mermithoidea

Summary

Summary: A superfamily of nematodes of the order ENOPLIDA. Characteristics include a reduced alimentary tract and the presence of a trophosome. Its organisms can be present in the human intestine through ingestion of unwashed or contaminated raw vegetables.

Top Publications

  1. Poinar G, Lachaud J, Castillo A, Infante F. Recent and fossil nematode parasites (Nematoda: Mermithidae) of neotropical ants. J Invertebr Pathol. 2006;91:19-26 pubmed
  2. Johnson A, Kleve M. Strelkovimermis papillosus n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae), a parasite of chironomid (Insecta: Diptera) adults from the headwaters of the Mississippi River in northern Minnesota. J Parasitol. 2003;89:1186-90 pubmed
    ..Intensity of infection and intensity of infection versus sex were determined from 41 hosts. Where known, the hosts and geographical distribution are given for all 15 Strelkovimermis species. ..
  3. Mohamed A, Burr C, Burr A. Unique two-photoreceptor scanning eye of the nematode Mermis nigrescens. Biol Bull. 2007;212:206-21 pubmed
    ..The unique structure of the pigment cup eye is discussed in terms of optical function, phototaxis mechanism, eye nomenclature, and evolution...
  4. Santamarina Mijares A, Perez Pacheco R. Reduction of mosquito larval densities in natural sites after introduction of Romanomermis culicivorax (Nematoda:Mermithidae) in Cuba. J Med Entomol. 1997;34:1-4 pubmed
    ..atratus, Ps. confinnis, and Un. sapphirina. Results indicated that R. culicivorax has potential use as biological control agent against mosquitoes in several different habitats in Cuba...
  5. St Onge M, LaRue B, Charpentier G. A molecular revision of the taxonomic status of mermithid parasites of black flies from Quebec (Canada). J Invertebr Pathol. 2008;98:299-306 pubmed publisher
  6. Blackmore M, Berry R, Foster W, Walker E, Wilmot T, Craig G. Records of mosquito-parasitic mermithid nematodes in the northcentral United States. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 1993;9:338-43 pubmed
    ..abserratus, Ae. canadensis, Ae. cinereus, Ae. communis, Ae. diantaeus, Ae. provocans, Ae. punctor, Ae. stimulans and Cq. perturbans. These are the first records of such parasites in Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio and Wisconsin...
  7. Santamarina Mijares A, Bellini A. [Mass production of Romanomermis iyengari (Nematoda: Mermithidae) applied to anopheline breeding sites in Boa Vista (Roraima), Brazil]. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2000;7:155-61 pubmed
    ..Seven days after treatments were performed, anopheline populations were markedly reduced (85 to 97%). Results obtained point to the feasibility of using R. iyengari to control larval populations of both species of anophelines...
  8. Mijares A, Perez Pacheco R, Tomás Martínez S, Canton L, Ambrosio G. The Romanomermis iyengari parasite for Anopheles pseudopunctipennis suppression in natural habitats in Oaxaca State, Mexico. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 1999;5:23-8 pubmed
    ..This work suggests the potential of this mermithid to reduce An. pseudopunctipennis populations in Oaxaca State...
  9. Peloquin J, Bird D, Platzer E. Rapid miniprep isolation of mitochondrial DNA from metacestodes, and free-living and parasitic nematodes. J Parasitol. 1993;79:964-7 pubmed
    ..This DNA was essentially free of nuclear DNA and readily digested by restriction endonucleases. Approximately 20% of the mtDNA in helminth tissue was recovered, which is a significant improvement over previously available techniques. ..

More Information

Publications89

  1. Jagdale G, Gordon R. Distribution of FMRF-amide-like peptide in the nervous system of a mermithid nematode, Romanomermis culicivorax. Parasitol Res. 1994;80:467-73 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that FMRF-amide-like peptide is widely distributed within the nervous system of R. culicivorax and might function as a neurohormone or neurotransmitter in controlling physiological and developmental processes. ..
  2. Santamarina Mijares A. [Application of a mermithid nematode for the control of mosquito larvae in natural conditions]. Rev Cubana Med Trop. 1994;46:115-9 pubmed
    ..Mosquito larva populations were significantly reduced in the treated reservoirs. ..
  3. Johnson A, Kleve M. A new species of mermithid (Nematoda) in chironomids eclosing from a northern Minnesota bog. J Parasitol. 2008;94:1342-5 pubmed publisher
    ..An anomalous adult male bearing large oval structures in the posterior testis is reported. Evidence is presented for the developmental interaction of the new species with Lanceimermis palustris Johnson and Kleve, 2004. ..
  4. McKeever S, Brickle D, Hagan D. Mouthparts, antennae and genitalia of intersex Culicoides stellifer parasitized by mermithid nematodes. Med Vet Entomol. 1997;11:217-22 pubmed
    ..05%) of C.stellifer were intersexes as a result of being parasitized by mermithid nematodes. Of these, eleven had male genitalia and female type antennae and one had female genitalia with male type antennae. ..
  5. Johnson A, Kleve M. Hydromermis contorta (Kohn) and Hydromermis pseudocontorta n. sp. from chironomids of Lake Itasca and Long Lake, Minnesota. J Parasitol. 1999;85:105-9 pubmed
    ..sp. Both nematode species emerge from the host as sexually mature adults and both species give evidence of mating while in the host. The H. contorta described by Welch is designated as a new species, Hydromermis albionis n. sp. ..
  6. Peng Y, Platzer E, Song J, Peloquin L. [Susceptibility of thirty-one species of mosquitoes to Romanomermis yunanensis]. Hua Xi Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 1992;23:412-5 pubmed
    ..yunanesis is a more vigorous and aggressive parasite of Culicinae. ..
  7. Dagnogo M, Gouteux J. [New data on parasitization of Glossina palpalis palpalis (Diptera: Glossinidae) by Hexamermis glossinae (Nematoda: Mermithidae) in a forested area of Ivory Coast]. Parasite. 2003;10:269-72 pubmed
    ..17%) and few in the dry season (0.23%). The low parasitic infection rate observed here indicates a minimal effect on the population dynamics of the vector of sleeping sickness in Ivory Coast. ..
  8. Azevedo J, Hyman B. Molecular characterization of lengthy mitochondrial DNA duplications from the parasitic nematode Romanomermis culicivorax. Genetics. 1993;133:933-42 pubmed
    ..01% at the nucleotide level. These observations suggest that concerted evolution mechanisms may be active, resulting in sequence homogenation of these lengthy duplications...
  9. Hardikar A, Nath B. Chromosomal polymorphism is associated with nematode parasitism in a natural population of a tropical midge. Chromosoma. 2001;110:58-64 pubmed
    ..ramosus population towards nematode infection. This is the first report of its kind where inversion polymorphism has been shown to be associated with nematode parasitism. ..
  10. Luhring K, Mullens B. Improved rearing methods for Heleidomermis magnapapula (Nematoda: Mermithidae), a larval parasite of Culicoides variipennis sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). J Med Entomol. 1997;34:704-9 pubmed
    ..v. sonorensis larvae. Overall, parasite production was more time- and labor-efficient when larvae were parasitized in regular colony pans compared with petri dishes. ..
  11. Zaim M, Ladonni H, Ershadi M, Manouchehri A, Sahabi Z, Nazari M, et al. Field application of Romanomermis culicivorax (Mermithidae: Nematoda) to control anopheline larvae in southern Iran. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 1988;4:351-5 pubmed
    ..Romanomermis culcivorax was established in the release sites but caused only minor reductions in anopheline larval populations. The nematode would be of limited use in antimalaria campaigns in southern Iran. ..
  12. Paily K, Chandhiran K, Vanamail P, Kumar N, Jambulingam P. Efficacy of a mermithid nematode Romanomermis iyengari (Welch) (Nematoda: Mermithidae) in controlling tree hole-breeding mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) in a rubber plantation area of Kerala, India. Parasitol Res. 2013;112:1299-304 pubmed publisher
    ..05) of reduction in the immature density of A. albopictus, especially late instars and pupae, confirming the efficacy of R. iyengari in infecting the mosquito and controlling pupal emergence. ..
  13. Poinar G, Hoberg E. Mermis nigrescens (Mermithidae: Nematoda) recovered from the mouth of a child. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1988;39:478-9 pubmed
    ..The parasite was probably carried on the hair of the household dog or cat to the vicinity of the patient and was attracted to the moisture in the region of the mouth. ..
  14. Lückmann J, Poinar G. First record of a Mermithidae (Nematoda) from the meloid beetle Meloe violaceus Marsham, 1802 (Coleoptera: Meloidae). Parasitol Res. 2003;90:82-3 pubmed
    ..A new record of nematode parasitism of meloid beetles is reported and all earlier records are summarised. Rates of parasitism could be influenced by the toxic compound cantharidin that these beetles possess. ..
  15. De Villalobos L, Camino N. Limnomermis subtropicalis n. sp. (Nematoda:Mermithidae) a parasite of larvae of Simulium orbitale Lutz (Diptera:Simuliidae) in Argentina. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 1997;92:339-41 pubmed
    ..This species is characterized by having medium sized amphids, pocket-shaped, medium sized vagina, sculptured spicule, and by having 9 preanal, 7 postanal papillae in the ventral row, and 12 papillae in the lateral rows. ..
  16. Santamarina Mijares A. [Mass breeding of Romanomermis culicivorax (Nematoda: Mermithidae) in the tropical conditions of Cuba]. Rev Cubana Med Trop. 1996;48:26-33 pubmed
    ..High performances in nematoda and approximately the same amount of females and males were obtained when mosquito larvae of the species Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823, were exposed to parasite's infective larvae. ..
  17. Rodríguez Rodríguez J, García García I, Menéndez Z, García Avila I, Eladio Sánchez J, Pérez Pacheco R. [Pathogenic effect of 3 parasitic nematodes in Aedes aegypti larvae under laboratory conditions in Cuba]. Rev Cubana Med Trop. 2005;57:219-22 pubmed
    ..For this reason, a proportion of 10:1 could be recommended to evaluate these nematodes under natural conditions in useless artificial containers as a biological alternative for Aedes aegypti control. ..
  18. Santamarina Mijares A, García Avila I, González Broche R. [The evaluation of the infectious capacity of the parasitic nematode Romanomermis iyengari (Welch, 1964) (Nematoda: Mermithidae) in natural mosquito larval breeding areas]. Rev Cubana Med Trop. 1993;45:128-31 pubmed
    ..nigripalpus and 75% of the C. quinquefasciatus in the third one. Thus, the potential use of the nematode parasite Romanomermis iyengari as a biological control agent of mosquito larvae was shown. ..
  19. Kim S, Adler P. Multiple symbiotes in larval black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae): associations of trichomycete fungi with ichthyosporeans, mermithid nematodes, and microsporidia. J Invertebr Pathol. 2005;88:247-53 pubmed
    ..In addition, any combinations of symbiotes that were wholly incompatible would not have been observed in our field-collected material...
  20. Song J, Peng Y. Field trials of combined use of two species of mermithid nematodes to control Anopheles and Culex breeding in China. Indian J Malariol. 1996;33:161-5 pubmed
    ..anthropophagus. This successful use of two species of Romanomermis together not only curb mosquito nuisance it also controls the major vectors of malaria, filariasis and encephalitis B in China. ..
  21. Helden A. First extant records of mermithid nematode parasitism of Auchenorrhyncha in Europe. J Invertebr Pathol. 2008;99:351-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The insect hosts were collected from agricultural grassland field margins at three locations in Ireland during a farmland biodiversity study in 2007. ..
  22. Johnson A, Kleve M. Strelkovimermis acuticauda n. sp. and Strelkovimermis buccalis n. sp. (Nematoda:Mermithidae) from adult chironomids (Diptera:Chironomidae) from Lake Itasca, Minnesota. J Parasitol. 1996;82:478-83 pubmed
    ..The significance of the tail muscles is emphasized as a taxonomic feature to be used in describing future species of Strelkovimermis. A key to the 10 species of Strelkovimermis is provided. ..
  23. Poinar G, Buckley R. Nematode (Nematoda: Mermithidae) and hairworm (Nematomorpha: Chordodidae) parasites in Early Cretaceous amber. J Invertebr Pathol. 2006;93:36-41 pubmed
    ..A list of previously described fossil mermithids is included. ..
  24. Johnson A, Kleve M. A new mermithid species (Nematoda) from chironomid imagos eclosing from Lake Ozawindib in northern Minnesota. J Parasitol. 2010;96:1173-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The new species represents the 10th Hydromermis mermithid species described, or reported, from the region and the second from Lake Ozawindib. ..
  25. Washburn J, Anderson J, Egerter D. Distribution and prevalence of Octomyomermis troglodytis (Nematoda: Mermithidae), a parasite of the western tree hole mosquito, Aedes sierrensis. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 1986;2:341-6 pubmed
    ..Octomyomermis troglodytis escaped from adults into water vials in the laboratory, suggesting that infected adult mosquitoes serve as dispersal agents for this parasite. ..
  26. Suman D, Brey C, Wang Y, Sanad M, Shamseldean M, Gaugler R. Effects of insect growth regulators on the mosquito-parasitic nematode Romanomermis iyengari. Parasitol Res. 2013;112:817-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, IGRs should be used with caution in mosquito habitats where these parasites have established...
  27. Poinar G, Sarto i Monteys V. Mermithids (Nematoda: Mermithidae) of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae): Heleidomermis cataloniensis n. sp. from Culicoides circumscriptus Kieffer in Spain and a species of Cretacimermis Poinar, 2001 from a ceratopogonid in Burmese amber. Syst Parasitol. 2008;69:13-21 pubmed
  28. Achinelly M, Garcia J. [Effect of temperature on longevity and infection with the nematode Strelkovimermis spiculatus (Nemata: Mermithidae), a parasite of mosquitoes]. Rev Biol Trop. 2003;51:753-7 pubmed
    ..Extended longevity with maintenance of the infectivity capacity of preparasites, are important attributes to consider S. spiculatus an effective mean of controlling a large number of culicid species between 4 and 27 degrees C...
  29. Harkrider J, Gbakima A, Kandeh J, Sahr F. Mermithid (Nematoda: Mermithidae) parasitism of Simulium damnosum s.l. (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Sierra Leone and the need for vector control. J Med Entomol. 1991;28:421-3 pubmed
    ..2% in October 1986, 42.8% in August 1987). The high incidence of mermithids was associated with a high monthly biting rate, particularly during the month before the peak mermithid period (5,240 in September 1986, 4,878 in July 1987)...
  30. Campos R, Sy V. Mortality in immatures of the floodwater mosquito Ochlerotatus albifasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) and effects of parasitism by Strelkovimermis spiculatus (Nematoda: Mermithidae) in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2003;98:199-208 pubmed
    ..The proportion of parasitized adults ranged from 14.2% and 5.7% in the two cohorts compared. Pupal wet weight and adult wing lengths did not differ between parasitized and unparasitized individuals...
  31. Kobylinski K, Sylla M, Black W, Foy B. Mermithid nematodes found in adult Anopheles from southeastern Senegal. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:131 pubmed publisher
  32. Johnson A. A new mermithid nematode in imagos of Cladopelma collator (Townes) (Diptera: Chironomidae) eclosing from waterways in northern Minnesota. J Parasitol. 2008;94:880-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Bionomics and anomalies of the new species are addressed...
  33. Micieli M, Risso P, Achinelly M, de Los M Villar M, Tarquini J. Effect of temperature, photoperiod, flooding, and drying on the hatching pattern of the eggs of Strelkovimermis spiculatus (Nematoda: Mermithidae). J Invertebr Pathol. 2012;110:114-7 pubmed publisher
    ..spiculatus eggs were detected at 12.6 days after postparasite emergence, and oviposition was complete at 51days under those conditions. We propose a flooding schedule to optimize the mass-rearing of S. spiculatus...
  34. Tarla G, Poinar G, Tarla S. Hexamermis eurygasteri n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) parasitising the sunn pest Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae) in Turkey. Syst Parasitol. 2011;79:195-200 pubmed publisher
    ..This mermithid has potential as a biological control agent in an integrated control programme of the sunn pest...
  35. Hyman B, Beck J, Weiss K. Sequence amplification and gene rearrangement in parasitic nematode mitochondrial DNA. Genetics. 1988;120:707-12 pubmed
    ..Genes for subunits of the cytochrome c oxidase complex (COI and COII) are normally closely linked in animal mtDNAs, but are separated by approximately 8 kb in this mitochondrial genome...
  36. Ambrós Ginarte C, Santamarina Mijares A. [An oviposition study of the nematode parasitic on Culicidae Romanomermis iyengari in the laboratory]. Rev Cubana Med Trop. 1995;47:167-70 pubmed
    ..It was determined that the optimum time to begin the exploitation of cultures and obtain a greater yield of preparasites under laboratory conditions is the sixth week of storage...
  37. Poulin R, Latham A. Inequalities in size and intensity-dependent growth in a mermithid nematode parasitic in beach hoppers. J Helminthol. 2002;76:65-70 pubmed
    ..The main consequence of this phenomenon is that worm sizes in the mermithid population are more homogeneous than they would be if intraspecific competition had stronger effects on worm growth...
  38. Poinar G, Latham A, Poulin R. Thaumamermis zealandica n sp (Mermithidae: Nematoda) parasitising the intertidal marine amphipod Talorchestia quoyana (Talitridae: Amphipoda) in New Zealand, with a summary of mermithids infecting amphipods. Syst Parasitol. 2002;53:227-33 pubmed
    ..This is the first known marine host of a member of the family Mermithidae. Published records of mermithid nematodes from amphipods are presented...
  39. Muñoz Muñoz F, Ramoneda J, Pagès N, Pujol N, Talavera S. Is the morphology of Culicoides intersexes parasitized by mermithid nematodes a parasite adaptation? A morphometric approach to Culicoides circumscriptus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). J Invertebr Pathol. 2016;135:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Female-like antennae would be beneficial to detect these sites, while having female-like wings would favor the host's capacity of dispersal to these sites. ..
  40. Muttis E, Micieli M, Urrutia M, García J. Transmission of a pathogenic virus (Iridoviridae) of Culex pipiens larvae mediated by the mermithid Strelkovimermis spiculatus (Nematoda). J Invertebr Pathol. 2015;129:40-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This explains the correspondence between MIV infection and the factors that affect the parasitism of S. spiculatus in C. pipiens larvae. ..
  41. Santamarina Mijares A, Pérez Pacheco M. [Pathogenic effect of the nematode parasite Romanomermis iyengari(Nematoda: Mermithidae) in Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory conditions in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico]. Rev Cubana Med Trop. 1998;50:8-11 pubmed
    ..Generally, the values of the physical and chemical parameters such as pH, conductivity, oxygen, and chlorides calculated in these waters did not affect apparently the infective capacity of the preparasitics of R. iyengari...
  42. Stien A, Halvorsen O. Experimental transmission of the nematode Echinomermella matsi to the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis in the laboratory. J Parasitol. 1998;84:658-60 pubmed
    ..This slow growth rate suggests that considerable resources will be needed to maintain the system in the laboratory...
  43. Li Q, Sun Y, Wang G, Liu X. Effects of the mermithid nematode Ovomermis sinensis on the hemocytes of its host Helicoverpa armigera. J Insect Physiol. 2009;55:47-50 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report of a possible mechanism by which mermithid nematodes suppress encapsulation responses of insect hosts...
  44. Jagdale G, Gordon R. Distribution of catecholamine(s) in the nervous system of a mermithid nematode, Romanomermis culicivorax. Parasitol Res. 1994;80:459-66 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that the catecholamine(s) is widely distributed within the nervous system of R. culicivorax and might function as a neurohormone or neurotransmitter in controlling physiological and developmental processes...
  45. Paily K, Balaraman K. Effect of temperature and host-parasite ratio on sex differentiation of Romanomermis iyengari (Welch), a mermithid parasite of mosquitoes. Indian J Exp Biol. 1990;28:470-4 pubmed
    ..3) than at 30 degrees (1.5-3.9) and 35 degrees C (1.6-3.6). More than 50% of the post-parasites were females at 20 degrees and 25 degrees, 30 degrees and 35 degrees C at 1:1-1:10, 1:1-1:4 and 1:1-1:3 host-parasite ratios, respectively...
  46. Ambrós Ginarte C, Santamarina Mijares A. [Fecundity and embryonal development of Romanomermis culicivorax]. Rev Cubana Med Trop. 1994;46:159-63 pubmed
    ..It was also observed that female R culicivorax specimens laid 312 eggs in 13 days, when male and female specimens were placed in a substrate of distilled water with a pH = 4.5...
  47. Achinelly M, Micieli M. Host range of the parasite Strelkovimermis spiculatus (Nematoda: Mermithidae) in Argentina mosquitoes. J Vector Ecol. 2013;38:69-73 pubmed publisher
    ..dolosus (2.7%). Strelkovimermis spiculatus completed its development in all infected mosquito larvae. The presence of S. spiculatus in six natural mosquito populations increases the number of susceptible species to 24...
  48. Peng Y, Song J, Platzer E. [Effects of temperature on the viability and infectivity of preparasitic larvae of Romanomermis yuanenesis]. Hua Xi Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 1996;27:1-4 pubmed
    ..It indicates the low temperature preservation may prolong the survival time and keep the infectivity of these preparasitic larvae...
  49. Paily K, Arunachalam N, Somachary N, Balaraman K. Infectivity of a mermithid nematode Romanomermis iyengari (Welch) in different conductivity levels under laboratory and field conditions. Indian J Exp Biol. 1991;29:579-81 pubmed
    ..The infection reappeared on 38th day indicating that R. iyengari has not only infected mosquito larvae as soon as they were applied to tree-holes in which the conductivity was 600-2800 mu ho/cm but also got established there...
  50. Paily K, Balaraman K. Effect of temperature on different stages of Romanomermis iyengari, a mermithid nematode parasite of mosquitoes. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 1994;89:635-42 pubmed
    ..Fecundity was adversely affected at 20 degrees C and 35 degrees C. It is shown that the temperature range of 25 degrees-30 degrees C favours optimum development of R. iyengari...
  51. St Onge M, Charpentier G. Mermithids (Nematoda: Mermithidae) parasitizing different blackfly (Diptera: Simuliidae) populations in Quebec: environmental parameters related to their presence or absence in the studied brooks. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2008;24:438-43 pubmed
    ..The study of environmental parameters related to mermithid presence or absence shows that only stream depth makes a difference...
  52. Santamarina Mijares A, García Avila I, González Broche R. [Infective capacity of the parasitic nematoda Romanomermis iyengari (Welch, 1964) (Nematoda: Mermithidae) in mosquito larvae in natural conditions]. Rev Cubana Med Trop. 1992;44:92-7 pubmed
    ..quinquefasciatus. Besides, the recycling capacity of R. invengari, after its introduction, was proved, confirming its possible use in the control of mosquito larvae of medical-epidemiological importance in the Cuban tropical conditions...
  53. Blackmore M, Nielsen L. Observations on the biology of Romanomermis sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) parasites of Aedes in western Wyoming. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 1990;6:229-34 pubmed
    ..Inter-specific variation in survival of infected larvae was associated with the degree to which immune responses were manifested in different host species...
  54. Stubbins F, Agudelo P, Reay Jones F, Greene J. First report of a mermithid nematode infecting the invasive Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in the United States. J Invertebr Pathol. 2015;127:35-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations provide a basis for future research to examine the impact of nematodes on M. cribraria mortality and to investigate their capacity to reduce populations. ..
  55. Wu Y, Zhang L, Wang G. [Analysis of differentially expressed genes from female and male postparasitic Ovomermis sinensis juveniles]. Dongwuxue Yanjiu. 2012;33:487-92 pubmed
  56. Kenny E, Ruber E. Mermithid nematode parasites of Coquillettidia perturbans in Massachusetts. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 1991;7:663-4 pubmed
    ..No mermithids were found in the adult mosquitoes, nor in larvae collected in mid-season, but 3 were found in larvae collected during September and October. This is only the second recorded occurrence of mermithids in Cq. perturbans...
  57. de Valdez M. Parasitoid-induced behavioral alterations of Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae infected with mermithid nematodes (Nematoda: Mermithidae). J Vector Ecol. 2006;31:344-54 pubmed
    ..aegypti behavior may indicate that these behaviors are adaptive for the parasitoid, increasing nutritional acquisition for successful parasitoid development...
  58. Santamarina Mijares A, González Broche R. [The infective capacity of the nematode Romanomermis culicivorax Ross et Smith, 1976 (Rhabditida: Mermithidae) in mosquito larvae of the species Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann, 1821 (Diptera: Culicidae) under natural conditions]. Rev Cubana Med Trop. 1991;43:66-70 pubmed
    ..86% mortality. The second breeding site was treated with preparasiticals 30 hours after their obtention, and a decrease was seen in the larva infestation levels mean means = 1.1 and 76 +/- 0.76% mortality rate...
  59. Walker T, Meek C, Wright V. Establishment and recycling of Romanomermis culicivorax (Nematoda: Mermithidae) in Louisiana ricelands. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 1985;1:468-73 pubmed
    ..As percent parasitism increased within the population of Ps. columbiae located in bioassay containers, the degree of superparasitism also increased...
  60. Rojas Urdaneta J, Sojo Milano M, Mazzarri Pelossa M, Soca D L, García Avila Y. [Susceptibility to the infection of Anopheles nuneztovari Gabaldón and Aedes aegypti L with Romanomermis iyengari Welch (Rhabditida: Mermitidae)]. Invest Clin. 2002;43:255-62 pubmed
    ..9 and 6.7 for Anopheles nuneztovari, and 1.9 and 4.7 for Aedes aegypti respectively. Mortality ranked between 95 and 100% for both mosquito species and Anopheles nuneztovari showed the highest susceptibility to the nematode parasitism...
  61. Burr A, Hunt P, Wagar D, DeWilde S, Blaxter M, Vanfleteren J, et al. A hemoglobin with an optical function. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:4810-5 pubmed
    ..Both globins are coded by genes interrupted by two introns at the conserved positions B12.2 and G7.0, which is in agreement with the 3exon/2intron pattern model of globin gene evolution...
  62. Poinar G, Porter S, Tang S, Hyman B. Allomermis solenopsi n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) parasitising the fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Argentina. Syst Parasitol. 2007;68:115-28 pubmed
    ..The possible life-cycle of the parasite is discussed, with the aim of using A. solenopsi as a biological control agent for fire ants in the United States...
  63. Schulze J, Schierenberg E. Cellular pattern formation, establishment of polarity and segregation of colored cytoplasm in embryos of the nematode Romanomermis culicivorax. Dev Biol. 2008;315:426-36 pubmed publisher
    ..A scenario is sketched suggesting why and how during evolution the observed differences between R. culicivorax and C. elegans may have evolved...
  64. Johnson A, Kleve M. A new mermithid nematode from Ablabesmyia monilis (L.) (Diptera: Chironomidae) in northern Minnesota. J Parasitol. 2007;93:155-8 pubmed
    ..Emphasis is placed on the need for host identification, larger number of specimens of both mermithid sexes, and information on the intensity of infections to enable more precise range comparisons in mermithid biometrics...
  65. Paily K, Balaraman K. Influence of soil moisture on survival and oviposition of Romanomermis iyengari a mermithid nematode parasite of mosquitoes. Indian J Malariol. 1993;30:221-5 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that the adult nematodes migrated towards the bottom layer of the soil and laid eggs as the moisture of the upper layers decreased...
  66. Johnson A, Kleve M. A new genus and species of mermithid (Nematoda) emerging from chironomid imagos eclosing from the Mississippi River headwaters area in northern Minnesota. J Parasitol. 2009;95:1493-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Intensity and sex specificity of infection are recorded from 28 host adult chironomids of a single cohort. The new species represents the fourth tetrapapillate mermithid species described from the area and the third tetrapapillate genus...
  67. Santamarina Mijares A, García Avila I, Rivera Rosales J, Solís Montero A. Release of Romanomermis iyengari (Nematoda:Mermithidae) to control Aedes taeniorhynchus (Diptera:Culicidae) in Punta del Este, Isla de la Juventud, Cuba. J Med Entomol. 1996;33:680-2 pubmed
    ..Three of 5 sites produced parasitism in excess of 90%. The range of salinity and water depth had little influence on the levels of parasitism. Ae. taeniorhynchus density was reduced from 78 to 96% at the 5 sites 8 d posttreatment...
  68. Undeen A, White S, Fukuda T. Egg production by Strelkovimermis spiculatus (Nematoda:Mermithidae). J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 1996;12:736-8 pubmed
    ..4 x 10(3) +/- 0.5 x 10(3) eggs/female). The nematodes deposited substantially more eggs in sand (6.4 x 10(3) +/- 0.9 x 10(3)/female) than in water (1.9 x 10(3) +/- 0.3 x 10(3)/(female)...
  69. Perez Pacheco R, Santamarina Mijares A, Martínez S, Flores Ambrosio G. [The susceptibility of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis larvae to parasitism by the nematode Romanomermis iyengari (Nematoda: Mermithidae), the state of Oaxaca, Mexico]. Rev Cubana Med Trop. 1998;50:199-202 pubmed
    ..A marked reduction of the larval densities was observed in the 5 treated reservoirs seven days later, which showed an elevated susceptibility of the anopheline species to mermithid parasitism...
  70. de Valdez M. Predator avoidance behavior of Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae infected with mermithid nematodes (Nematoda: Mermithidae). J Vector Ecol. 2007;32:150-3 pubmed
  71. Walker T, Meek C, Wright V, Billodeaux J. Susceptibility of Romanomermis culicivorax (Nematoda: Mermithidae) postparasites to agrichemicals used in Louisiana rice production. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 1985;1:477-81 pubmed
    ..4%), 2,4-D (70.9%) and fentin hydroxide (67.4%)...
  72. Wang Y, Lutfi Z, Dong L, Suman D, Sanad M, Gaugler R. Host cues induce egg hatching and pre-parasitic foraging behaviour in the mosquito parasitic nematode, Strelkovimermis spiculatus. Int J Parasitol. 2012;42:881-6 pubmed publisher
    ..However, once hatched, the nematodes ignored vibrations and used only chemical cues for host location. These findings suggest that eggs hatch synchronously with the most susceptible mosquito stage and with peak mosquito larval density...
  73. Mullens B, Luhring K, Breidenbaugh M. Experimental host range studies with Heleidomermis magnapapula (Mermithidae), a parasite of Culicoides variipennis (Ceratopogonidae). J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 1997;13:398-401 pubmed
    ..v. occidentalis. Some nematode maturation was seen in C. lahontan, and limited adult nematode emergence was seen in C. boydi and C. cacticola. No nematode development was observed in 5 other Culicoides spp. penetrated...
  74. Crainey J, Wilson M, Post R. An 18S ribosomal DNA barcode for the study of Isomermis lairdi, a parasite of the blackfly Simulium damnosum s.l. Med Vet Entomol. 2009;23:238-44 pubmed publisher
    ..lairdi in a monophyletic group with Gastromermis viridis Welch (Nematoda: Mermithidae) and Isomermis wisconsinensis Welch (Nematoda: Mermithidae)...
  75. Vandergast A, Roderick G. Mermithid parasitism of Hawaiian Tetragnatha spiders in a fragmented landscape. J Invertebr Pathol. 2003;84:128-36 pubmed
    ..Results suggest that mermithid populations are sensitive to habitat fragmentation, but that changes in infection prevalence do not appear to affect spider community structure...
  76. Johnson A, Kleve M. Lanceimermis palustris n. sp. and Telomermis palustris n. sp. (Nematoda: Mermithidae) parasites of chironomid (Insecta: Diptera) adults from Lake Alice Bog in northern Minnesota. J Parasitol. 2004;90:1457-62 pubmed
    ..sp. hosts were Tanytarsus mendax Kieffer, Paratanytarsus nr. dissimilis n. sp., and Micropsectra polita (Malloch). In both mermithid species, the percent of mermithid males per host increased with the intensity of the infection...
  77. Das P, Sivagnaname N, Amalraj D. Population interactions between Culex vishnui mosquitoes and their natural enemies in Pondicherry, India. J Vector Ecol. 2006;31:84-8 pubmed
    ..In transient habitats, no such stability is present and they become more important as breeding habitats in terms of seasonality and number. Shallow water pools should be seriously considered for the control of these vectors...
  78. Santamarina Mijares A, Perez Pacheco R, Honorio Martínez S. [Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti larvae to parasitism by Romanomermis culicivorax in laboratory and field conditions in Oaxaca, Mexico]. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2000;8:299-304 pubmed
    ..culicivorax in Oaxaca, Mexico...
  79. Colbo M. Persistence of mermithidae (Nematoda) infections in black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) populations. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 1990;6:203-6 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the suitability of the stream bed for the free living phase is very important in regulating mermithid populations...
  80. Attard L, Carreno R, Paré J, Peregrine A, Dutton C, Mason T. Mermithid nematode infection in a colony of blue-winged grasshoppers (Tropidacris collaris). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2008;39:488-92 pubmed
    ..Circumstantial evidence suggests that the parasites were introduced with raspberry browse that was grown on site and contaminated with mermithid eggs...