Summary: A phylum of the most familiar marine invertebrates. Its class Stelleroidea contains two subclasses, the Asteroidea (the STARFISH or sea stars) and the Ophiuroidea (the brittle stars, also called basket stars and serpent stars). There are 1500 described species of STARFISH found throughout the world. The second class, Echinoidea, contains about 950 species of SEA URCHINS, heart urchins, and sand dollars. A third class, Holothuroidea, comprises about 900 echinoderms known as SEA CUCUMBERS. Echinoderms are used extensively in biological research. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp773-826)

Top Publications

  1. Vázquez Domínguez E. [Diversity and distribution of crustaceans and echinoderms and their relation with sedimentation levels in coral reefs]. Rev Biol Trop. 2003;51:183-93 pubmed
  2. Muths D, Davoult D, Gentil F, Jollivet D. Incomplete cryptic speciation between intertidal and subtidal morphs of Acrocnida brachiata (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) in the Northeast Atlantic. Mol Ecol. 2006;15:3303-18 pubmed
    ..As previously suspected for a species with a very short pelagic larval phase, contemporary gene flow between distant or adjacent populations appears to be extremely reduced or even absent...
  3. Neira R, Cantera J. [Taxonomic composition and distribution of the echinoderms associations in the littoral ecosystems from the Colombian Pacific]. Rev Biol Trop. 2005;53 Suppl 3:195-206 pubmed
  4. Wares J. Biogeography of Asterias: North Atlantic climate change and speciation. Biol Bull. 2001;201:95-103 pubmed
    ..forbesi was then possible in isolation from the European species A. rubens. The contact zone between these two species formed recently, possibly due to a Holocene founding event of A. rubens in New England and the Canadian Maritimes...
  5. Dewael Y, Mallefet J. Luminescence in ophiuroids (Echinodermata) does not share a common nervous control in all species. J Exp Biol. 2002;205:799-806 pubmed
    ..It was also clearly shown that ophiuroids did not share a common mechanism of nervous control of luminescence in all species...
  6. Christensen A, Colacino J, Bonaventura C. Functional and biochemical properties of the hemoglobins of the burrowing brittle star Hemipholis elongata say (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea). Biol Bull. 2003;205:54-65 pubmed
    ..A partial amino acid sequence (about 40 amino acids) of adult hemoglobin reveals little homology with holothurian hemoglobins...
  7. Waters J, Mark O Loughlin P, Roy M. Molecular systematics of some Indo-Pacific asterinids (Echinodermata, Asteroidea): does taxonomy reflect phylogeny?. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2004;30:872-8 pubmed
  8. Vanderlinden C, Mallefet J. Synergic effects of tryptamine and octopamine on ophiuroid luminescence (Echinodermata). J Exp Biol. 2004;207:3749-56 pubmed
    ..aranea luminescence control since none of these substances induced light emission in this species. The synergic effects of several other drugs with tryptamine and octopamine were also tested...
  9. Matsubara M, Komatsu M, Araki T, Asakawa S, Yokobori S, Watanabe K, et al. The phylogenetic status of Paxillosida (Asteroidea) based on complete mitochondrial DNA sequences. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2005;36:598-605 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the paxillosidan characters are secondarily derived ones...

More Information

Publications128 found, 100 shown here

  1. Scouras A, Smith M. The complete mitochondrial genomes of the sea lily Gymnocrinus richeri and the feather star Phanogenia gracilis: signature nucleotide bias and unique nad4L gene rearrangement within crinoids. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2006;39:323-34 pubmed publisher
  2. Laguarda Figueras A, Solís Marín F, Durán González A, Ahearn C, Buitrón Sánchez B, Torres Vega J. [Echinoderms (Echinodermata) of the Mexican Caribbean]. Rev Biol Trop. 2005;53 Suppl 3:109-22 pubmed
    ..30 new records for the Mexican Caribbean are presents: Crínoidea (three), Asteroidea (two), Ophiuroidea (eleven), Echinoidea (one), Holothuroidea (thirteen)...
  3. Smith A. Deuterostomes in a twist: the origins of a radical new body plan. Evol Dev. 2008;10:493-503 pubmed publisher
    ..Anterior attachment and torsion, however, were clearly part of the developmental pattern of helicoplacoids and (to a much greater extent) in subsequent pentaradiate forms...
  4. Zamora S, Smith A. Cambrian stalked echinoderms show unexpected plasticity of arm construction. Proc Biol Sci. 2012;279:293-8 pubmed publisher
  5. Ciampaglio C. Determining the role that ecological and developmental constraints play in controlling disparity: examples from the crinoid and blastozoan fossil record. Evol Dev. 2002;4:170-88 pubmed
    ..The more likely scenario is that increasingly structured ecological guilds have made it much more difficult to allow large increases in disparity...
  6. Sponer R, Roy M. Phylogeographic analysis of the brooding brittle star Amphipholis squamata (Echinodermata) along the coast of New Zealand reveals high cryptic genetic variation and cryptic dispersal potential. Evolution. 2002;56:1954-67 pubmed
    ..squamata commonly inhabits, and emphasize that poor dispersal ability is not necessarily a corollary of direct development...
  7. Bourlat S, Nielsen C, Lockyer A, Littlewood D, Telford M. Xenoturbella is a deuterostome that eats molluscs. Nature. 2003;424:925-8 pubmed
    ..Here, using data from three genes, we show that the samples in these studies were contaminated by bivalve embryos eaten by Xenoturbella and that Xenoturbella is in fact a deuterostome related to hemichordates and echinoderms...
  8. Bottjer D, Davidson E, Peterson K, Cameron R. Paleogenomics of echinoderms. Science. 2006;314:956-60 pubmed
    ..purpuratus genome and are likely to be the same genes that were involved with stereom formation in the earliest echinoderms some 520 million years ago...
  9. Benavides Serrato M, Borrero Pérez G, Solano O, Rodolfo Navas G. [Taxonomic list of the asteroids (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) from the shelf and superior slope from the Colombian Caribbean]. Rev Biol Trop. 2005;53 Suppl 3:171-94 pubmed
    ..Luidia sarsi elegans, Marginaster pectinatus, Tamaria halperni and Stephanasterias albula are first records for the south Caribbean and Pterasterpersonatus and Dipsacaster antillensis are first records for the Caribbean sea...
  10. Perseke M, Bernhard D, Fritzsch G, Brümmer F, Stadler P, Schlegel M. Mitochondrial genome evolution in Ophiuroidea, Echinoidea, and Holothuroidea: insights in phylogenetic relationships of Echinodermata. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2010;56:201-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The variability in gene order and UAS regions in ophiuroid genomes suggest dominating rearrangement mechanisms by duplication events...
  11. Baumiller T, Salamon M, Gorzelak P, Mooi R, Messing C, Gahn F. Post-Paleozoic crinoid radiation in response to benthic predation preceded the Mesozoic marine revolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:5893-6 pubmed publisher
  12. Janies D, Voight J, Daly M. Echinoderm phylogeny including Xyloplax, a progenetic asteroid. Syst Biol. 2011;60:420-38 pubmed publisher
    Reconstruction of the phylogeny of the five extant classes of the phylum Echinodermata has proven difficult...
  13. Okanishi M, O Hara T, Fujita T. Molecular phylogeny of the order Euryalida (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea), based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal genes. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2011;61:392-9 pubmed publisher
    The existing taxonomy of Euryalida, one of the two orders of the Ophiuroidea (Echinodermata), is uncertain and characterized by controversial delimitation of taxonomic ranks from genus to family-level...
  14. Hemery L, Eléaume M, Roussel V, Ameziane N, Gallut C, Steinke D, et al. Comprehensive sampling reveals circumpolarity and sympatry in seven mitochondrial lineages of the Southern Ocean crinoid species Promachocrinus kerguelensis (Echinodermata). Mol Ecol. 2012;21:2502-18 pubmed publisher
    ..The Scotia Arc region shows high levels of connectivity between populations in most of the phylogroups, and barriers to gene flow are evident in East Antarctica...
  15. Rouse G, Jermiin L, Wilson N, Eeckhaut I, Lanterbecq D, Oji T, et al. Fixed, free, and fixed: the fickle phylogeny of extant Crinoidea (Echinodermata) and their Permian-Triassic origin. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2013;66:161-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Our tree topologies show various scenarios for the evolution of stalks and cirri in Articulata, so it is clear that further data and taxon sampling are needed to recover a more robust phylogeny of the group...
  16. Burnett W, McKenzie J. Subcuticular bacteria from the brittle star Ophiactis balli (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) represent a new lineage of extracellular marine symbionts in the alpha subdivision of the class Proteobacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1997;63:1721-4 pubmed
    ..SCB are clearly of separate origin from other documented major groups of marine symbiotic bacteria...
  17. Aizenberg J, Tkachenko A, Weiner S, Addadi L, Hendler G. Calcitic microlenses as part of the photoreceptor system in brittlestars. Nature. 2001;412:819-22 pubmed
    ..These structures represent an example of a multifunctional biomaterial that fulfills both mechanical and optical functions...
  18. Wilkie I. Autotomy as a prelude to regeneration in echinoderms. Microsc Res Tech. 2001;55:369-96 pubmed
  19. Winchell C, Sullivan J, Cameron C, Swalla B, Mallatt J. Evaluating hypotheses of deuterostome phylogeny and chordate evolution with new LSU and SSU ribosomal DNA data. Mol Biol Evol. 2002;19:762-76 pubmed
    ..Our rRNA-gene analysis refutes most of these hypotheses and thus advocates a rethinking of chordate and vertebrate origins...
  20. Lynn D, Strüder Kypke M. Phylogenetic position of Licnophora, Lechriopyla, and Schizocaryum, three unusual ciliates (phylum Ciliophora) endosymbiotic in echinoderms (phylum Echinodermata). J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2002;49:460-8 pubmed
    ..3) Schizocaryum clusters in the Class Oligohymenophorea and is most closely related to the scuticociliates; there are currently no morphological features known to relate Schizocaryum to the scuticociliates...
  21. Motokawa T, Shintani O, Birenheide R. Contraction and stiffness changes in collagenous arm ligaments of the stalked crinoid Metacrinus rotundus (Echinodermata). Biol Bull. 2004;206:4-12 pubmed
    ..We suggest that there is neural coordination between the two mechanisms...
  22. Mallatt J, Winchell C. Ribosomal RNA genes and deuterostome phylogeny revisited: more cyclostomes, elasmobranchs, reptiles, and a brittle star. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2007;43:1005-22 pubmed
  23. Mah C, Blake D. Global diversity and phylogeny of the Asteroidea (Echinodermata). PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35644 pubmed publisher
    Members of the Asteroidea (phylum Echinodermata), popularly known as starfish or sea stars, are ecologically important and diverse members of marine ecosystems in all of the world's oceans...
  24. Whittaker C, Bergeron K, Whittle J, Brandhorst B, Burke R, Hynes R. The echinoderm adhesome. Dev Biol. 2006;300:252-66 pubmed
  25. Lanterbecq D, Rouse G, Eeckhaut I. Evidence for cospeciation events in the host-symbiont system involving crinoids (Echinodermata) and their obligate associates, the myzostomids (Myzostomida, Annelida). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2010;54:357-71 pubmed publisher
    ..A minimum of 8 cospeciation events was estimated, which is significantly higher than it would have been expected due to chance alone...
  26. Wilkie I, Barbaglio A, Maclaren W, Carnevali M. Physiological and immunocytochemical evidence that glutamatergic neurotransmission is involved in the activation of arm autotomy in the featherstar Antedon mediterranea (Echinodermata: Crinoidea). J Exp Biol. 2010;213:2104-15 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that it is highly probable that l-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter in the activation of arm autotomy in A. mediterranea...
  27. Boissin E, Stohr S, Chenuil A. Did vicariance and adaptation drive cryptic speciation and evolution of brooding in Ophioderma longicauda (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea), a common Atlanto-Mediterranean ophiuroid?. Mol Ecol. 2011;20:4737-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The dating analysis showed that these events probably occurred in the Pleistocene epoch...
  28. Stöhr S, O Hara T, Thuy B. Global diversity of brittle stars (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea). PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31940 pubmed publisher
    ..Ophiuroidea, with 2064 known species, are the largest class of Echinodermata. A table presents 16 families with numbers of genera and species...
  29. Gorzelak P, Salamon M, Baumiller T. Predator-induced macroevolutionary trends in Mesozoic crinoids. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:7004-7 pubmed publisher
  30. Stabili L, Pagliara P. Antibacterial protection in Marthasterias glacialis eggs: characterization of lysozyme-like activity. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 1994;109:709-13 pubmed
    ..This one depends on pH and ionic strength of sample and reacting medium. This hydrolase, purified by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography, could be responsible for the bacterial growth inhibitory activity observed. ..
  31. Adjeroud M. [Zonation of macrobenthic communities along two bays in an insular coral reef ecosystem (Moorea, French Polynesia)]. C R Acad Sci III. 2000;323:305-13 pubmed
    ..Although the low diversity and abundance of corals and echinoderms seem to be a characteristic of Polynesian bays, a high diversity of corals can be found in the vicinity of the bayheads in coral reefs of the western Pacific. ..
  32. Medeiros G, Mendes A, Castro R, Baú E, Nader H, Dietrich C. Distribution of sulfated glycosaminoglycans in the animal kingdom: widespread occurrence of heparin-like compounds in invertebrates. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1475:287-94 pubmed
    ..This was confirmed by 13C-NMR spectroscopy of the crab heparin. An updated phylogenetic tree of the distribution of sulfated glycosaminoglycans in the animal kingdom is also presented. ..
  33. Wasson K, Watts S. Progesterone metabolism in the ovaries and testes of the echinoid Lytechinus variegatus Lamarck (Echinodermata). Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2000;127:263-72 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that the sex-specific responses of the ovaries and the testes to P4 may be associated with receptor-level regulatory processes. ..
  34. Omori A, Akasaka K, Kurokawa D, Amemiya S. Gene expression analysis of Six3, Pax6, and Otx in the early development of the stalked crinoid Metacrinus rotundus. Gene Expr Patterns. 2011;11:48-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The present results suggest that radical alterations have occurred in the expression and function of homeobox genes in basal echinoderms. ..
  35. Blunt J, Copp B, Munro M, Northcote P, Prinsep M. Marine natural products. Nat Prod Rep. 2003;20:1-48 pubmed
    ..Syntheses that confirm or revise structures or stereochemistries have been included (95), including any first total synthesis of a marine natural product...
  36. Schiffmann Y. Induction and the Turing-Child field in development. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2005;89:36-92 pubmed
    ..Sequential induction does not explain epigenesis and does not exist in normal development. But induction in the sense of a transplantation leading to double embryo or rescuing a whole phenotype from a part is of interest. ..
  37. Szulgit G. The echinoderm collagen fibril: a hero in the connective tissue research of the 1990s. Bioessays. 2007;29:645-53 pubmed
    ..This information will be fundamental in understanding what holds collagenous tissues together at the fibrillar level, and could have important implications for people with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. ..
  38. Mjobo S, Thandar A. A new genus and a new species in the sea cucumber subfamily Colochirinae (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea: Dendrochirotida: Cucumariidae) in the Mediterranean Sea. Zootaxa. 2016;4189:zootaxa.4189.1.8 pubmed publisher
    ..O. brunneus, O. planci and O. lacteus, but the soft nature of the body wall, shallow quadrilocular instead of deep trilocular baskets, and the presence of large knobbed plates in the anal region precludes its inclusion in this genus. ..
  39. Yue Y, Hou S, Wang X, Zhan L, Cao G, Li G, et al. Role and convergent evolution of competing RNA secondary structures in mutually exclusive splicing. RNA Biol. 2017;14:1399-1410 pubmed publisher
    ..MRP1 genes underwent tandem exon duplication in Nematoda, Platyhelminthes, Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, and early-diverging Chordata but not in late-diverging vertebrates...
  40. Gavin I, Horn P, Peterson C. SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling requires changes in DNA topology. Mol Cell. 2001;7:97-104 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest a model in which ySWI/SNF remodels nucleosomes by using the energy of ATP hydrolysis to drive local changes in DNA twist. ..
  41. Popodi E, Raff R. Hox genes in a pentameral animal. Bioessays. 2001;23:211-4 pubmed
    ..Peterson et al. propose a hypothesis on evolution of the anteroposterior axis in echinoderms, and Arenas-Mena et al. examine expression of five posterior Hox genes during development of the adult sea urchin. ..
  42. Oji T, Kitazawa K. Discovery of two rare species of stalked crinoids from Okinawa Trough, southwestern Japan, and their systematic and biogeographic implications. Zoolog Sci. 2008;25:115-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Naumachocrinus hawaiiensis was collected at a depth of 1,440 m. The long, cylindrical crown and number of arms indicate that Naumachocrinus should be classified in the Bathycrinidae. ..
  43. Pisani D, Feuda R, Peterson K, Smith A. Resolving phylogenetic signal from noise when divergence is rapid: a new look at the old problem of echinoderm class relationships. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2012;62:27-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results illustrate that the analytic approach of phylogenetic signal dissection can be a powerful tool to investigate rapid radiations in deep geologic time. ..
  44. Iglikowska A, Najorka J, Voronkov A, Chełchowski M, Kuklinski P. Variability in magnesium content in Arctic echinoderm skeletons. Mar Environ Res. 2017;129:207-218 pubmed publisher
    ..These results strongly imply that biological factors play an important role in controlling the incorporation of Mg into the skeletons of the studied individuals. ..
  45. Mengerink K, Vacquier V. Glycobiology of sperm-egg interactions in deuterostomes. Glycobiology. 2001;11:37R-43R pubmed
    ..This brief review focuses on new information concerning fertilization in deuterostomes (the phylogenetic group including echinoderms, ascidians, and vertebrates) and highlights protein-carbohydrate interactions involved in this process. ..
  46. Wong E, Belov K. Venom evolution through gene duplications. Gene. 2012;496:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We also focus on other genomic processes, such as exon and domain duplications, in venom evolution. Finally, we conclude by focusing on the use of high throughput sequencing technology in understanding venom evolution...
  47. Okanishi M, Fujita T. Molecular phylogeny based on increased number of species and genes revealed more robust family-level systematics of the order Euryalida (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2013;69:566-80 pubmed publisher
    Previous molecular analysis of the order Euryalida (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea), has identified three monophyletic families, the Euryalidae, Asteronychidae and Gorgonocephalidae...
  48. Clausen S, Smith A. Palaeoanatomy and biological affinities of a Cambrian deuterostome (Stylophora). Nature. 2005;438:351-4 pubmed
    ..Thus, although skeletal structure suggests that stylophorans are echinoderms, their appendage was not a feeding arm but a muscular locomotory organ. ..
  49. Morris V. On the sites of secondary podia formation in a juvenile echinoid: growth of the body types in echinoderms. Dev Genes Evol. 2009;219:597-608 pubmed publisher
    ..The five metameric series of secondary podia formed in echinoderms have a coelomic developmental origin like the single metameric series of somites formed in the axial structures of chordates. ..
  50. Venmathi Maran B, Kim I, Bratova O, Ivanenko V. Two new species of poecilostomatoid copepods symbiotic on the venomous echinoid Toxopneustes pileolus (Lamarck) (Echinodermata) from Vietnam. Syst Parasitol. 2017;94:227-241 pubmed publisher
    ..1970 (Taeniacanthidae) found associated with the venomous flower urchin Toxopneustes pileolus (Lamarck) (Echinodermata: Echinoidea: Toxopneustidae) in the South China Sea (Vietnam) are described...
  51. Zhou X, Chang Y, Zhan Y, Wang X, Lin K. Integrative mRNA-miRNA interaction analysis associate with immune response of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus based on transcriptome database. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2018;72:69-76 pubmed publisher
    ..of immune-related miRNAs (miR-31, miR-2008, miR-92a, miR-210 and miR-7) and specific miRNAs (miR-2004) in Echinodermata were predicted in silico and validated...
  52. Sorhannus U. Higher ribosomal RNA substitution rates in Bacillariophyceae and Dasycladales than in Mollusca, Echinodermata, and Actinistia-Tetrapoda. Mol Biol Evol. 1996;13:1032-8 pubmed
    ..and Bacillariophyceae evolved at a rate approximately two to three times faster than that estimated within Echinodermata, Mollusca, and Actinistia-Tetrapoda...
  53. Kondo M, Akasaka K. Regeneration in crinoids. Dev Growth Differ. 2010;52:57-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Further molecular analyses would increase our knowledge of stem cells in crinoids and allow comparative studies to be possible. ..
  54. Smith M, Arndt A, Gorski S, Fajber E. The phylogeny of echinoderm classes based on mitochondrial gene arrangements. J Mol Evol. 1993;36:545-54 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate mitochondrial gene arrangement patterns that group the sea cucumbers with sea urchins and sea stars with brittle stars. This use of molecular characters clarifies the relationships among these classes...
  55. Lanterbecq D, Rouse G, Milinkovitch M, Eeckhaut I. Molecular phylogenetic analyses indicate multiple independent emergences of parasitism in Myzostomida (Protostomia). Syst Biol. 2006;55:208-27 pubmed
  56. Bailey D, Ruhl H, Smith K. Long-term change in benthopelagic fish abundance in the abyssal northeast Pacific Ocean. Ecology. 2006;87:549-55 pubmed
    ..This study provides a rare opportunity to study the long-term dynamics of an unexploited marine fish population and suggests a dominant role for bottom-up control in this system. ..
  57. Lin M, Egertová M, Zampronio C, Jones A, Elphick M. Functional characterization of a second pedal peptide/orcokinin-type neuropeptide signaling system in the starfish Asterias rubens. J Comp Neurol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..peptide (SMP) was identified as a PP/OK-type neuropeptide in the starfish Patiria pectinifera (phylum Echinodermata)...
  58. Lowe C, Issel Tarver L, Wray G. Gene expression and larval evolution: changing roles of distal-less and orthodenticle in echinoderm larvae. Evol Dev. 2002;4:111-23 pubmed
    ..Caution should be used when making generalizations about gene expression and function based on a single species, which may not accurately reflect developmental processes and life histories of the phyla to which it belongs. ..
  59. Peterson R, McClay D. Primary mesenchyme cell patterning during the early stages following ingression. Dev Biol. 2003;254:68-78 pubmed
    ..At this time, some aboral PMCs migrate into the adjacent oral quadrant to assist in the formation of the ventrolateral cluster. ..
  60. Ruhl H, Smith K. Shifts in deep-sea community structure linked to climate and food supply. Science. 2004;305:513-5 pubmed
    ..Such faunal changes highlight the importance of an adequate temporal perspective in describing biodiversity, ecology, and anthropogenic impacts in deep-sea communities. ..
  61. Vazzana M, Celi M, Chiaramonte M, Inguglia L, Russo D, Ferrantelli V, et al. Cytotoxic activity of Holothuria tubulosa (Echinodermata) coelomocytes. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2018;72:334-341 pubmed publisher
    ..The fractions of each pattern were resolved on a polyacrylamide gel and calcium-dependent and independent coelomocyte lysate patterns were compared. ..
  62. Eaves A, Palmer A. Reproduction: widespread cloning in echinoderm larvae. Nature. 2003;425:146 pubmed
    ..Larval cloning may therefore be an ancient ability of echinoderms and possibly of deutero-stomes - the group that includes echinoderms, acorn worms, sea squirts and vertebrates. ..
  63. Canestro C, Postlethwait J, Gonzalez Duarte R, Albalat R. Is retinoic acid genetic machinery a chordate innovation?. Evol Dev. 2006;8:394-406 pubmed
    ..We propose a new hypothesis in which lineage-specific duplication and loss of RA machinery genes could be related to the morphological radiation of deuterostomes. ..
  64. Blunt J, Copp B, Hu W, Munro M, Northcote P, Prinsep M. Marine natural products. Nat Prod Rep. 2008;25:35-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included...
  65. Caron J, Morris S, Cameron C. Tubicolous enteropneusts from the Cambrian period. Nature. 2013;495:503-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of both enteropneusts and pterobranchs in Middle Cambrian strata, suggests that hemichordates originated at the onset of the Cambrian explosion. ..
  66. Henry J, Tagawa K, Martindale M. Deuterostome evolution: early development in the enteropneust hemichordate, Ptychodera flava. Evol Dev. 2001;3:375-90 pubmed
    Molecular and morphological comparisons indicate that the Echinodermata and Hemichordata represent closely related sister-phyla within the Deuterostomia...
  67. Affa a F, Hickey D, Strüder Kypke M, Lynn D. Phylogenetic position of species in the genera Anoplophrya, Plagiotoma, and Nyctotheroides (Phylum Ciliophora), endosymbiotic ciliates of annelids and anurans. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2004;51:301-6 pubmed
  68. Jaffe L, Terasaki M. Quantitative microinjection of oocytes, eggs, and embryos. Methods Cell Biol. 2004;74:219-42 pubmed
  69. Strickland L, Von Dassow G, Ellenberg J, Foe V, Lenart P, Burgess D. Light microscopy of echinoderm embryos. Methods Cell Biol. 2004;74:371-409 pubmed
  70. Bleidorn C, Eeckhaut I, Podsiadlowski L, Schult N, McHugh D, Halanych K, et al. Mitochondrial genome and nuclear sequence data support myzostomida as part of the annelid radiation. Mol Biol Evol. 2007;24:1690-701 pubmed
    ..Using Bayes factor comparison, alternative hypotheses are shown to lack support. Thus, myzostomids probably evolved from a segmented ancestor and gained a derived anatomy during their long evolutionary history as echinoderm symbionts. ..
  71. Thuy B, Gale A, Kroh A, Kucera M, Numberger Thuy L, Reich M, et al. Ancient origin of the modern deep-sea fauna. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46913 pubmed publisher
  72. Affenzeller S, Steiner G. Catalog of taxa introduced by Luitfried Salvini-Plawen (1939-2014). Zootaxa. 2017;4337:73-90 pubmed publisher
    ..interstitial Gastropoda, one polyplacophoran and the remaining comprising Cnidaria, Priapulida, Kamptozoa, and Echinodermata. In addition, he introduced 47 genus-group names and 54 names for family-level and higher taxa...
  73. Dickson J. Fossil echinoderms as monitor of the Mg/Ca ratio of Phanerozoic oceans. Science. 2002;298:1222-4 pubmed
    ..3, whereas echinoderms from the Jurassic to the Cretaceous indicate a Mg/Ca of approximately 1.4. The present seawater Mg/Ca is approximately 5. ..
  74. Hoda K, Ikeda Y, Kawasaki H, Yamada K, Higuchi R, Shibata O. Mode of interaction of ganglioside Langmuir monolayer originated from echinoderms: three binary systems of ganglioside/DPPC, ganglioside/DMPE, and ganglioside/cholesterol. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2006;52:57-75 pubmed
    ..The observations using fluorescence microscopy and AFM image also provide us the miscibility in the monolayer state. ..
  75. Ruhl H. Abundance and size distribution dynamics of abyssal epibenthic megafauna in the northeast Pacific. Ecology. 2007;88:1250-62 pubmed
    ..This and other studies have shown that abundances from protozoans to large benthic invertebrates and fishes all have undergone significant fluctuations in abundance at Station M over periods of weeks to years. ..
  76. Iken K, Konar B, Benedetti Cecchi L, Cruz Motta J, Knowlton A, Pohle G, et al. Large-scale spatial distribution patterns of echinoderms in nearshore rocky habitats. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13845 pubmed publisher
  77. Wada H, Kobayashi M, Sato R, Satoh N, Miyasaka H, Shirayama Y. Dynamic insertion-deletion of introns in deuterostome EF-1alpha genes. J Mol Evol. 2002;54:118-28 pubmed
    ..These analyses revealed that the deuterostome EF-1alpha gene has lost individual introns more frequently than all introns simultaneously. ..
  78. Wilkie I. Mutable collagenous tissue: overview and biotechnological perspective. Prog Mol Subcell Biol. 2005;39:221-50 pubmed
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    ..CD spectroscopy revealed that all compounds are present as optically active enantiomers. This is the first report of tribromo and tetrabromo anthraquinones from a natural source. ..
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    ..polycladia can inhibit HCV replication by suppressing the helicase activity of HCV NS3. This study may present a new approach toward the development of a novel therapy for chronic hepatitis C...
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