sea urchins

Summary

Summary: Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.

Top Publications

  1. Stamateris R, Rafiq K, Ettensohn C. The expression and distribution of Wnt and Wnt receptor mRNAs during early sea urchin development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2010;10:60-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This contrasts sharply with findings in other organisms and points to remarkable evolutionary flexibility in the molecular mechanisms that underlie this otherwise very highly conserved patterning process...
  2. Coma R, Serrano E, Linares C, Ribes M, Diaz D, Ballesteros E. Sea urchins predation facilitates coral invasion in a marine reserve. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22017 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Sea urchins overgraze macroalgae and create barren patches in the space-limited macroalgal community that subsequently ..
  3. Ernst S. Offerings from an urchin. Dev Biol. 2011;358:285-94 pubmed publisher
  4. Ziegler A, Ogurreck M, Steinke T, Beckmann F, Prohaska S, Ziegler A. Opportunities and challenges for digital morphology. Biol Direct. 2010;5:45 pubmed publisher
    ..These developments pave the way towards a digital era in morphology. Using sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea), we provide examples illustrating the power of these techniques...
  5. Yajima M, Fairbrother W, Wessel G. ISWI contributes to ArsI insulator function in development of the sea urchin. Development. 2012;139:3613-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies reveal a mechanistic basis for ArsI function in the gene regulatory network of early development...
  6. Garau G, Castaldi P, Deiana S, Campus P, Mazza A, Deiana P, et al. Assessment of the use potential of edible sea urchins (Paracentrotus lividus) processing waste within the agricultural system: influence on soil chemical and biological properties and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and wheat (Triticum vulgare) growth in a. J Environ Manage. 2012;109:12-8 pubmed publisher
    ..lividus processing waste, which foresees economic value in the sea urchin by-product through its re-use within the agricultural production system...
  7. Sethi A, Wikramanayake R, Angerer R, Range R, Angerer L. Sequential signaling crosstalk regulates endomesoderm segregation in sea urchin embryos. Science. 2012;335:590-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we report that endomesoderm segregation is a progressive process, requiring a succession of regulatory interactions between cWnt and Notch signaling. ..
  8. Campanale J, Hamdoun A. Programmed reduction of ABC transporter activity in sea urchin germline progenitors. Development. 2012;139:783-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These results point to tradeoffs between signaling and the protective functions of the transporters...
  9. Nam J, Dong P, Tarpine R, Istrail S, Davidson E. Functional cis-regulatory genomics for systems biology. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:3930-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach will qualitatively alter the practice of GRN construction as well as validation, and will impact many additional areas of regulatory system biology...

More Information

Publications81

  1. Fujii T, Sakamoto N, Ochiai H, Fujita K, Okamitsu Y, Sumiyoshi N, et al. Role of the nanos homolog during sea urchin development. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:2511-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that HpNanos is involved in the inductive interaction of small micromere descendants with other cell lineages, and that HpNanos is required for the survival of small micromere descendants...
  2. Chen J, Luo Y, Su Y. The dynamic gene expression patterns of transcription factors constituting the sea urchin aboral ectoderm gene regulatory network. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:250-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The dynamic changes in the expression patterns of these transcription factor genes and the nuclearization of pSmad1/5/8 may provide a foundation for resolving the AE GRN...
  3. Barbera C, Fernandez Jover D, Lopez Jimenez J, González Silvera D, Hinz H, Moranta J. Trophic ecology of the sea urchin Spatangus purpureus elucidated from gonad fatty acids composition analysis. Mar Environ Res. 2011;71:235-46 pubmed publisher
    Irregular sea urchins such as the spatangoid Spatangus purpureus are important bioturbators that contribute to natural biogenic disturbance and the functioning of biogeochemical cycles in soft sediments...
  4. Nicastro D. Cryo-electron microscope tomography to study axonemal organization. Methods Cell Biol. 2009;91:1-39 pubmed publisher
    ..The chapter is addressed to both scientists who already use or consider using cryo-tomography of cilia and flagella, as well as researchers who would like to learn more about the process and how to "read" these new 3D images...
  5. Materna S, Nam J, Davidson E. High accuracy, high-resolution prevalence measurement for the majority of locally expressed regulatory genes in early sea urchin development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2010;10:177-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The data are available via an interactive website for quick plotting of selected time courses...
  6. Holland N, Ghiselin M. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has failed to distinguish between smaller gut regions and larger haemal sinuses in sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea). BMC Biol. 2009;7:39; author reply 39 pubmed publisher
    ..A response to Ziegler A, Faber C, Mueller S, Bartolomaeus T: Systematic comparison and reconstruction of sea urchin (Echinoidea) internal anatomy: a novel approach using magnetic resonance imaging. BMC Biol 2008, 6: 33...
  7. Croce J, Range R, Wu S, Miranda E, Lhomond G, Peng J, et al. Wnt6 activates endoderm in the sea urchin gene regulatory network. Development. 2011;138:3297-306 pubmed publisher
    ..The data also show that Wnt6 is only one of what are likely to be multiple components that are necessary for activation of the entire endomesoderm gene regulatory network...
  8. Carballeira C, Martin Diaz L, DelValls T. Influence of salinity on fertilization and larval development toxicity tests with two species of sea urchin. Mar Environ Res. 2011;72:196-203 pubmed publisher
    ..More research on A. lixula is required, since the fertilization success was below 60%. The results of the present study demonstrate that salinity may be a confounding factor in interpreting ELD test results...
  9. Croce J, McClay D. Dynamics of Delta/Notch signaling on endomesoderm segregation in the sea urchin embryo. Development. 2010;137:83-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this study provides new insights into the timing mechanisms and the molecular dynamics of endomesoderm segregation during sea urchin embryogenesis and into the mode of action of the Delta/Notch pathway in mediating mesoderm fate...
  10. Christodoulou F, Raible F, Tomer R, Simakov O, Trachana K, Klaus S, et al. Ancient animal microRNAs and the evolution of tissue identity. Nature. 2010;463:1084-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, they outline a minimum set of cell types and tissues that existed in the protostome-deuterostome ancestor...
  11. Byrne M, Soars N, Selvakumaraswamy P, Dworjanyn S, Davis A. Sea urchin fertilization in a warm, acidified and high pCO2 ocean across a range of sperm densities. Mar Environ Res. 2010;69:234-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It is important to identify where vulnerabilities lie across life histories and our results indicate that sea urchin fertilization is robust to climate change stressors. However, developmental stages may be vulnerable to ocean change...
  12. Guerrero A, Nishigaki T, Carneiro J, Yoshiro Tatsu -, Wood C, Darszon A. Tuning sperm chemotaxis by calcium burst timing. Dev Biol. 2010;344:52-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Tuning of Ca(2+) fluctuations and associated turning episodes to the chemoattractant gradient polarity is a central feature of sea urchin sperm chemotaxis and may be a feature of sperm chemotaxis in general...
  13. Davidson E. Network design principles from the sea urchin embryo. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2009;19:535-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These subcircuits are dedicated to specific developmental functions, unlike simpler 'motifs', and may indicate a repertoire of specific devices of which developmental gene regulatory networks are composed...
  14. Oliver T, Garfield D, Manier M, Haygood R, Wray G, Palumbi S. Whole-genome positive selection and habitat-driven evolution in a shallow and a deep-sea urchin. Genome Biol Evol. 2010;2:800-14 pubmed publisher
    ..positive selection as a function of tissue-specific and stage-specific gene expression in two closely-related sea urchins, the shallow-water Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and the deep-sea Allocentrotus fragilis, which have diverged ..
  15. Pruliere G, Cosson J, Chevalier S, Sardet C, Chenevert J. Atypical protein kinase C controls sea urchin ciliogenesis. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:2042-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that aPKC might function to phosphorylate kinesin and so activate the transport of intraflagellar vesicles...
  16. Emlet R. Morphological evolution of newly metamorphosed sea urchins--a phylogenetic and functional analysis. Integr Comp Biol. 2010;50:571-88 pubmed publisher
    Newly metamorphosed juvenile sea urchins are highly variable across taxa...
  17. Lessios H. Speciation genes in free-spawning marine invertebrates. Integr Comp Biol. 2011;51:456-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Here I review the function, species-specificity, and molecular variation of loci coding for bindin in sea urchins, lysin in abalone and their egg receptors, in an effort to assess the degree to which they contribute to the ..
  18. Chan K, Grünbaum D, O Donnell M. Effects of ocean-acidification-induced morphological changes on larval swimming and feeding. J Exp Biol. 2011;214:3857-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Adjustments to larval morphologies in response to ocean acidification may prioritize swimming over feeding, implying that negative consequences of ocean acidification are carried over to later developmental stages...
  19. Schlegel P, Havenhand J, Gillings M, Williamson J. Individual variability in reproductive success determines winners and losers under ocean acidification: a case study with sea urchins. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e53118 pubmed publisher
    ..This selection may ameliorate the biotic effects of climate change if taxa have sufficient extant genetic variation upon which selection can act. ..
  20. Sheppard Brennand H, Soars N, Dworjanyn S, Davis A, Byrne M. Impact of ocean warming and ocean acidification on larval development and calcification in the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11372 pubmed publisher
    ..However, this may be buffered by enhanced growth and metabolism due to warming...
  21. Puchi M, García Huidobro J, Cordova C, Aguilar R, Dufey E, Imschenetzky M, et al. A new nuclear protease with cathepsin L properties is present in HeLa and Caco-2 cells. J Cell Biochem. 2010;111:1099-106 pubmed publisher
    ..a cysteine protease (SpH-protease) participates in male chromatin remodeling and in cell-cycle progression in sea urchins embryos. The gene that encodes this protease was cloned...
  22. Angerer L, Yaguchi S, Angerer R, Burke R. The evolution of nervous system patterning: insights from sea urchin development. Development. 2011;138:3613-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review these conserved nervous system patterning signals and consider how the relationships between them might have changed during deuterostome evolution...
  23. Ribeiro A, Barbaglio A, Benedetto C, Ribeiro C, Wilkie I, Carnevali M, et al. New insights into mutable collagenous tissue: correlations between the microstructure and mechanical state of a sea-urchin ligament. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24822 pubmed publisher
    ..Further evidence that the juxtaligamental cells are the effectors of these changes in mechanical properties was provided by a correlation between their cytology and the tensile state of the CDLs...
  24. Pigino G, Maheshwari A, Bui K, Shingyoji C, Kamimura S, Ishikawa T. Comparative structural analysis of eukaryotic flagella and cilia from Chlamydomonas, Tetrahymena, and sea urchins. J Struct Biol. 2012;178:199-206 pubmed publisher
    ..This comparative structural analysis defines the diversity of molecular architectures in these organisms, and forms the basis for future correlation with their different bending-motions...
  25. Duboc V, Lapraz F, Saudemont A, Bessodes N, Mekpoh F, Haillot E, et al. Nodal and BMP2/4 pattern the mesoderm and endoderm during development of the sea urchin embryo. Development. 2010;137:223-35 pubmed publisher
  26. Hart M, Popovic I, Emlet R. Low rates of bindin codon evolution in lecithotrophic Heliocidaris sea urchins. Evolution. 2012;66:1709-21 pubmed publisher
    ..variables including egg size affect the evolutionary response to sexual selection in broadcast-spawning sea urchins and other marine animals...
  27. Calosi P, Rastrick S, Graziano M, Thomas S, Baggini C, Carter H, et al. Distribution of sea urchins living near shallow water CO2 vents is dependent upon species acid-base and ion-regulatory abilities. Mar Pollut Bull. 2013;73:470-84 pubmed publisher
    ..cope with elevated CO2, we investigated the acid-base and ion regulatory responses, as well as the density, of sea urchins living around CO2 vents at Vulcano, Italy...
  28. Juliano C, Yajima M, Wessel G. Nanos functions to maintain the fate of the small micromere lineage in the sea urchin embryo. Dev Biol. 2010;337:220-32 pubmed publisher
    ..This work, in combination with other recent results in Ilyanassa and Platynereis dumerilii, suggests the presence of a conserved molecular program underlying both primordial germ cell and multipotent cell specification and maintenance...
  29. Bönigk W, Loogen A, Seifert R, Kashikar N, Klemm C, Krause E, et al. An atypical CNG channel activated by a single cGMP molecule controls sperm chemotaxis. Sci Signal. 2009;2:ra68 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, CNGK has developed a mechanism of activation that is different from the activation of other CNG channels, which requires the cooperative binding of several ligands and operates in the micromolar rather than the nanomolar range...
  30. Zhuang L, Karotki A, Bruecker P, Trueb B. Comparison of the receptor FGFRL1 from sea urchins and humans illustrates evolution of a zinc binding motif in the intracellular domain. BMC Biochem. 2009;10:33 pubmed publisher
    ..The FGFRL1 gene has evolved much earlier than previously assumed. A comparison of the intracellular domain between sea urchin and human FGFRL1 provides interesting insights into the shaping of a novel zinc binding domain...
  31. Kambara Y, Shiba K, Yoshida M, Sato C, Kitajima K, Shingyoji C. Mechanism regulating Ca2+-dependent mechanosensory behaviour in sea urchin spermatozoa. Cell Struct Funct. 2011;36:69-82 pubmed
    ..The results show that the Ca(2+)-dependent mechanosensory behaviour of the sea urchin sperm is regulated by organized functioning of the membrane environment including the plasma membrane proteins and flagellasialin...
  32. Ciminiello P, Dell Aversano C, Dello Iacovo E, Fattorusso E, Forino M, Tartaglione L, et al. Palytoxin in seafood by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry: investigation of extraction efficiency and matrix effect. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2011;401:1043-50 pubmed publisher
  33. Yankura K, Martik M, Jennings C, Hinman V. Uncoupling of complex regulatory patterning during evolution of larval development in echinoderms. BMC Biol. 2010;8:143 pubmed publisher
    ..The embryos of these animals are microscopic, feeding within the plankton until they metamorphose into their adult forms...
  34. Ziegler A, Mooi R, Rolet G, De Ridder C. Origin and evolutionary plasticity of the gastric caecum in sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea). BMC Evol Biol. 2010;10:313 pubmed publisher
    ..This also holds true for sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea), in which a highly specialized gastric caecum can be found in members of a derived ..
  35. Cavalieri V, Guarcello R, Spinelli G. Specific expression of a TRIM-containing factor in ectoderm cells affects the skeletal morphogenetic program of the sea urchin embryo. Development. 2011;138:4279-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the strim1 function elicits specific gene expression both in ectoderm cells and PMCs to guide the skeletal biomineralization during morphogenesis...
  36. Alvarez L, Dai L, Friedrich B, Kashikar N, Gregor I, Pascal R, et al. The rate of change in Ca(2+) concentration controls sperm chemotaxis. J Cell Biol. 2012;196:653-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The cytoskeleton of cilia, the axoneme, is highly conserved. Thus, motile ciliated cells in general might use a similar cellular computation to translate changes of [Ca(2+)](i) into motion...
  37. Lin J, Heuser T, Song K, Fu X, Nicastro D. One of the nine doublet microtubules of eukaryotic flagella exhibits unique and partially conserved structures. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46494 pubmed publisher
  38. Guerrero A, Wood C, Nishigaki T, Carneiro J, Darszon A. Tuning sperm chemotaxis. Biochem Soc Trans. 2010;38:1270-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The article considers this new evidence and summarizes the known underlying cellular mechanisms and behavioural strategies that sperm use to locate and fertilize the oocyte...
  39. Abou Chakra M, Stone J. Holotestoid: a computational model for testing hypotheses about echinoid skeleton form and growth. J Theor Biol. 2011;285:113-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Holotestoid can be used to explain morphological disparity among echinoid tests...
  40. Geyer L, Lessios H. Lack of character displacement in the male recognition molecule, bindin, in Altantic sea urchins of the genus Echinometra. Mol Biol Evol. 2009;26:2135-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Processes acting within species, such as sexual selection, sperm competition, or sexual conflict, are more likely to be involved in the evolution of this molecule...
  41. McClay D. Evolutionary crossroads in developmental biology: sea urchins. Development. 2011;138:2639-48 pubmed publisher
    Embryos of the echinoderms, especially those of sea urchins and sea stars, have been studied as model organisms for over 100 years...
  42. Peter I, Davidson E. The endoderm gene regulatory network in sea urchin embryos up to mid-blastula stage. Dev Biol. 2010;340:188-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we integrate the architecture of regulatory interactions with the spatial restriction of regulatory gene expression to model the logic control of endoderm development...
  43. Materna S, Davidson E. A comprehensive analysis of Delta signaling in pre-gastrular sea urchin embryos. Dev Biol. 2012;364:77-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Disruption of the second phase of Delta expression specifically abolishes specification of late mesodermal derivatives such as the coelomic pouches to which the small micromeres contribute...
  44. Evans T, Chan F, Menge B, Hofmann G. Transcriptomic responses to ocean acidification in larval sea urchins from a naturally variable pH environment. Mol Ecol. 2013;22:1609-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Next, we cultured the progeny of adult purple sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) collected from this region in CO2 -acidified seawater representing present day ..
  45. Brailoiu E, Hooper R, Cai X, Brailoiu G, Keebler M, Dun N, et al. An ancestral deuterostome family of two-pore channels mediates nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent calcium release from acidic organelles. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:2897-901 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data highlight the functional divergence of this novel gene family during deuterostome evolution and provide further evidence that NAADP mediates calcium release from acidic stores through activation of TPCs...
  46. Morgan A. Sea urchin eggs in the acid reign. Cell Calcium. 2011;50:147-56 pubmed publisher
    ..This review attempts to summarize what we currently know about egg acidic vesicles in the context of Ca(2+) signalling. The dynamics of Ca(2+) storage, Ca(2+) mobilization, proton fluxes and two-pore channels will be discussed...
  47. Puchi M, Quiñones K, Concha C, Iribarren C, Bustos P, Morin V, et al. Microinjection of an antibody against the cysteine-protease involved in male chromatin remodeling blocks the development of sea urchin embryos at the initial cell cycle. J Cell Biochem. 2006;98:335-42 pubmed
    ..These results further support the crucial role of this protease in early embryonic development. ..
  48. Hinman V, Nguyen A, Davidson E. Caught in the evolutionary act: precise cis-regulatory basis of difference in the organization of gene networks of sea stars and sea urchins. Dev Biol. 2007;312:584-95 pubmed
    ..Finally, inter-specific gene transfer experiments confirm this scenario and demonstrate evolution occurring at the level of sequence changes to the cis-regulatory module...
  49. Morishita V, Buchmann F, Christofoletti R, Volpato G, Barreto R. Prior residence and body size influence interactions between black sea urchins. Behav Processes. 2009;80:191-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We found body size and prior residence concomitantly modulated interactions among black sea urchins, with prior residence as the major determinant...
  50. Croce J, Wu S, Byrum C, Xu R, Duloquin L, Wikramanayake A, et al. A genome-wide survey of the evolutionarily conserved Wnt pathways in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Dev Biol. 2006;300:121-31 pubmed
    ..Thus, these analyses produce new inputs in the evolutionary history of the Wnt genes in an animal occupying a position that offers great insights into the basal properties of deuterostomes. ..
  51. Andrew Cameron R, Davidson E. A basal deuterostome genome viewed as a natural experiment. Gene. 2007;406:1-7 pubmed
    ..The gene sets of the sea urchin place it firmly among the deuterostomes and indicate that various gene family-specific expansions and contractions characterize the evolution of animal genomes rather than the invention of new genes. ..
  52. Bince J, Peng C, Wikramanayake A. Detecting expression patterns of Wnt pathway components in sea urchin embryos. Methods Mol Biol. 2008;469:201-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we provide detailed protocols for determining the expression and localization of mRNA and proteins in early sea urchin embryos, which can be used in studies examining the regulation of Wnt signaling along the A-V axis. ..
  53. Rizzo F, Fernandez Serra M, Squarzoni P, Archimandritis A, Arnone M. Identification and developmental expression of the ets gene family in the sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus). Dev Biol. 2006;300:35-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The dynamic, and in some cases overlapping and/or unique, developmental expression pattern of the latter five genes suggests a complex, non-redundant function for ETS factors in sea urchin mesenchyme formation and differentiation...
  54. Morin V, Sanchez A, Quiñones K, Huidobro J, Iribarren C, Bustos P, et al. Cathepsin L inhibitor I blocks mitotic chromosomes decondensation during cleavage cell cycles of sea urchin embryos. J Cell Physiol. 2008;216:790-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, we observed that when this protease was inhibited the chromatin decondensation after mitosis was abolished indicating that the inhibition of this enzyme affects chromosomes decondensation after mitosis. ..
  55. Zachos L. A new computational growth model for sea urchin skeletons. J Theor Biol. 2009;259:646-57 pubmed publisher
    ..inhibition model for plate addition results in the alternating plate addition pattern characteristic of sea urchins, and that application of the Bertalanffy growth model to individual plates results in simulated somatic growth ..
  56. Su Y, Li E, Geiss G, Longabaugh W, Kr mer A, Davidson E. A perturbation model of the gene regulatory network for oral and aboral ectoderm specification in the sea urchin embryo. Dev Biol. 2009;329:410-21 pubmed publisher
  57. Hereu B, Zabala M, Sala E. Multiple controls of community structure and dynamics in a sublittoral marine environment. Ecology. 2008;89:3423-35 pubmed
    ..We conducted an experiment by manipulating densities of the major consumers of benthic algae (fishes and sea urchins) in approximately 100-m2 enclosures in a marine reserve, and monitored algal assemblages over two and a half ..
  58. Morgan A, Galione A. NAADP induces pH changes in the lumen of acidic Ca2+ stores. Biochem J. 2007;402:301-10 pubmed
    ..The results of the present study further support acidic stores as targets for NAADP and for the first time reveal an adjunct role for NAADP in regulating the pH(L) of intracellular organelles. ..
  59. Walters J, Binkley E, Haygood R, Romano L. Evolutionary analysis of the cis-regulatory region of the spicule matrix gene SM50 in strongylocentrotid sea urchins. Dev Biol. 2008;315:567-78 pubmed publisher
    ..We speculate that such changes in SM50 and other genes could accumulate to produce altered patterns of gene expression with functional consequences during skeleton formation...
  60. Juliano C, Voronina E, Stack C, Aldrich M, Cameron A, Wessel G. Germ line determinants are not localized early in sea urchin development, but do accumulate in the small micromere lineage. Dev Biol. 2006;300:406-15 pubmed
    ..The results of this screen suggest that sea urchins conditionally specify their germ line, and support the hypothesis that this mechanism is the basal mode of germ ..
  61. Range R, Lapraz F, Quirin M, Marro S, Besnardeau L, Lepage T. Cis-regulatory analysis of nodal and maternal control of dorsal-ventral axis formation by Univin, a TGF-beta related to Vg1. Development. 2007;134:3649-64 pubmed
    ..The data are consistent with a model of nodal regulation in which a maternal TGF-beta acts in synergy with maternal transcription factors and with spatial repressors to establish the dorsal-ventral axis of the sea urchin embryo. ..
  62. Pederson T. The sea urchin's siren. Dev Biol. 2006;300:9-14 pubmed
    ..Like all of us, I am excited to see the S. purpuratus genome appear and heartily congratulate, by writing this essay, the trailblazers whose intellectual courage and persistence has brought us to this happy position. ..
  63. Hibino T, Ishii Y, Levin M, Nishino A. Ion flow regulates left-right asymmetry in sea urchin development. Dev Genes Evol. 2006;216:265-76 pubmed
    ..Larvae of sea urchins exhibit consistently oriented LR asymmetry...
  64. Duboc V, Lapraz F, Besnardeau L, Lepage T. Lefty acts as an essential modulator of Nodal activity during sea urchin oral-aboral axis formation. Dev Biol. 2008;320:49-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate that Lefty is essential for oral-aboral axis formation and suggest that Lefty acts as a long-range inhibitor of Nodal signalling in the sea urchin embryo. ..
  65. Vasudevan S, Galione A, Churchill G. Sperm express a Ca2+-regulated NAADP synthase. Biochem J. 2008;411:63-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings indicate that this novel enzyme should be considered as the first true NAADP synthase. ..
  66. Miles H, Widdicombe S, Spicer J, Hall Spencer J. Effects of anthropogenic seawater acidification on acid-base balance in the sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris. Mar Pollut Bull. 2007;54:89-96 pubmed
    ..Geological sequestration leaks may result in dramatic localised pH reductions, e.g. pH 5.8. P. miliaris is intolerant of pH 6.16 seawater and significant mortality is seen at pH 6.63...
  67. Walton K, Croce J, Glenn T, Wu S, McClay D. Genomics and expression profiles of the Hedgehog and Notch signaling pathways in sea urchin development. Dev Biol. 2006;300:153-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Functional analyses in future studies will embed these pathways into the growing knowledge of gene regulatory networks that govern early specification and morphogenesis...
  68. Morgan A, Galione A. Fertilization and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate induce pH changes in acidic Ca(2+) stores in sea urchin eggs. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:37730-7 pubmed
    ..Our data show that NAADP and physiological stimuli alter the pH within intracellular organelles and suggest that NAADP signals through pH as well as Ca(2+)...
  69. Revilla i Domingo R, Oliveri P, Davidson E. A missing link in the sea urchin embryo gene regulatory network: hesC and the double-negative specification of micromeres. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:12383-8 pubmed
    ..As logically required, blockade of hesC mRNA translation and global overexpression of pmar1 mRNA have the same effect, which is to cause all of the cells of the embryo to express micromere-specific genes...
  70. Materna S, Oliveri P. A protocol for unraveling gene regulatory networks. Nat Protoc. 2008;3:1876-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Unraveling the GRN for a whole tissue or organ is a challenging undertaking and, depending on the complexity, may take anywhere from months to years to complete...
  71. Huggett M, Williamson J, de Nys R, Kjelleberg S, Steinberg P. Larval settlement of the common Australian sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma in response to bacteria from the surface of coralline algae. Oecologia. 2006;149:604-19 pubmed
    ..erythrogramma larvae. This study is also an example of the emerging integration of molecular microbiology and more traditional marine eukaryote ecology...
  72. Robertson A, Dickey Sims C, Ransick A, Rupp D, McCarthy J, Coffman J. CBFbeta is a facultative Runx partner in the sea urchin embryo. BMC Biol. 2006;4:4 pubmed publisher
    ..SpCBFbeta is a facultative Runx partner that appears to be required specifically for cell differentiation...