes, actin filaments and to inhibit host haemolymph melanization...
  26. Hyrsl P, Dobes P, Wang Z, Hauling T, Wilhelmsson C, Theopold U. Clotting factors and eicosanoids protect against nematode infections. J Innate Immun. 2011;3:65-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We also provide biochemical and genetic evidence for an involvement of eicosanoids in the same infection model. Taken together, our results confirm the conserved nature of the immune function of clot formation...
  27. Maneesakorn P, An R, Daneshvar H, Taylor K, Bai X, Adams B, et al. Phylogenetic and cophylogenetic relationships of entomopathogenic nematodes (Heterorhabditis: Rhabditida) and their symbiotic bacteria (Photorhabdus: Enterobacteriaceae). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2011;59:271-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, this study reveals evidence of coevolution between Photorhabdus bacteria and Heterorhabditis nematodes and provides a framework for further examination of the evolution of these associations...
  28. Eydal M, Bambir S, Sigurdarson S, Gunnarsson E, Svansson V, Fridriksson S, et al. Fatal infection in two Icelandic stallions caused by Halicephalobus gingivalis (Nematoda: Rhabditida). Vet Parasitol. 2012;186:523-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The mode of the H. gingivalis infection in case 2 is uncertain. These are the first cases of H. gingivalis infection reported from Iceland and the second report from the Nordic countries...
  29. Hallem E, Dillman A, Hong A, Zhang Y, Yano J, Demarco S, et al. A sensory code for host seeking in parasitic nematodes. Curr Biol. 2011;21:377-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The parasites' odor response profiles are more similar to each other than to that of C. elegans despite their greater phylogenetic distance, likely reflecting evolutionary convergence to insect parasitism...
  30. Bintrim S, Ensign J. Insertional inactivation of genes encoding the crystalline inclusion proteins of Photorhabdus luminescens results in mutants with pleiotropic phenotypes. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:1261-9 pubmed
    ..In general, the cip mutants were phenotypically more similar to each other than to either phase I or phase II variants. ..
  31. Meamar A, Kia E, Zahabiun F, Jafari Mehr A, Moghadam A, Sadjjadi S. The occurrence of severe infections with Rhabditis axei in AIDS patients in Iran. J Helminthol. 2007;81:351-2 pubmed
    ..During an investigation on strongyloidiasis in AIDS patients from Iran, direct smears of stools revealed many eggs and larvae of Rhabditis axei, which were subcultured to confirm identification...
  32. Shapiro D, Lewis E, Paramasivam S, McCoy C. Nitrogen partitioning in Heterorhabditis bacteriophora-infected hosts and the effects of nitrogen on attraction/repulsion. J Invertebr Pathol. 2000;76:43-8 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that nitrogen released from H. bacteriophora-infected hosts attracts nematodes at lower levels (early in the infection) and repels them at higher concentrations (later in the infection process). ..
  33. Chavarría Hernández N, Espino García J, Sanjuan Galindo R, Rodríguez Hernández A. Monoxenic liquid culture of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae using a culture medium containing whey kinetics and modeling. J Biotechnol. 2006;125:75-84 pubmed
    ..0008g(carbohydrates)g(nematodes)(-1)day(-1)) and nitrogen consumption (4.44g(nitrogen)g(nematodes)(-1)day(-1)) are first proposed. Besides, X. nematophila appears to have the capacity of lactose hydrolysis. ..
  34. Ali J, Alborn H, Campos Herrera R, Kaplan F, Duncan L, Rodriguez Saona C, et al. Subterranean, herbivore-induced plant volatile increases biological control activity of multiple beneficial nematode species in distinct habitats. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38146 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this specific belowground signal attracts natural enemies of widespread root pests in distinct agricultural systems and may have broad potential in biological control of root pests...
  35. Sturhan D, Mracek Z. Comparison of the Galleria baiting technique and a direct extraction method for recovering Steinernema (Nematoda: Rhabditida) infective-stage juveniles from soil. Folia Parasitol (Praha). 2000;47:315-8 pubmed
    ..The direct extraction method provided quantitative estimates of infective-stage juvenile density but no information on their infectivity or on morphological characters of adults, and nematode cultures could not be established. ..
  36. Islas López M, Sanjuan Galindo R, Rodríguez Hernández A, Chavarría Hernández N. Monoxenic production of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae using culture media containing agave juice (aguamiel) from Mexican maguey-pulquero (Agave spp). Effects of the contents of nitrogen, carbohydrates and fat on infective juve. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2005;68:91-7 pubmed
    ..M4 medium contained (w/v): 0.3% total nitrogen, 3.2% total carbohydrates and 3.0% total fat. According to the results obtained, total carbohydrates concentration appeared to be of great importance in obtaining high IJ concentrations. ..
  37. El Assal F, El Lakwah S, Hasheesh W, El Mahdi M. Effect of the change in energy reserves on the entomopathogenic nematode efficacy. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2008;38:929-44 pubmed
    ..The results showed that there was an increase in the penetration rate and the virulence through the new progenies of S. riobrave and H. bacteriophora than in the original progenies, with an increase in the energy reserves. ..
  38. Mrácek Z, Qi Zhi L, Nguyen K. Steinernema xueshanense n. sp. (Rhabditida, Steinernematidae), a new species of entomopathogenic nematode from the province of Yunnan, southeast Tibetan Mts., China. J Invertebr Pathol. 2009;102:69-78 pubmed publisher
    ..xueshanense n. sp., it is situated approximately at 50%. Cross-breedings, sequences of ITS and D2/D3 regions of the ribosomal DNA confirmed the new species identity. ..
  39. Li K, Jiang J, Shahzad M, Hui Zhang -, Mehmood K, Jiang X, et al. Revealing the parasitic infection in diarrheic yaks by piloting high-throughput sequencing. Microb Pathog. 2018;117:153-156 pubmed publisher
    ..At Order level, Vestibuliferida, Tritrichomonadida, Rhabditida and Eugregarinorida were observed in all three yak groups; and Neogregarinorida was noted HA and DC yaks while ..
  40. Perez E, Lewis E, Shapiro Ilan D. Impact of the host cadaver on survival and infectivity of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) under desiccating conditions. J Invertebr Pathol. 2003;82:111-8 pubmed
    ..riobrave, and S. carpocapsae, respectively. For the three treatments, infection rate over time was described by a negative exponential function for S. riobrave and S. carpocapsae and by a sigmoid function for H. bacteriophora. ..
  41. Cuthbertson A, North J, Walters K. Effect of temperature and host plant leaf morphology on the efficacy of two entomopathogenic biocontrol agents of Thrips palmi (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Bull Entomol Res. 2005;95:321-7 pubmed
    ..palmi juvenile mortality. The potential role of S. feltiae and L. muscarium within integrated pest management programmes for the control of T. palmi is discussed. ..
  42. Gassmann A, Stock S, Carriere Y, Tabashnik B. Effect of entomopathogenic nematodes on the fitness cost of resistance to Bt toxin crylac in pink bollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). J Econ Entomol. 2006;99:920-6 pubmed
    ..We report here that the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema riobrave (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) increased the fitness cost of resistance to Cry1Ac in P. gossypiella. Mortality of P...
  43. Chandra H, Khandelwal P, Khattri A, Banerjee N. Type 1 fimbriae of insecticidal bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila is necessary for growth and colonization of its symbiotic host nematode Steinernema carpocapsiae. Environ Microbiol. 2008;10:1285-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The mrxA negative strain was unable to colonize the nematode gut efficiently. This study demonstrates importance of type 1 fimbriae in establishment of bacteria-nematode symbiosis, a key to successful pest management program. ..
  44. Hao Y, Montiel R, Nascimento G, Toubarro D, Simoes N. Identification and expression analysis of the Steinernema carpocapsae elastase-like serine protease gene during the parasitic stage. Exp Parasitol. 2009;122:51-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Homology modeling showed that Sc-ELA adopts a two beta-barrel fold typical of trypsin-like serine proteases, and phylogenetic analysis indicates that Sc-ELA branched off early during elastase evolution. ..
  45. Atwa A, Hegazi E, Khafagi W, El Aziz G. Interaction of the koinobiont parasitoid Microplitis rufiventris of the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis, with two entomopathogenic rhabditids, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema carpocapsae. J Insect Sci. 2013;13:84 pubmed publisher
    ..The interaction between the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) and Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser, and the parasitoid Microplitis rufiventris Kokujev (..
  46. Morton A, Del Pino F. Effectiveness of different species of entomopathogenic nematodes for biocontrol of the Mediterranean flatheaded rootborer, Capnodis tenebrionis (Linné) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in potted peach tree. J Invertebr Pathol. 2008;97:128-33 pubmed
    ..affine (Gspe3) caused lower control of C. tenebrionis larvae (62.03% and 34.76%, respectively). The influence of foraging strategy and the use of autochthonous nematodes to control C. tenebrionis larvae inside the roots is discussed...
  47. Athanassiou C, Kavallieratos N, Menti H, Karanastasi E. Mortality of four stored product pests in stored wheat when exposed to doses of three entomopathogenic nematodes. J Econ Entomol. 2010;103:977-84 pubmed
    ..confusum larvae. In most cases, the efficacy level of the tested entomopathogenic nematode species increased with the dose and decreased with the increase of temperature. ..
  48. Yang J, Zhao X, Liang L, Xia Z, Lei L, Niu X, et al. Overexpression of a cuticle-degrading protease Ver112 increases the nematicidal activity of Paecilomyces lilacinus. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;89:1895-903 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrated the first successful transfer of a virulence gene from one nematophagous fungus to another nematophagous fungus, and improved the pathogenicity of the recipient fungus against pest nematodes. ..
  49. Laznik Z, Trdan S. Attraction Behaviors of Entomopathogenic Nematodes (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) to Synthetic Volatiles Emitted by Insect Damaged Potato Tubers. J Chem Ecol. 2016;42:314-22 pubmed publisher
    ..03 ppm). The results suggest that the susceptibility to perception of chemical stimuli from the environment is a species-specific characteristic that prevails over the influence of the foraging strategy. ..
  50. Goodrich Blair H. They've got a ticket to ride: Xenorhabdus nematophila-Steinernema carpocapsae symbiosis. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2007;10:225-30 pubmed
    ..A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the association of X. nematophila will undoubtedly yield insights into fundamental processes underlying the ubiquitous association of microbes with animals. ..
  51. Chaston J, Murfin K, Heath Heckman E, Goodrich Blair H. Previously unrecognized stages of species-specific colonization in the mutualism between Xenorhabdus bacteria and Steinernema nematodes. Cell Microbiol. 2013;15:1545-59 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal new aspects of Xenorhabdus bacteria interactions with and transmission by theirSteinernema nematode hosts, and demonstrate that bacterial SR1 genes aid in colonizing nematode epithelial surfaces. ..
  52. Nieberding C, Morand S, Libois R, Michaux J. A parasite reveals cryptic phylogeographic history of its host. Proc Biol Sci. 2004;271:2559-68 pubmed
    ..The results show how incorporating phylogeographic information of an obligate associate can help to better understand the phylogeographic pattern of its host. ..
  53. Qiu L, Hu X, Zhou Y, Mei S, Nguyen K, Pang Y. Steinernema akhursti sp. n. (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) from Yunnan, China. J Invertebr Pathol. 2005;90:151-60 pubmed
    ..feltiae and Steinernema oregonense by cross-breeding tests. ..
  54. Chen S, Glazer I, Gollop N, Cash P, Argo E, Innes A, et al. Proteomic analysis of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema feltiae IS-6 IJs under evaporative and osmotic stresses. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2006;145:195-204 pubmed
  55. Gouge D, Snyder J. Parasitism of bark scorpion Centruroides exilicauda (Scorpiones: Buthidae) by entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae; Heterorhabditidae). J Econ Entomol. 2005;98:1486-93 pubmed
    ..Field studies are warranted to assess the usefulness of entomopathogenic nematodes as biocontrol agents of bark scorpions. ..
  56. Masler E. In vitro comparison of protease activities in preparations from free-living (Panagrellus redivivus) and plant-parasitic (Meloidogyne incognita) nematodes using FMRFa and FMRFa-like peptides as substrates. J Helminthol. 2010;84:425-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The variety and complexity of nematode FLP degradation by preparations representing phylogenetically and developmentally different nematode sources are discussed. ..
  57. Karakus M, Arserim S, Toz S, Ozbel Y. [Detection of entomopathogen nematode [EPN - sand flies (Phlebotomus tobbi)] caught in the wild in Ayd?n, Ku?adas? town and its assessment as a biological control agent]. Turkiye Parazitol Derg. 2013;37:36-9 pubmed publisher
    ..For the control of sand flies, entomopathogenic nematodes which are not harmful for non-target organisms, can be used instead of chemical insecticides that can cause unknown damage in the environment. ..
  58. Fitch D. Evolution of male tail development in rhabditid nematodes related to Caenorhabditis elegans. Syst Biol. 1997;46:145-79 pubmed
    ..elegans and of morphological and developmental evolution among related nematodes will help define genetic changes underlying the evolution of form. ..
  59. Cuthbertson A, Head J, Walters K, Gregory S. The efficacy of the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema feltiae, against the immature stages of Bemisia tabaci. J Invertebr Pathol. 2003;83:267-9 pubmed
  60. Knox O, Killham K, Mullins C, Wilson M. Nematode-enhanced microbial colonization of the wheat rhizosphere. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2003;225:227-33 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that nematodes are important vectors for bacteria rhizosphere colonization in the absence of percolating water...
  61. Crossan J, Paterson S, Fenton A. Host availability and the evolution of parasite life-history strategies. Evolution. 2007;61:675-84 pubmed
    ..Incorporating parasite evolution in response to host availability would therefore enhance the predictive ability of current epidemiological models of infectious disease. ..
  62. Malan A, Manrakhan A. Susceptibility of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) and the Natal fruit fly (Ceratitis rosa) to entomopathogenic nematodes. J Invertebr Pathol. 2009;100:47-9 pubmed publisher
    ..rosa. Significantly more larvae of C. capitata were infected by H. bacteriophora. For C. rosa, highest infectivity of larvae was obtained with H. zealandica. In contrast, adults of both species were highly infected by S. khoisanae. ..
  63. van Niekerk S, Malan A. Potential of South African entomopathogenic nematodes (Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae) for control of the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Pseudococcidae). J Invertebr Pathol. 2012;111:166-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Results also showed that the first 2-4h post application is the most decisive time for establishing successful infection of mealybugs. This is the first report on the potential use of nematodes for the control of P. citri. ..
  64. Yoder C, Grewal P, Taylor R. Rapid age-related changes in infection behavior of entomopathogenic nematodes. J Parasitol. 2004;90:1229-34 pubmed
    ..mellonella. These results have important implications for storage and application of EPNs and suggest the possibility of shortening the time required to detect nematodes in the soil. ..
  65. Shahidi Noghabi S, Ansari M, Moens M. Diversity in pathogenicity of Steinernema carpocapsae and its symbiotic bacterium for Spodoptera spp. Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 2006;71:689-700 pubmed
    ..exigua and S. littoralis, respectively. As most of the isolates had the same origin, viz. the ALL strain, these results demonstrate differences in pathogenicity of the production. ..
  66. Uribe Lorio L, Mora M, Stock S. Steinernema costaricense n. sp. and S. puntauvense n. sp. (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), two new entomopathogenic nematodes from Costa Rica. Syst Parasitol. 2007;68:167-82 pubmed
    ..In addition to these traits, 28S rDNA sequences analysis and hybridisation tests showed that both new Steinernema species are distinct and unique entities. ..
  67. Razia M, Karthikraja R, Padmanaban K, Chellapandi P, Sivaramakrishnan S. 16S rDNA-based phylogeny of non-symbiotic bacteria of Entorno-pathogenic nematodes from infected insect cadavers. Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics. 2011;9:104-12 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggested that the non-symbionts of these nematodes are phylogeographically diverged in some extent due to phase variation. Therefore, these strains are not host-dependent, but environment-specific isolates...
  68. Chapuis E, Arnal A, Ferdy J. Trade-offs shape the evolution of the vector-borne insect pathogen Xenorhabdus nematophila. Proc Biol Sci. 2012;279:2672-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results therefore demonstrate the existence of a trade-off in X. nematophila, which is caused, in part, by the reduction in survival this bacterium causes to its nematode vectors. ..
  69. Grewal P, Wang X, Taylor R. Dauer juvenile longevity and stress tolerance in natural populations of entomopathogenic nematodes: is there a relationship?. Int J Parasitol. 2002;32:717-25 pubmed
  70. Zółtowska K, Grochla P, Łopieńska Biernat E. Activity of superoxide dismutase in Galleria mellonella larvae infected with entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema affinis and S. feltiae. Wiad Parazytol. 2006;52:283-6 pubmed
    ..affinis, then the activity of enzyme in the insects of both infected groups stayed at a similar level. A significant decrease of SOD activity in infected was recorded in second day of the infection. ..
  71. Flores Lara Y, Renneckar D, Forst S, Goodrich Blair H, Stock P. Influence of nematode age and culture conditions on morphological and physiological parameters in the bacterial vesicle of Steinernema carpocapsae (Nematoda: Steinernematidae). J Invertebr Pathol. 2007;95:110-8 pubmed
  72. Rohde C, Moino A, Silva M, Carvalho F, Ferreira C. Influence of soil temperature and moisture on the infectivity of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae, Steinernematidae) against larvae of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Neotrop Entomol. 2010;39:608-11 pubmed
    ..0% for S. carpocapsae and Heterorhabditis sp., respectively, at 31°C. At 25°C, the highest mortality for both species was obtained at 75% of field capacity (96.7% and 26.7% for S. carpocapsae and Heterorhabditis sp., respectively). ..
  73. Valizadeh A, Goldasteh S, Rafiei Karahroodi Z, Pedram M. First record of the genus <i>Parasitorhabditis</i> Fuchs, 1937 (Rhabditida, Nematoda) from Iran with notes on morphological and molecular characters of the Iranian population of <i>P. obtusa</i> (Fuchs, 1915) Chitwood &amp. Zootaxa. 2017;4353:591-600 pubmed publisher
    ..It was also recovered from inside of the body of the Mediterranean pine beetle, Orthotomicus erosus, representing a new insect host for this nematode species. ..
  74. Mracek Z, Sturhan D, Reid A. Steinernema weiseri n. sp. (Rhabditida, Steinernematidae), a new entomopathogenic nematode from Europe. Syst Parasitol. 2003;56:37-47 pubmed
    ..weiseri n. sp. to be distinct from 50 other Steinernema species and isolates. The new species was found in a wide range of habitats and is readily maintained on Galleria mellonella larvae. ..
  75. Jess S, Bingham J. Biological control of sciarid and phorid pests of mushroom with predatory mites from the genus Hypoaspis(Acari: Hypoaspidae) and the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema feltiae. Bull Entomol Res. 2004;94:159-67 pubmed
    ..aculeifer provided more comprehensive control of sciarids and phorids than the other biological agents studied, owing to its better dispersal within compost and casing, and ability to attack larvae of differing ages. ..
  76. Cottrell T, Shapiro Ilan D. Susceptibility of the peachtree borer, Synanthedon exitiosa, to Steinernema carpocapsae and Steinernema riobrave in laboratory and field trials. J Invertebr Pathol. 2006;92:85-8 pubmed
    ..carpocapsae in the field trial when applied at 3 x 10(5) infective juveniles per tree, and 92% mortality was obtained in the lab assay using 50 infective juveniles per larva. ..
  77. Tian B, Yang J, Lian L, Wang C, Li N, Zhang K. Role of an extracellular neutral protease in infection against nematodes by Brevibacillus laterosporus strain G4. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007;74:372-80 pubmed
    ..laterosporus. This is among the first reports to systematically evaluate and define the roles of different bacterial extracellular proteases in infection against nematodes. ..
  78. Curcić B, Sudhaus W, Dimitrijević R, Makarov S, Tomić V. Rhabditophanes schneideri (Rhabditida) phoretic on a cave pseudoscorpion. J Invertebr Pathol. 2008;99:254-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Dimitrijevi?, R.N., Tomi?, V.T., Curci?, S.B., 2004. Phoresy of Rhabditophanes schneideri (Bütschli) (Rhabditida: Alloionematidae) on pseudoscorpions (Arachnida: Pseudoscorpiones). Nematology 6 (3), 313-317]...
  79. Hao Y, Montiel R, Abubucker S, Mitreva M, Simoes N. Transcripts analysis of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae induced in vitro with insect haemolymph. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2010;169:79-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of key genes in the parasitic process provides useful tools for the improvement of S. carpocapsae as a biological agent. ..
  80. Kim S, Flores Lara Y, Patricia Stock S. Morphology and ultrastructure of the bacterial receptacle in Steinernema nematodes (Nematoda: Steinernematidae). J Invertebr Pathol. 2012;110:366-74 pubmed publisher
    ..This structure was also observed in S. diaprepesi (clade V), S. riobrave (clade IV) and S. monticolum (clade I). ..
  81. Kazimierczak W, Sajnaga E, Skowronek M, Kreft A, Skrzypek H, Wiater A. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of Xenorhabdus bovienii symbiotically associated with Steinernema silvaticum. Arch Microbiol. 2016;198:995-1003 pubmed
    ..bovienii derived from various nematode hosts were analyzed and discussed. This is the first report confirming the symbiotic association of X. bovienii with S. silvaticum. ..
  82. Campbell J, Lewis E, Yoder F, Gaugler R. Entomopathogenic nematode (Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae) spatial distribution in turfgrass. Parasitology. 1996;113 ( Pt 5):473-82 pubmed
    ..Our results support the hypothesis that these two species of nematode utilize different foraging strategies; S. carpocapsae primarily a surface adapted ambusher and H. bacteriophora as a cruise forager. ..
  83. Grewal P. Anhydrobiotic potential and long-term storage of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae). Int J Parasitol. 2000;30:995-1000 pubmed
    ..The species differences in IJ longevity and desiccation survival at different temperatures are discussed in relation to their foraging strategy and temperature adaptation. ..
  84. Glazer I, Alekseev E, Samish M. Factors affecting the virulence of entomopathogenic nematodes to engorged female Boophilus annulatus ticks. J Parasitol. 2001;87:808-12 pubmed
    ..Injecting 1 infective juvenile from 1 of 2 heterorhabditid strains into each tick resulted in close to 100% mortality. Increasing the quantity of nematodes injected into each tick had little or no additive effect on tick mortality. ..
  85. Schmitz D, Chaffin M. What is your diagnosis? Halicephalobus gingivalis. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2004;225:1667-8 pubmed
  86. Gal T, Glazer I, Sherman A, Koltai H. Protein interaction of nucleosome assembly protein 1 and casein kinase 2 during desiccation response in the insect-killing nematode Steinernema feltiae IS-6. J Parasitol. 2005;91:691-3 pubmed
    ..feltiae IS-6. ..
  87. Campos Herrera R, Jimenez J, Gutierrez C. Tolerance of Steinernema feltiae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) to agrochemical products. Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 2007;72:693-6 pubmed
  88. Chaston J, Dillman A, Shapiro Ilan D, Bilgrami A, Gaugler R, Hopper K, et al. Outcrossing and crossbreeding recovers deteriorated traits in laboratory cultured Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes. Int J Parasitol. 2011;41:801-9 pubmed publisher
    ..carpocapsae. We further suggest the possibility of creating inbred lines purged of deleterious alleles as founders in commercial nematode growth. ..
  89. Niu Q, Tian Y, Zhang L, Xu X, Niu X, Xia Z, et al. Overexpression of the key virulence proteases Bace16 and Bae16 in Bacillus nematocida B16 to improve its nematocidal activity. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;21:130-7 pubmed publisher
    ..However, our tested induction conditions could not significantly improve either the proteolytic activity or the nematocidal activity of the Bae16 overexpression mutant. ..
  90. Horiuchi J, Prithiviraj B, Bais H, Kimball B, Vivanco J. Soil nematodes mediate positive interactions between legume plants and rhizobium bacteria. Planta. 2005;222:848-57 pubmed
    ..These findings reveal a biologically-relevant and largely unknown interaction in the rhizosphere that is multitrophic and may control the initiation of the symbiosis. ..
  91. Orchard S, Goodrich Blair H. Pyrimidine nucleoside salvage confers an advantage to Xenorhabdus nematophila in its host interactions. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:6254-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, nucleoside salvage may confer a competitive advantage to X. nematophila in the nematode intestine and be important for normal entomopathogenicity. ..
  92. Luikart G, Pilgrim K, Visty J, Ezenwa V, Schwartz M. Candidate gene microsatellite variation is associated with parasitism in wild bighorn sheep. Biol Lett. 2008;4:228-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The results illustrate the usefulness of using genomic information, strong candidate genes and non-invasive sampling for monitoring both genetic variation and fitness-related traits, such as parasite resistance, in natural populations...