sea cucumbers

Summary

Summary: A class of Echinodermata characterized by long, slender bodies.

Top Publications

  1. Tong Y, Zhang X, Tian F, Yi Y, Xu Q, Li L, et al. Philinopside A, a novel marine-derived compound possessing dual anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor effects. Int J Cancer. 2005;114:843-53 pubmed
    ..6-4.9 microM. These results suggest that philinopside A is a promising anti-cancer agent that possesses dual cytotoxic and anti-angiogenic effects that were at least partly due to its inhibitory effects on RTKs...
  2. Kumar R, Chaturvedi A, Shukla P, Lakshmi V. Antifungal activity in triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber Actinopyga lecanora. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2007;17:4387-91 pubmed
    ..56 microg/ml...
  3. Antonov A, Avilov S, Kalinovsky A, Anastyuk S, Dmitrenok P, Evtushenko E, et al. Triterpene glycosides from Antarctic sea cucumbers. 1. Structure of liouvillosides A1, A2, A3, B1, and B2 from the sea cucumber Staurocucumis liouvillei: new procedure for separation of highly polar glycoside fractions and taxonomic revision. J Nat Prod. 2008;71:1677-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Glycosides 2 and 3 contain 3-O-methylquinovose, found for the first time as a natural monosaccharide in sea cucumber glycosides. On the basis of analyses of glycoside structures a taxonomic revision is proposed...
  4. Sugawara T, Zaima N, Yamamoto A, Sakai S, Noguchi R, Hirata T. Isolation of sphingoid bases of sea cucumber cerebrosides and their cytotoxicity against human colon cancer cells. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2006;70:2906-12 pubmed
    ..Sphingolipids of sea cucumber might therefore serve as bioactive dietary components to suppress colon cancer. ..
  5. Mashanov V, Zueva O, Garcia Arraras J. Organization of glial cells in the adult sea cucumber central nervous system. Glia. 2010;58:1581-93 pubmed publisher
    ..A hypothesis is proposed that the radial glia could be an ancestral feature of the deuterostome nervous system, and the origin of this cell type might have predated the diversification of the Chordata and Ambulacraria lineages. ..
  6. Silchenko A, Stonik V, Avilov S, Kalinin V, Kalinovsky A, Zaharenko A, et al. Holothurins B(2), B(3), and B(4), new triterpene glycosides from mediterranean sea cucumbers of the genus holothuria. J Nat Prod. 2005;68:564-7 pubmed
    Triterpene glycosides of three species of the Mediterranean sea cucumbers Holothuria polii, Holothuria tubulosa, and Holothuria sp. were studied...
  7. Candelaria A, Murray G, File S, Garcia Arraras J. Contribution of mesenterial muscle dedifferentiation to intestine regeneration in the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima. Cell Tissue Res. 2006;325:55-65 pubmed
    Holothurians (sea cucumbers) have been known from ancient times to have the capacity to regenerate their internal organs...
  8. Slater M, Carton A. Effect of sea cucumber (Australostichopus mollis) grazing on coastal sediments impacted by mussel farm deposition. Mar Pollut Bull. 2009;58:1123-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Sea cucumber grazing offers a means of constraining or reversing the pollutive impacts of coastal bivalve aquaculture. ..
  9. Zhang S, Yi Y, Tang H. Bioactive triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber Holothuria fuscocinerea. J Nat Prod. 2006;69:1492-5 pubmed
    ..Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectral studies as well as chemical evidence. All the glycosides showed in vitro cytotoxicity against two human tumor cell lines. ..

More Information

Publications71

  1. Kalinin V, Prokofieva N, Likhatskaya G, Schentsova E, Agafonova I, Avilov S, et al. Hemolytic activities of triterpene glycosides from the holothurian order Dendrochirotida: some trends in the evolution of this group of toxins. Toxicon. 1996;34:475-83 pubmed
    ..and K+ loss from mouse erythrocytes, induced by triterpene glycosides and their derivatives from this order of sea cucumbers were studied...
  2. Wu J, Yi Y, Tang H, Wu H, Zhou Z. Hillasides A and B, two new cytotoxic triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber Holothuria hilla Lesson. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2007;9:609-15 pubmed
    ..The two glycosides showed significant cytotoxicity against eight human tumour cell lines (A-549, MCF-7, IA9, CAKI-1, PC-3, KB, KB-VIN and HCT-8) with IC(50) in the range of 0.1-3.8 microg/ml. ..
  3. Suárez Castillo E, Medina Ortiz W, Roig Lopez J, Garcia Arraras J. Ependymin, a gene involved in regeneration and neuroplasticity in vertebrates, is overexpressed during regeneration in the echinoderm Holothuria glaberrima. Gene. 2004;334:133-43 pubmed
    ..The discovery of ependymins in echinoderms, a group well known for their regenerative capacities, can give us an insight on the evolution and roles of ependymin molecules. ..
  4. Tian F, Zhu C, Zhang X, Xie X, Xin X, Yi Y, et al. Philinopside E, a new sulfated saponin from sea cucumber, blocks the interaction between kinase insert domain-containing receptor (KDR) and alphavbeta3 integrin via binding to the extracellular domain of KDR. Mol Pharmacol. 2007;72:545-52 pubmed
  5. Lawrence A, Afifi R, Ahmed M, Khalifa S, Paget T. Bioactivity as an options value of sea cucumbers in the Egyptian Red Sea. Conserv Biol. 2010;24:217-25 pubmed publisher
    ..the waters of the Egyptian Red Sea coast (Gulf of Aqaba [north] and the Red Sea [south]) for species of sea cucumbers and analyzed extracts from species for a range of bioactivities with potential biomedical applications...
  6. Bordbar S, Anwar F, Saari N. High-value components and bioactives from sea cucumbers for functional foods--a review. Mar Drugs. 2011;9:1761-805 pubmed publisher
    b>Sea cucumbers, belonging to the class Holothuroidea, are marine invertebrates, habitually found in the benthic areas and deep seas across the world. They have high commercial value coupled with increasing global production and trade...
  7. Mashanov V, Zueva O, Heinzeller T, Aschauer B, Dolmatov I. Developmental origin of the adult nervous system in a holothurian: an attempt to unravel the enigma of neurogenesis in echinoderms. Evol Dev. 2007;9:244-56 pubmed
    ..Therefore, our data are neither in strict accordance with Garstang's hypothesis nor do they allow to refuse it. Nevertheless, in addition to ciliary bands, other areas of neurogenetic epidermis must be taken into account...
  8. Ikeda Y, Inagaki M, Yamada K, Miyamoto T, Higuchi R, Shibata O. Langmur monolayers of cerebroside with different head groups originated from sea cucumber: binary systems with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2009;72:272-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The miscibility in the monolayer state was also confirmed by the morphological observation with Brewster angle microscopy (BAM), fluorescence microscopy (FM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM)...
  9. Wu M, Xu S, Zhao J, Kang H, Ding H. Preparation and characterization of molecular weight fractions of glycosaminoglycan from sea cucumber Thelenata ananas using free radical depolymerization. Carbohydr Res. 2010;345:649-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The M(L) and d values were approximately consistent with those observed by AFM. The present data suggest that THG may dissolve in 0.1M aqueous NaCl as single-stranded helical chains...
  10. Zhao Y, Li B, Dong S, Liu Z, Zhao X, Wang J, et al. A novel ACE inhibitory peptide isolated from Acaudina molpadioidea hydrolysate. Peptides. 2009;30:1028-33 pubmed publisher
    ..9 to IC(50) 4.5 microM after incubation with gastrointestinal proteases. The ACE inhibitory peptide from A. molpadioidea showed a clear antihypertensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), at a dosage of 3 microM/kg...
  11. Hu X, Wang Y, Wang J, Xue Y, Li Z, Nagao K, et al. Dietary saponins of sea cucumber alleviate orotic acid-induced fatty liver in rats via PPARalpha and SREBP-1c signaling. Lipids Health Dis. 2010;9:25 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the effect of saponins extracted from sea cucumber (Pearsonothuria graeffei) on the preventive activity of fatty liver in rats...
  12. Bondoc K, Lee H, Cruz L, Lebrilla C, Juinio Meñez M. Chemical fingerprinting and phylogenetic mapping of saponin congeners from three tropical holothurian sea cucumbers. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2013;166:182-93 pubmed publisher
    ..e. chemical defense) of these compounds. This might be an adaptation to increase the fitness of the organism...
  13. Gao N, Wu M, Liu S, Lian W, Li Z, Zhao J. Preparation and characterization of O-acylated fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from sea cucumber. Mar Drugs. 2012;10:1647-61 pubmed
  14. Luo L, Wu M, Xu L, Lian W, Xiang J, Lu F, et al. Comparison of physicochemical characteristics and anticoagulant activities of polysaccharides from three sea cucumbers. Mar Drugs. 2013;11:399-417 pubmed publisher
    ..their biological activities, we have isolated three types of polysaccharides from the body wall of the three sea cucumbers Holothuria edulis, Apostichopus japonicas and Holothuria nobilis...
  15. Díaz Miranda L, Pardo Reoyo C, Martinez R, Garcia Arraras J. Galanin-like immunoreactivity in the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima. Cell Tissue Res. 1996;286:385-91 pubmed
    ..These results show that although the holothurian peptide shows common immunological determinants with porcine galanin, it differs with regard to certain biochemical properties...
  16. Wen J, Hu C, Fan S. Chemical composition and nutritional quality of sea cucumbers. J Sci Food Agric. 2010;90:2469-74 pubmed publisher
    The dried form of sea cucumbers has been a seafood and medicinal cure for Asians over many centuries...
  17. Maier M, Roccatagliata A, Kuriss A, Chludil H, Seldes A, Pujol C, et al. Two new cytotoxic and virucidal trisulfated triterpene glycosides from the Antarctic sea cucumber Staurocucumis liouvillei. J Nat Prod. 2001;64:732-6 pubmed
    ..A (1) and B (2) are two new examples of a small number of trisulfated triterpene glycosides from sea cucumbers belonging to the family Cucumariidae...
  18. Du H, Bao Z, Hou R, Wang S, Su H, Yan J, et al. Transcriptome sequencing and characterization for the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka, 1867). PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33311 pubmed publisher
    b>Sea cucumbers are a special group of marine invertebrates. They occupy a taxonomic position that is believed to be important for understanding the origin and evolution of deuterostomes...
  19. Kanno M, Li Q, Kijima A. Isolation and characterization of twenty microsatellite loci in Japanese sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus). Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2005;7:179-83 pubmed
    ..03 to 0.97, which is considerably higher than those previously found for allozymes. The high variability of the microsatellite markers identified in this study will make them excellent tools for genetic analyses of S. japonicus...
  20. Quiñones J, Rosa R, Ruiz D, Garcia Arraras J. Extracellular matrix remodeling and metalloproteinase involvement during intestine regeneration in the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima. Dev Biol. 2002;250:181-97 pubmed
    ..Our results show that significant changes in ECM content occur during intestine regeneration in the sea cucumber and that the onset of these changes is correlated to the proteolytic activities of MMPs...
  21. Kiew P, Don M. Jewel of the seabed: sea cucumbers as nutritional and drug candidates. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2012;63:616-36 pubmed publisher
  22. Zancan P, Mourao P. Venous and arterial thrombosis in rat models: dissociation of the antithrombotic effects of glycosaminoglycans. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2004;15:45-54 pubmed
    ..We propose that the different effects of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate and its carboxyl-reduced derivative on venous thrombosis may be related to adherence of the glycosaminoglycan to the vessel wall...
  23. Garcia Arraras J, Estrada Rodgers L, Santiago R, Torres I, Díaz Miranda L, Torres Avillán I. Cellular mechanisms of intestine regeneration in the sea cucumber, Holothuria glaberrima Selenka (Holothuroidea:Echinodermata). J Exp Zool. 1998;281:288-304 pubmed
    ..Our study provides evidence that the process of new organ formation in holothurians can be described as an intermediate process showing characteristics of both epimorphic and morphallactic phenomena...
  24. Cong L, Yang X, Wang X, Tada M, Lu M, Liu H, et al. Characterization of an i-type lysozyme gene from the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus, and enzymatic and nonenzymatic antimicrobial activities of its recombinant protein. J Biosci Bioeng. 2009;107:583-8 pubmed publisher
    Because sea cucumbers lack a well-developed immune system and can ingest pathogenic bacteria together with food, some form of active antibacterial substances must be present in the body for defense...
  25. Jin J, Shastina V, Shin S, Xu Q, Park J, Rasskazov V, et al. Differential effects of triterpene glycosides, frondoside A and cucumarioside A2-2 isolated from sea cucumbers on caspase activation and apoptosis of human leukemia cells. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:697-702 pubmed publisher
    ..A(2)-2-induced but not frondoside A-induced apoptosis was caspase-dependent. This suggests that holothurians may induce apoptosis of leukemic cells caspase-dependently or -independently, depending on the holothurian structure...
  26. Fredalina B, Ridzwan B, Abidin A, Kaswandi M, Zaiton H, Zali I, et al. Fatty acid compositions in local sea cucumber, Stichopus chloronotus, for wound healing. Gen Pharmacol. 1999;33:337-40 pubmed
    ..Finally, we believe that the local sea cucumber S. chloronotus contains all the fatty acids required to play a potential active role in tissue repair...
  27. Li Q, Chen L, Kong L. A genetic linkage map of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka), based on AFLP and microsatellite markers. Anim Genet. 2009;40:678-85 pubmed publisher
  28. Byrne M. The morphology of autotomy structures in the sea cucumber Eupentacta quinquesemita before and during evisceration. J Exp Biol. 2001;204:849-63 pubmed
    ..The final outcome, expulsion of the viscera, is likely to result from a suite of factors that interact in a manner yet to be determined...
  29. Mourao P, Boisson Vidal C, Tapon Bretaudiere J, Drouet B, Bros A, Fischer A. Inactivation of thrombin by a fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from echinoderm. Thromb Res. 2001;102:167-76 pubmed
    ..Overall, the specific spatial array of the sulfated fucose branches in the fucosylated chondroitin sulfate not only confer high anticoagulant activity to the polysaccharide but also determine differences in the way it inhibits thrombin...
  30. Chludil H, Muniain C, Seldes A, Maier M. Cytotoxic and antifungal triterpene glycosides from the Patagonian sea cucumber Hemoiedema spectabilis. J Nat Prod. 2002;65:860-5 pubmed
    ..Hemoiedemoside B (2) is a new example of a small number of trisulfated triterpene glycosides from sea cucumbers belonging to the family Cucumariidae...
  31. Tian F, Zhang X, Tong Y, Yi Y, Zhang S, Li L, et al. PE, a new sulfated saponin from sea cucumber, exhibits anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor activities in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Biol Ther. 2005;4:874-82 pubmed
  32. Kang J, Kim Y, Kim M, Park J, An C, Kim B, et al. Genetic differentiation among populations and color variants of sea cucumbers (Stichopus japonicus) from Korea and China. Int J Biol Sci. 2011;7:323-32 pubmed
    ..Assignment tests correctly assigned 100% (quality index 99.97%) of individuals to their original color types and demonstrated the feasibility of microsatellite analysis for discrimination between color types...
  33. Hu X, Xu J, Xue Y, Li Z, Wang J, Wang J, et al. Effects of bioactive components of sea cucumber on the serum, liver lipid profile and lipid absorption. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2012;76:2214-8 pubmed
    ..The saponins of sea cucumber suppressed and delayed TG and TC absorption which could be related to the pancreatic lipase inhibiting effect of saponins. This may be an important mechanism to explain its lipid-lowering effect on rats...
  34. Van Dyck S, Gerbaux P, Flammang P. Qualitative and quantitative saponin contents in five sea cucumbers from the Indian ocean. Mar Drugs. 2010;8:173-89 pubmed publisher
  35. Kim S, Himaya S. Triterpene glycosides from sea cucumbers and their biological activities. Adv Food Nutr Res. 2012;65:297-319 pubmed publisher
    Triterpenoid glycosides are abundantly present in sea cucumbers, which are responsible for the toxicity of these echinoderms...
  36. Ridzwan B, Kaswandi M, Azman Y, Fuad M. Screening for antibacterial agents in three species of sea cucumbers from coastal areas of Sabah. Gen Pharmacol. 1995;26:1539-43 pubmed
    1. Three species of sea cucumbers found in the Sabah coastal areas were screened for the presence of antibacterial activity using three methods of extraction. Tests were conducted in vitro using the agar absorption method. 2...
  37. Schwerdtner Máñez K, Ferse S. The history of Makassan trepang fishing and trade. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11346 pubmed publisher
    The Malayan term trepang describes a variety of edible holothurians commonly known as sea cucumbers. Although found in temperate and tropical marine waters all over the world, the centre of species diversity and abundance are the shallow ..
  38. Díaz Miranda L, Garcia Arraras J. Pharmacological action of the heptapeptide GFSKLYFamide in the muscle of the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima (Echinodermata). Comp Biochem Physiol C Pharmacol Toxicol Endocrinol. 1995;110:171-6 pubmed
    ..Our investigation provides additional evidence indicating that GFSKLYFa might be a neurotransmitter acting at the neuromuscular junctions of the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima...
  39. Birenheide R, Tamori M, Motokawa T, Ohtani M, Iwakoshi E, Muneoka Y, et al. Peptides controlling stifness of connective tissue in sea cucumbers. Biol Bull. 1998;194:253-9 pubmed
    ..The body wall dermis of sea cucumbers consists of catch connective tissue that is characterized by quick and drastic stiffness changes under nervous ..
  40. Borsig L, Wang L, Cavalcante M, Cardilo Reis L, Ferreira P, Mourao P, et al. Selectin blocking activity of a fucosylated chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan from sea cucumber. Effect on tumor metastasis and neutrophil recruitment. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:14984-91 pubmed
    ..Overall, the results suggest that invertebrate FucCS may be a potential alternative to heparin for blocking metastasis and inflammatory reactions without the undesirable side effects of anticoagulant heparin...
  41. Garcia Arraras J, Greenberg M. Visceral regeneration in holothurians. Microsc Res Tech. 2001;55:438-51 pubmed
    Holothurians, or sea cucumbers, exhibit two processes that have intrigued biologists for decades: autotomy and regeneration...
  42. Cabrera Serrano A, Garcia Arraras J. RGD-containing peptides inhibit intestinal regeneration in the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima. Dev Dyn. 2004;231:171-8 pubmed
    ..The results show a delay in intestinal regeneration in animals injected with the RGDS peptide, suggesting that the ECM-integrin interaction plays an important function in the regenerative process...
  43. Antonov A, Avilov S, Kalinovsky A, Anastyuk S, Dmitrenok P, Kalinin V, et al. Triterpene glycosides from Antarctic sea cucumbers. 2. Structure of Achlioniceosides A(1), A(2), and A(3) from the sea cucumber Achlionice violaecuspidata (=Rhipidothuria racowitzai). J Nat Prod. 2009;72:33-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The sulfates are attached to C-6 of the glucose residues. Glycosides 1-3 are the first triterpene glycosides isolated from a sea cucumber belonging to the order Elasipodida...
  44. Zou Z, Yi Y, Wu H, Yao X, Du L, Jiuhong W, et al. Intercedensides D-I, cytotoxic triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber Mensamaria intercedens Lampert. J Nat Prod. 2005;68:540-6 pubmed
    ..lntercedensides D-H (1-5) showed significant cytotoxicity (ED(50) 0.96-5.0 mug/mL) against 10 human tumor cell lines...
  45. Hu X, Li Z, Xue Y, Xu J, Xue C, Wang J, et al. Dietary saponins of sea cucumber ameliorate obesity, hepatic steatosis, and glucose intolerance in high-fat diet-fed mice. J Med Food. 2012;15:909-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these data demonstrate that SSC could improve certain metabolic parameters associated with obesity...
  46. Taiyeb Ali T, Zainuddin S, Swaminathan D, Yaacob H. Efficacy of 'Gamadent' toothpaste on the healing of gingival tissues: a preliminary report. J Oral Sci. 2003;45:153-9 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, 'Gamadent' toothpaste provided noteworthy benefits, producing statistically significant improvement in all clinical parameters compared to the placebo during the healing phase after conventional initial therapy...
  47. Gao Z, Zhou X, Hu X, Xue C, Xu J, Wang Y. [Effects of sea cucumber cerebroside and its long-chain base on lipid and glucose metabolism in obese mice]. Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2012;41:60-4 pubmed
    ..To investigate the effect of sea cucumber cerebroside(SCC) and its long-chain base(LCB) on lipid and glucose metabolism in obese mice...
  48. Santiago Cardona P, Berríos C, Ramirez F, Garcia Arraras J. Lipopolysaccharides induce intestinal serum amyloid A expression in the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima. Dev Comp Immunol. 2003;27:105-10 pubmed
    ..These results show that in H. glaberrima, LPS act as an immune activator and that SAA expression can be modulated by immune-associated processes...
  49. Haug T, Kjuul A, Styrvold O, Sandsdalen E, Olsen Ø, Stensvåg K. Antibacterial activity in Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (Echinoidea), Cucumaria frondosa (Holothuroidea), and Asterias rubens (Asteroidea). J Invertebr Pathol. 2002;81:94-102 pubmed
    ..rubens. Haemolytic activity could be detected in all species tested, especially in the body wall extracts. Results from the current study suggest that marine echinoderms are a potential source for the discovery of novel antibiotics...
  50. Zou Z, Yi Y, Wu H, Wu J, Liaw C, Lee K. Intercedensides A-C, three new cytotoxic triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber Mensamaria intercedens Lampert. J Nat Prod. 2003;66:1055-60 pubmed
    ..On the basis of these initially promising results, intercedensides A-C merit further study as potential anticancer agents...
  51. Storelli M, Storelli A, Marcotrigiano G. Heavy metals in the aquatic environment of the Southern Adriatic Sea, Italy: macroalgae, sediments and benthic species. Environ Int. 2001;26:505-9 pubmed
    ..Likewise, relationships between metal concentrations in holothurians and sediments were found, demonstrating that H. polii could serve as bioindicator for Hg and Cu...
  52. Liu H, Ko W, Hu M. Hypolipidemic effect of glycosaminoglycans from the sea cucumber Metriatyla scabra in rats fed a cholesterol-supplemented diet. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50:3602-6 pubmed
    ..05) in hepatic contents of triglyceride, cholesterol, and phospholipid. Thus, the present study demonstrates that the sea cucumber GAGs have the potential of being used for reducing the risk of atherosclerosis and hyperlipoproteinemia...
  53. Hegde V, Chan T, Pu H, Gullo V, Patel M, Das P, et al. Two selective novel triterpene glycosides from sea cucumber, Telenata Ananas: inhibitors of chemokine receptor-5. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2002;12:3203-5 pubmed
    ..Both compounds did not show any significant inhibition in a CXCR2 assay at 50microM, suggesting their selectivity for the CCR5 receptor...
  54. Yamada K, Sasaki K, Harada Y, Isobe R, Higuchi R. Constituents of holothuroidea, 12. Isolation and structure of glucocerebrosides from the sea cucumber Holothuria pervicax. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2002;50:1467-70 pubmed
    ..Reversed-phase HPLC, including a recycling system, was effective in isolating these glucocerebrosides, revealing a very close resemblance in structure, though the problem due to regio-isomers remains...
  55. Antonov A, Avilov S, Kalinovsky A, Dmitrenok P, Kalinin V, Taboada S, et al. Triterpene glycosides from Antarctic sea cucumbers III. Structures of liouvillosides A(4) and A(5), two minor disulphated tetraosides containing 3-O-methylquinovose as terminal monosaccharide units from the sea cucumber Staurocucumis liouvillei (Vane. Nat Prod Res. 2011;25:1324-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The glycosides 1 and 2 are disulphated tetraosides having very rare 3-O-methylquinovose as terminal monosaccharide...
  56. Yuan W, Yi Y, Tang H, Liu B, Wang Z, Sun G, et al. Antifungal triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber Bohadschia marmorata. Planta Med. 2009;75:168-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Compounds 1, 2, 5, and 6 exhibited significant antifungal activity against six strains (0.70 < or = MIC (80) < or = 2.81 microM)...
  57. Takemae N, Nakaya F, Motokawa T. Low oxygen consumption and high body content of catch connective tissue contribute to low metabolic rate of sea cucumbers. Biol Bull. 2009;216:45-54 pubmed
    ..We concluded that the high content of connective tissue with energy-saving posture-maintenance activities contributed to the low energy consumption of holothurians...
  58. Motokawa T, Tsuchi A. Dynamic mechanical properties of body-wall dermis in various mechanical states and their implications for the behavior of sea cucumbers. Biol Bull. 2003;205:261-75 pubmed
    ..The adaptive significance of each mechanical state in the behavior of sea cucumbers is discussed.
  59. Han H, Xu Q, Tang H, Yi Y, Gong W. Cytotoxic holostane-type triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber Pentacta quadrangularis. Planta Med. 2010;76:1900-4 pubmed publisher
    ..All the glycosides showed significant in vitro cytotoxicities against six tumor cell lines (P-388, A-549, MCF-7, MKN-28, HCT-116, and U87MG) with IC(50) in the range of 0.60-3.95 µM...
  60. Fonseca R, Mourao P. Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate as a new oral antithrombotic agent. Thromb Haemost. 2006;96:822-9 pubmed
    ..Overall, our results indicate that fucosylated chondroitin sulfate is absorbed after oral administration and could become a promising oral anticoagulant...
  61. Sun P, Liu B, Yi Y, Li L, Gui M, Tang H, et al. A new cytotoxic lanostane-type triterpene glycoside from the sea cucumber Holothuria impatiens. Chem Biodivers. 2007;4:450-7 pubmed
    ..The two glycosides were found to exhibit in vitro cytotoxicities similar to or better than those of the potent anticancer drug etoposide (V-16) against seven different human tumor cells, with IC50 values of 0.37-2.75 microg/ml...
  62. Li X, Roginsky A, Ding X, Woodward C, Collin P, Newman R, et al. Review of the apoptosis pathways in pancreatic cancer and the anti-apoptotic effects of the novel sea cucumber compound, Frondoside A. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1138:181-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Frondoside A may be valuable for the treatment or chemoprevention of this devastating disease...