asterina

Summary

Summary: A genus of STARFISH in the family Asterinidae. They externally hold developing embryos (EMBRYO, NON-MAMMALIAN) among the spines below the oral surface.

Top Publications

  1. Kotsiuba E, Kotsiuba A. [NADPH-diaphorase localization in the radial nerve cords of the starfish Patiria pectinifera]. Tsitologiia. 2004;46:346-51 pubmed
    ..The highest enzymatic activity in ectoneural region of the radial nerve cord is due, presumably, to the involvement of NADPH in sensory signal processing...
  2. Miguchi Y, Takata H, Doihara T, Miyawaki K, Shimokawa T, Hamada F, et al. Morphological maturation level of the esophagus is associated with the number of circumesophageal muscle fibers during archenteron formation in the starfish Patiria (Asterina) pectinifera. Biol Bull. 2010;219:12-6 pubmed
    ..During the next 12 h, the number of muscle fiber bundles increased slightly to about 31 bundles and was stable until 96 h...
  3. Otim O, Hinman V, Davidson E. Expression of AmHNF6, a sea star orthologue of a transcription factor with multiple distinct roles in sea urchin development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2005;5:381-6 pubmed
    ..We report here the cloning and the expression of an orthologue of this gene, AmHNF6, from the sea star Asterina miniata...
  4. Thao N, Dat L, Ngoc N, Tu V, Hanh T, Huong P, et al. Pyrrole and furan oligoglycosides from the starfish Asterina batheri and their inhibitory effect on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013;23:1823-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A-C (1-3), and a new furan oligoglycoside, astebatherioside D (4), were isolated from the starfish Asterina batheri by various chromatographic methods...
  5. Mita M. Incapacity of response to disulfide-reducing agent in Triton X-100-treated oocytes of starfish, Asterina pectinifera. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1040:413-6 pubmed
    ..It is possible that a protein essential for mediating DTT-induced maturation is eliminated from the oocytes surface following Triton X-100 treatment...
  6. Murabe N, Hatoyama H, Hase S, Komatsu M, Burke R, Kaneko H, et al. Neural architecture of the brachiolaria larva of the starfish, Asterina pectinifera. J Comp Neurol. 2008;509:271-82 pubmed publisher
    The nervous system of the brachiolaria larva of the starfish, Asterina pectinifera, was characterized using immunohistochemistry with the neuron-specific monoclonal antibodies 1E11 and 1F9 and an anti-serotonin antibody...
  7. Furukawa R, Takahashi Y, Nakajima Y, Dan Sohkawa M, Kaneko H. Defense system by mesenchyme cells in bipinnaria larvae of the starfish, Asterina pectinifera. Dev Comp Immunol. 2009;33:205-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results suggest that mesenchyme cells are equipped with a spectrum of abilities to engage in a defense system in starfish larva...
  8. Hara M, Abe Y, Tanaka T, Yamamoto T, Okumura E, Kishimoto T. Greatwall kinase and cyclin B-Cdk1 are both critical constituents of M-phase-promoting factor. Nat Commun. 2012;3:1059 pubmed publisher
    ..M-phase-promoting factor is thus a system consisting of one kinase (cyclin B-Cdk1) that directs mitotic entry and a second kinase (Greatwall kinase) that suppresses the protein phosphatase 2A-B55 which opposes cyclin B-Cdk1...
  9. Mita M, Yamamoto K, Nagahama Y. Interaction of relaxin-like gonad-stimulating substance with ovarian follicle cells of the starfish Asterina pectinifera. Zoolog Sci. 2011;28:764-9 pubmed publisher
    ..gonad-stimulating substance (GSS), which acts as a gonadotropin, was purified from radial nerves of the starfish Asterina pectinifera and its structure was elucidated...

More Information

Publications65

  1. Mita M, Yoshikuni M, Ohno K, Shibata Y, Paul Prasanth B, Pitchayawasin S, et al. A relaxin-like peptide purified from radial nerves induces oocyte maturation and ovulation in the starfish, Asterina pectinifera. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:9507-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we purified GSS of starfish, Asterina pectinifera, from radial nerves and determined its amino acid sequence...
  2. Peng Y, Zheng J, Huang R, Wang Y, Xu T, Zhou X, et al. Polyhydroxy steroids and saponins from China Sea starfish Asterina pectinifera and their biological activities. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2010;58:856-8 pubmed
    ..known steroid derivatives (2-8), were isolated from the EtOH extract of the whole body of China Sea starfish Asterina pectinifera...
  3. Baus E, Darrock D, Bruford M. Gene-flow patterns in Atlantic and Mediterranean populations of the Lusitanian sea star Asterina gibbosa. Mol Ecol. 2005;14:3373-82 pubmed
    In this study, the population structure of the Lusitanian sea star Asterina gibbosa was assessed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)...
  4. Yankura K, Martik M, Jennings C, Hinman V. Uncoupling of complex regulatory patterning during evolution of larval development in echinoderms. BMC Biol. 2010;8:143 pubmed publisher
    ..The embryos of these animals are microscopic, feeding within the plankton until they metamorphose into their adult forms...
  5. Ladouceur E, Wynne J, Garner M, Nyaoke A, Keel M. Lesions of Copper Toxicosis in Captive Marine Invertebrates With Comparisons to Normal Histology. Vet Pathol. 2016;53:648-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Strongylocentrotus purpuratus], sunburst anemone [Anthopleura sola], knobby star [Pisaster giganteus], bat star [Asterina miniata], and brittle star [Ophiopteris papillosa]) with spontaneous copper toxicosis, 4 purple sea urchins with ..
  6. Mita M. Starfish gonadotropic hormone: Relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptides. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2016;230-231:166-9 pubmed publisher
    Relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide (RGP) of starfish Patiria (= Asterina) pectinifera is the first identified invertebrate gonadotropin to trigger final gamete maturation...
  7. Limatola N, Chun J, Kyozuka K, Santella L. Novel Ca2+ increases in the maturing oocytes of starfish during the germinal vesicle breakdown. Cell Calcium. 2015;58:500-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report, for the first time, the existence of an additional Ca(2+) response in the maturing oocytes of Asterina pectinifera at the time of GV breakdown...
  8. Kawai N, Kuraishi R, Kaneko H. Wnt, Frizzled, and sFRP gene expression patterns during gastrulation in the starfish Patiria (Asterina) pectinifera. Gene Expr Patterns. 2016;21:19-27 pubmed publisher
    ..protein (sFRP) family genes, which play a role in the initial stage of the Wnt pathway, in starfish Patiria (Asterina) pectinifera embryos using whole mount in situ hybridization...
  9. Mita M, Daiya M, Haraguchi S, Tsutsui K, Nagahama Y. A new relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide identified in the starfish Asterias amurensis. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2015;222:144-9 pubmed publisher
    Relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide (RGP) of starfish Asterina pectinifera was the first invertebrate gonadotropin to have its chemical structure identified...
  10. Athukorala Y, Trang S, Kwok C, Yuan Y. Antiproliferative and Antioxidant Activities and Mycosporine-Like Amino Acid Profiles of Wild-Harvested and Cultivated Edible Canadian Marine Red Macroalgae. Molecules. 2016;21:E119 pubmed publisher
    ..crispus) marine red macroalgae were studied herein. Palythine, asterina-330, shinorine, palythinol, porphyra-334 and usujirene MAAs were identified in the macroalgal extracts by LC/MS/..
  11. Mita M, Katayama H. A relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide from the starfish Aphelasterias japonica. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2016;229:56-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparing with Asterias amurensis RGP (AamRGP) and Patiria (=Asterina) pectinifera RGP (PpeRGP), the amino acid identity levels of AjaRGP with respect to AamRGP and PpeRGP are 84% and ..
  12. Takahashi I, Kyozuka K. Development of Ca2+-release mechanisms during oocyte maturation of the starfish Asterina pectinifera. Zygote. 2016;24:857-868 pubmed
  13. Hartmann A, Murauer A, Ganzera M. Quantitative analysis of mycosporine-like amino acids in marine algae by capillary electrophoresis with diode-array detection. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2017;138:153-157 pubmed publisher
    ..3 enabled the baseline separation of five MAAs, namely palythine, mycosporine-serinol, asterina-330, shinorine and porphyra-334, in 27min...
  14. Barceló Villalobos M, Figueroa F, Korbee N, Álvarez Gómez F, Abreu M. Production of Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids from Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Rhodophyta) Cultured Through One Year in an Integrated Multi-trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) System. Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2017;19:246-254 pubmed publisher
    ..vermiculophylla: Porphyra-334, Shinorine, Palythine and Asterina-330...
  15. Lim J, Sung J, Sarkar B, Wang H, Hashimoto Y, Tsang D, et al. Impact of natural and calcined starfish (Asterina pectinifera) on the stabilization of Pb, Zn and As in contaminated agricultural soil. Environ Geochem Health. 2017;39:431-441 pubmed publisher
  16. Kim Y, Kim E, Hwang J, Kim J, Kim H, Dong X, et al. Fermented Asterina pectinifera with Cordyceps militaris Mycelia Induced Apoptosis in B16F10 Melanoma Cells. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2017;975 Pt 2:1141-1152 pubmed publisher
    This prime objective of this study was to explore the anti-cancer activity of fermented Asterina pectinifera with Cordyceps militaris mycelia (FACM) in B16F10 murine melanoma cells...
  17. Goto K, Sawa M, Tamai H, Imamura A, Ando H, Ishida H, et al. The Total Synthesis of Starfish Ganglioside GP3 Bearing a Unique Sialyl Glycan Architecture. Chemistry. 2016;22:8323-31 pubmed publisher
    The total synthesis of ganglioside GP3, which is found in the starfish Asterina pectinifera, has been accomplished through stereoselective and effective glycosylation reactions...
  18. Yamamoto K, Kiyomoto M, Katayama H, Mita M. Radioimmunoassay of relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide in the starfish Patiria (=Asterina) pectinifera. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2017;243:84-88 pubmed publisher
    A relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide (RGP) from starfish Patiria (=Asterina) pectinifera is the first identified invertebrate gonadotropin for final gamete maturation. An antiserum against P...
  19. Mita M, Katayama H. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide in the starfish Patiria (Asterina) pectinifera. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2018;258:157-162 pubmed publisher
    A relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide (RGP) from starfish Patiria (Asterina) pectinifera is the first identified invertebrate gonadotropin for final gamete maturation. Recently, we succeeded in obtaining specific antibodies against P...
  20. Mori M, Hara M, Tachibana K, Kishimoto T. p90Rsk is required for G1 phase arrest in unfertilized starfish eggs. Development. 2006;133:1823-30 pubmed
    ..The present study thus reveals a novel role of Rsk for G1-CSF...
  21. Zhang L, Fan X, Shi J. A novel polyhydroxyl sterol from Asterina pectinifera. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2005;7:25-9 pubmed
    ..3) and its desulfated monoglycoside (4), have been isolated from the whole bodies of a common Pacific starfish Asterina pectinifera...
  22. Morino Y, Koga H, Tachibana K, Shoguchi E, Kiyomoto M, Wada H. Heterochronic activation of VEGF signaling and the evolution of the skeleton in echinoderm pluteus larvae. Evol Dev. 2012;14:428-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the distinct activation of vegfr and vegf may have occurred in two lineages, sea urchins and brittle stars...
  23. Karadeniz F, Karagozlu M, Kong C, Kim S. In vitro anti-HIV-1 activity of the aqueous extract of Asterina pectinifera. Curr HIV Res. 2011;9:95-102 pubmed
    An aqueous extract of starfish, Asterina pectinifera, was investigated for its anti-HIV-1 efficiency in vitro on human T-cell lines. A...
  24. Keever C, Hart M. Something for nothing? Reconstruction of ancestral character states in asterinid sea star development. Evol Dev. 2008;10:62-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest caution in applying ancestral state reconstructions in the absence of an independently corroborated model of character evolution, and highlight the need for such modeling in evolutionary developmental biology...
  25. Saha A, Tamori M, Inoue M, Nakajima Y, Motokawa T. NGIWYamide-induced contraction of tube feet and distribution of NGIWYamide-like immunoreactivity in nerves of the starfish Asterina pectinifera. Zoolog Sci. 2006;23:627-32 pubmed
    NGIWYamide, a neuropeptide recently isolated from sea cucumbers, was tested on tube feet of the starfish Asterina pectinifera. NGIWYamide (10(-6)-10(-4) M) caused contraction of isolated tube feet...
  26. Pesce G, Selvaggi L, Rusciano G, Sasso A. High- and low-frequency mechanical properties of living starfish oocytes. J Biophotonics. 2011;4:324-34 pubmed publisher
    ..the mechanical properties of living starfish oocytes belonging to two species, Astropecten Auranciacus and Asterina pectinifera, over a wide range of timescales...
  27. Hamanaka G, Hosaka E, Kuraishi R, Hosoya N, Matsumoto M, Kaneko H. Uneven distribution pattern and increasing numbers of mesenchyme cells during development in the starfish, Asterina pectinifera. Dev Growth Differ. 2011;53:440-9 pubmed publisher
    During development, the embryos and larvae of the starfish Asterina pectinifera possess a single type of mesenchyme cell...
  28. Roepke T, Hamdoun A, Cherr G. Increase in multidrug transport activity is associated with oocyte maturation in sea stars. Dev Growth Differ. 2006;48:559-73 pubmed
    ..These MDR transporters serve protective roles in oocytes and eggs, as demonstrated by sensitization of the oocytes to the maturation inhibitor, vinblastine, by MRP and PGP-specific transporter inhibitors...
  29. Haesaerts D, Jangoux M, Flammang P. Adaptations to benthic development: functional morphology of the attachment complex of the brachiolaria larva in the sea star Asterina gibbosa. Biol Bull. 2006;211:172-82 pubmed
    The asteroid Asterina gibbosa lives all its life in close relation to the sea bottom. Indeed, this sea star possesses an entirely benthic, lecithotrophic development...
  30. Moccia F, Billington R, Santella L. Pharmacological characterization of NAADP-induced Ca2+ signals in starfish oocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;348:329-36 pubmed
    ..These data further support the hypothesis that a yet unidentified plasma membrane Ca2+ channel is the target of NAADP in starfish oocytes...
  31. Rashid M, Sadik G, Alam A, Tanaka T. Chemical and structural characterization of α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase I and II from starfish, asterina amurensis. BMC Biochem. 2017;18:9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggested that α-GalNAcase I and II are closely related with respect to primary and higher order structure and that their structural differences are responsible for difference in substrate specificities. ..
  32. Wada T, Hara M, Taneda T, Qingfu C, Takata R, Moro K, et al. Antisense morpholino targeting just upstream from a poly(A) tail junction of maternal mRNA removes the tail and inhibits translation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:e173 pubmed publisher
    ..The MO removed the elongated poly(A) tail from maternal matured mRNA. This antisense method introduces a new application for the targeted downregulation of maternal mRNAs in animal oocytes, eggs and early embryos...
  33. Choi G, Wahid F, Kim Y. The effect of a phytosphingosine-like substance isolated from Asterina pectinifera on involucrin expression in mite antigen-stimulated HaCaT cells. Nat Prod Commun. 2010;5:1081-4 pubmed
    ..For this purpose, a PS-like substance was isolated from Asterina pectinifera (starfish PS) using high-performance liquid chromatography and was partially characterized through 1H ..
  34. Kishimura H. Enzymatic properties of starfish phospholipase A2 and its application. Adv Food Nutr Res. 2012;65:437-56 pubmed publisher
    ..From these backgrounds, we studied for PLA2 from marine organisms and found that starfish Asterina pectinifera PLA2 possesses extremely high activity and characteristic polar-group specificity comparing with ..
  35. Kikuchi Y, Hamaguchi Y. The effect of taxol microinjection on the microtubular structure in polar body formation of starfish oocytes. Cytoskeleton (Hoboken). 2012;69:125-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that MTs lost not only the ability to obtain the bipolar attachment of chromosomes by Taxol injection but also the aster closer to the cell cortex lost its interaction with the cell cortex of the animal pole...
  36. Kaneko H, Okai M, Murabe N, Shimizu T, Ikegami S, Dan Sohkawa M. Fibrous component of the blastocoelic extracellular matrix shapes epithelia in concert with mesenchyme cells in starfish embryos. Dev Dyn. 2005;232:915-27 pubmed
    ..the blastocoelic extracellular matrix in relation to cellular activities during early development of the starfish Asterina pectinifera...
  37. Shirato Y, Tamura M, Yoneda M, Nemoto S. Centrosome destined to decay in starfish oocytes. Development. 2006;133:343-50 pubmed
  38. Haesaerts D, Finlay J, Callow M, Callow J, Grosjean P, Jangoux M, et al. Evaluation of the attachment strength of individuals of Asterina gibbosa (Asteroidea, Echinodermata) during the perimetamorphic period. Biofouling. 2005;21:229-35 pubmed
    ..flow apparatus was used to determine the adhesion strength of the three perimetamorphic stages of the asteroid Asterina gibbosa, i.e. the brachiolaria larvae, the metamorphic individuals and the juveniles...
  39. Nam K, Shon Y. Chemopreventive effects of polysaccharides extract from Asterina pectinifera on HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells. BMB Rep. 2009;42:277-80 pubmed
    We examined the effects of polysaccharides extracted from Asterina pectinifera on the activities of quinone reductase (QR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and glutathione (GSH) ..
  40. Furukawa R, Matsumoto M, Kaneko H. Characterization of a scavenger receptor cysteine-rich-domain-containing protein of the starfish, Asterina pectinifera: ApSRCR1 acts as an opsonin in the larval and adult innate immune systems. Dev Comp Immunol. 2012;36:51-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In the starfish Asterina pectinifera, mesenchyme cells and coelomocytes govern the two distinct innate immune systems of the larvae and ..
  41. Murabe N, Hatoyama H, Komatsu M, Kaneko H, Nakajima Y. Adhesive papillae on the brachiolar arms of brachiolaria larvae in two starfishes, Asterina pectinifera and Asterias amurensis, are sensors for metamorphic inducing factor(s). Dev Growth Differ. 2007;49:647-56 pubmed
    ..We present evidence supporting Barker's hypothesis using brachiolaria larvae of the two species, Asterina pectinifera and Asterias amurensis...
  42. McDougall C, Degnan B. Modularity of gene-regulatory networks revealed in sea-star development. BMC Biol. 2011;9:6 pubmed publisher
    ..This observation has implications for hypotheses on the type of development present in the deuterostome common ancestor...
  43. Kannappan R, Satoh Y, Iriyama N, Ando M, Sawada M, Takahashi N, et al. Identification and characterization of cathepsin D in a highly purified sialidase from starfish A. pectinifera. J Biochem. 2008;143:117-22 pubmed
    A sialidase [EC 3.2.1.18] from the ovary of starfish Asterina pectinifera was isolated and highly purified by preparative PAGE...
  44. Okumura E, Morita A, Wakai M, Mochida S, Hara M, Kishimoto T. Cyclin B-Cdk1 inhibits protein phosphatase PP2A-B55 via a Greatwall kinase-independent mechanism. J Cell Biol. 2014;204:881-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Such a biphasic regulation of Arpp19 results in different levels of PP2A-B55 inhibition and hence might govern its different cellular roles. ..
  45. Lee A, Bak H, Kim N, Kim M, Go H, Han J, et al. Cloning, heterologous expression, and enzymatic characterization of cathepsin L from starfish (Asterina pectinifera). Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2012;76:2342-6 pubmed
    To determine the role of cathepsin L in Echinoderms, starfish (Asterina pectinifera) cathepsin L (ApCtL) was cloned. The results of RT-PCR analysis indicated that the expression of ApCtL in all of the tissues...
  46. Usui K, Hirohashi N, Chiba K. Involvement of mitogen-activating protein kinase and intracellular pH in the duration of the metaphase I (MI) pause of starfish oocytes after spawning. Dev Growth Differ. 2008;50:357-64 pubmed publisher
    The metaphase I (MI) arrest of starfish oocytes is released after spawning. In this study using starfish Asterina pectinifera, the duration of MI after spawning was ~20 min and approximately 30 min in fertilized and unfertilized oocytes, ..
  47. Hinman V, Nguyen A, Davidson E. Caught in the evolutionary act: precise cis-regulatory basis of difference in the organization of gene networks of sea stars and sea urchins. Dev Biol. 2007;312:584-95 pubmed
    The regulatory control of otxbeta1/2 in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and the sea star Asterina miniata provides an exceptional opportunity to determine the genomic basis of evolutionary change in gene regulatory network (..
  48. Haraguchi S, Ikeda N, Abe M, Tsutsui K, Mita M. Nucleotide sequence and expression of relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide gene in starfish Asterina pectinifera. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2016;227:115-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study examined the primary structure and expression regulation of the RGP gene in starfish Asterina pectinifera...
  49. Shon Y, Nam K. Chemopreventive effect of protein extract of Asterina pectinifera in HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells. Arch Pharm Res. 2006;29:209-12 pubmed
    We investigated the effect of protein extract of Asterina pectinifera on the activity of 4 enzymes that may play a role in adenocarcinoma of the colon: quinone reductase (QR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), ornithine decarboxylase (ODC),..
  50. Yasuda N, Hamaguchi M, Sasaki M, Nagai S, Saba M, Nadaoka K. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences for Crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster planci and Acanthaster brevispinus. BMC Genomics. 2006;7:17 pubmed
    ..To obtain genomic information for these purposes, the complete nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial genome of A. planci and its putative sibling species, A. brevispinus were determined and their characteristics discussed...
  51. Fujihara Y, Miyasako H, Kato K, Hayashi T, Toraya T. Molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of starfish DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferases. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2012;76:1661-71 pubmed
    ..gene silencing functions in Echinoderms, we cloned and sequenced dnmt1 and dnmt3 cDNAs of the starfish Asterina pectinifera...
  52. Lou H, Gao Y, Zhai M, Qi Y, Chen L, Lv H, et al. A novel peptide from alpha5 helix of Asterina pectinifera cyclin B conjugated to HIV-Tat(49-57) with cytotoxic and apoptotic effects against human cancer cells. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008;18:4633-7 pubmed publisher
    A series of novel peptides from various motifs of Asterina pectinifera cyclin B and their derivatives conjugated to HIV-Tat(49-57) were designed and synthesized. Their bioactivities on two human cancer cell lines were determined...
  53. Mita M, Yamamoto K, Nakamura M, Takeshige Y, Watanabe M, Nagahama Y. Participation of Gs-proteins in the action of relaxin-like gonad-stimulating substance (GSS) for 1-methyladenine production in starfish ovarian follicle cells. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2012;176:432-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, we purified GSS from radial nerves in the starfish Asterina pectinifera and identified the chemical structure as a heterodimer composed of two different peptides (A- and B-..
  54. Gao F, Davidson E. Transfer of a large gene regulatory apparatus to a new developmental address in echinoid evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6091-6 pubmed publisher
  55. Nakachi M, Matsumoto M, Terry P, Cerny R, Moriyama H. Identification of guanylate cyclases and related signaling proteins in sperm tail from sea stars by mass spectrometry. Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2008;10:564-71 pubmed publisher
    ..forbesi, and Asterina pectinifera...
  56. Jeong M, Yang K, Kim J, Nam B, Kim G, Lee S, et al. Inhibitory effects of Asterina pectinifera extracts on melanin biosynthesis through tyrosinase activity. Int J Mol Med. 2013;31:205-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-melanogenic effect of Asterina pectinifera (A...