Summary: Phylum of marine colenterates characterized by eight comb rows of fused cilia on the body surface. In contrast to CNIDARIA they lack stinging cells, but they are voracious predators and possess sticky cells (colloblasts) for capturing prey. Most species are transparent and many exhibit bioluminescence.

Top Publications

  1. Jager M, Quéinnec E, Houliston E, Manuel M. Expansion of the SOX gene family predated the emergence of the Bilateria. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2006;39:468-77 pubmed
    ..In contrast, gene loss appears to have occurred in the nematode and probably in other protostome lineages, explaining their lower number of SOX genes. ..
  2. Nielsen C. Six major steps in animal evolution: are we derived sponge larvae?. Evol Dev. 2008;10:241-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Cnidarians have retained this organization, whereas the Triploblastica (Ctenophora+Bilateria), have developed the mesoderm...
  3. Daskalov G, Grishin A, Rodionov S, Mihneva V. Trophic cascades triggered by overfishing reveal possible mechanisms of ecosystem regime shifts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:10518-23 pubmed
    ..This implies challenging existing practices and implementing explanatory models of ecosystem interactions that can better reconcile conservation and ecosystem management ideals...
  4. Ryan J, Pang K, Schnitzler C, Nguyen A, Moreland R, Simmons D, et al. The genome of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi and its implications for cell type evolution. Science. 2013;342:1242592 pubmed publisher
    ..These results present a newly supported view of early animal evolution that accounts for major losses and/or gains of sophisticated cell types, including nerve and muscle cells. ..
  5. Nosenko T, Schreiber F, Adamska M, Adamski M, Eitel M, Hammel J, et al. Deep metazoan phylogeny: when different genes tell different stories. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2013;67:223-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional sequence-independent genomic markers are also necessary to assess the validity of the phylogenetic hypotheses...
  6. Aghamaali M, Jafarian V, Sariri R, Molakarimi M, Rasti B, Taghdir M, et al. Cloning, sequencing, expression and structural investigation of mnemiopsin from Mnemiopsis leidyi: an attempt toward understanding Ca2+-regulated photoproteins. Protein J. 2011;30:566-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Structural comparison of photoproteins with low sequence identity and high 3D structural similarity, can present a new insight into the mechanism of light emission in photoproteins...
  7. Tang F, Bengtson S, Wang Y, Wang X, Yin C. Eoandromeda and the origin of Ctenophora. Evol Dev. 2011;13:408-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The early appearance in the fossil record of octoradial ctenophores is most consistent with the Planulozoa hypothesis (Ctenophora is the sister group of Cnidaria + Bilateria) of metazoan phylogeny.
  8. Markova S, Burakova L, Golz S, Malikova N, Frank L, Vysotski E. The light-sensitive photoprotein berovin from the bioluminescent ctenophore Beroe abyssicola: a novel type of Ca(2+) -regulated photoprotein. FEBS J. 2012;279:856-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Database The nucleotide sequences have been deposited in the GenBankTM/EBI Data Bank with accession numbers: apoberovin cDNA genes, JN673813 (BA1), JN673814 (BA2), JN673815 (BA3), JN673816 (BA4); fragment 18S rRNA, JN673817 (BA-rRNA5)...
  9. Yamada A, Martindale M, Fukui A, Tochinai S. Highly conserved functions of the Brachyury gene on morphogenetic movements: insight from the early-diverging phylum Ctenophora. Dev Biol. 2010;339:212-22 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Derelle R, Momose T, Manuel M, Da Silva C, Wincker P, Houliston E. Convergent origins and rapid evolution of spliced leader trans-splicing in metazoa: insights from the ctenophora and hydrozoa. RNA. 2010;16:696-707 pubmed publisher
  2. Jafarian V, Sariri R, Hosseinkhani S, Aghamaali M, Sajedi R, Taghdir M, et al. A unique EF-hand motif in mnemiopsin photoprotein from Mnemiopsis leidyi: implication for its low calcium sensitivity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;413:164-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, experimental results are confirmed with the theoretical studies...
  3. Jager M, Chiori R, Alié A, Dayraud C, Quéinnec E, Manuel M. New insights on ctenophore neural anatomy: immunofluorescence study in Pleurobrachia pileus (Müller, 1776). J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2011;316B:171-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are discussed in a comparative perspective...
  4. Pick K, Philippe H, Schreiber F, Erpenbeck D, Jackson D, Wrede P, et al. Improved phylogenomic taxon sampling noticeably affects nonbilaterian relationships. Mol Biol Evol. 2010;27:1983-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that the basal position of the fast-evolving Ctenophora proposed by Dunn et al...
  5. Reusch T, Bolte S, Sparwel M, Moss A, Javidpour J. Microsatellites reveal origin and genetic diversity of Eurasian invasions by one of the world's most notorious marine invader, Mnemiopsis leidyi (Ctenophora). Mol Ecol. 2010;19:2690-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Using microsatellites, developed for the first time in the phylum Ctenophora, we show that Mnemiopsis leidyi has colonized Eurasia from two source regions...
  6. Pang K, Ryan J, Baxevanis A, Martindale M. Evolution of the TGF-? signaling pathway and its potential role in the ctenophore, Mnemiopsis leidyi. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24152 pubmed publisher
    ..Later expression patterns and experiments with the TGF-? inhibitor SB432542 suggest roles in pharyngeal morphogenesis and comb row organization...
  7. Alié A, Leclère L, Jager M, Dayraud C, Chang P, Le Guyader H, et al. Somatic stem cells express Piwi and Vasa genes in an adult ctenophore: ancient association of "germline genes" with stemness. Dev Biol. 2011;350:183-97 pubmed publisher
    ..of Vasa, two Piwi paralogues, Bruno and PL10 in Pleurobrachia pileus, a member of the early-diverging phylum Ctenophora, the probable sister group of cnidarians...
  8. Martindale M, Finnerty J, Henry J. The Radiata and the evolutionary origins of the bilaterian body plan. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2002;24:358-65 pubmed
    ..We briefly review pertinent features of the body plans of the extant radial eumetazoan phyla, the Cnidaria, and Ctenophora, in the context of revealing potential evolutionary links to the bilaterians.
  9. Kohn A, Citarella M, Kocot K, Bobkova Y, Halanych K, Moroz L. Rapid evolution of the compact and unusual mitochondrial genome in the ctenophore, Pleurobrachia bachei. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2012;63:203-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This reduced mtDNA genome sharply contrasts with the very large sizes of mtDNA found in other basal metazoans including Porifera (sponges), and Placozoa (Trichoplax)...
  10. Moroz L, Kocot K, Citarella M, Dosung S, Norekian T, Povolotskaya I, et al. The ctenophore genome and the evolutionary origins of neural systems. Nature. 2014;510:109-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Our integrative analyses place Ctenophora as the earliest lineage within Metazoa...
  11. Martinelli C, Spring J. T-box and homeobox genes from the ctenophore Pleurobrachia pileus: comparison of Brachyury, Tbx2/3 and Tlx in basal metazoans and bilaterians. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:5024-8 pubmed
    ..as Bilateria and only four phyla are still extant as outgroups, namely Porifera, Placozoa, Cnidaria and Ctenophora. These non-bilaterians were not considered to have a mesoderm and hence mesoderm-specific genes...
  12. Welch V, Vigneron J, Parker A. The cause of colouration in the ctenophore Beroë cucumis. Curr Biol. 2005;15:R985-6 pubmed
  13. Pett W, Lavrov D. Cytonuclear Interactions in the Evolution of Animal Mitochondrial tRNA Metabolism. Genome Biol Evol. 2015;7:2089-101 pubmed publisher
    ..and transcriptomic data from animals that have experienced the loss of mt-tRNAs, including phyla Cnidaria and Ctenophora, as well as some representatives of all four classes of Porifera...
  14. Traut W, Szczepanowski M, Vítková M, Opitz C, Marec F, Zrzavý J. The telomere repeat motif of basal Metazoa. Chromosome Res. 2007;15:371-82 pubmed
    ..e. sponges, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, and Placozoa, and also in the unicellular metazoan sister group, the Choanozoa...
  15. Sasson D, Jacquez A, Ryan J. The ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi regulates egg production via conspecific communication. BMC Ecol. 2018;18:12 pubmed publisher
    ..leidyi. Furthermore, this first evidence of conspecific communication in Ctenophora, a group that branched off from the rest of animals more than 600 million years ago, has significant ..
  16. Schüler A, Schmitz G, Reft A, Özbek S, Thurm U, Bornberg Bauer E. The Rise and Fall of TRP-N, an Ancient Family of Mechanogated Ion Channels, in Metazoa. Genome Biol Evol. 2015;7:1713-27 pubmed publisher
    ..TRP-N is absent in Porifera but present in Ctenophora and Placozoa...
  17. Aruga J, Hatayama M. Comparative Genomics of the Zic Family Genes. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2018;1046:3-26 pubmed publisher
    ..showed that Zic family genes are distributed in metazoans (multicellular animals), except Porifera (sponges) and Ctenophora (comb jellies)...
  18. Oliveira O, Miranda T, Araujo E, Ayon P, Cedeño Posso C, Cepeda Mercado A, et al. Census of Cnidaria (Medusozoa) and Ctenophora from South American marine waters. Zootaxa. 2016;4194:zootaxa.4194.1.1 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we also reassign Plumularia oligopyxis Kirchenpauer, 1876 as Kirchenpaueria oligopyxis (Kirchenpauer, 1876) and Sertularella margaritacea Allman, 1885 as Symplectoscyphus margaritaceus (Allman, 1885). ..
  19. Powers M, McDermott A, Shaner N, Haddock S. Expression and characterization of the calcium-activated photoprotein from the ctenophore Bathocyroe fosteri: insights into light-sensitive photoproteins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;431:360-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent interest in photoproteins from the phylum Ctenophora has stemmed from cloning and expression of several photoproteins from this group [2-5]...
  20. Pett W, Ryan J, Pang K, Mullikin J, Martindale M, Baxevanis A, et al. Extreme mitochondrial evolution in the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi: Insight from mtDNA and the nuclear genome. Mitochondrial DNA. 2011;22:130-42 pubmed publisher
    ..However, one animal phylum--Ctenophora--has, to date, remained completely unsampled...
  21. Chen J, Schopf J, Bottjer D, Zhang C, Kudryavtsev A, Tripathi A, et al. Raman spectra of a Lower Cambrian ctenophore embryo from southwestern Shaanxi, China. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:6289-92 pubmed
    ..The oldest ctenophore and the only embryonic comb jelly known from the fossil record, this exceptionally well preserved specimen provides important clues about the early evolution of the phylum Ctenophora and of metazoans in general.
  22. Simion P, Philippe H, Baurain D, Jager M, Richter D, Di Franco A, et al. A Large and Consistent Phylogenomic Dataset Supports Sponges as the Sister Group to All Other Animals. Curr Biol. 2017;27:958-967 pubmed publisher
    ..The "Ctenophora-sister" hypothesis implies that eumetazoan-specific traits, such as neurons and muscle cells, either evolved ..
  23. Lavrov D, Pett W. Animal Mitochondrial DNA as We Do Not Know It: mt-Genome Organization and Evolution in Nonbilaterian Lineages. Genome Biol Evol. 2016;8:2896-2913 pubmed
    ..Much of this diversity has been found in nonbilaterian animals (phyla Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Placozoa, and Porifera), which, from a phylogenetic perspective, form the main branches of the animal tree ..
  24. DeSalle R, Schierwater B. An even "newer" animal phylogeny. Bioessays. 2008;30:1043-7 pubmed publisher
    ..First, the methods used by the authors to generate their phylogenetic hypotheses call for close examination. Second, the relationships of animal taxa in their resultant trees also prompt further discussion. ..
  25. Amiel A, Leclère L, Robert L, Chevalier S, Houliston E. Conserved functions for Mos in eumetazoan oocyte maturation revealed by studies in a cnidarian. Curr Biol. 2009;19:305-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that Mos appeared early during animal evolution as an oocyte-expressed kinase and functioned ancestrally in regulating core specializations of female meiosis. ..
  26. Condon R, Duarte C, Pitt K, Robinson K, Lucas C, Sutherland K, et al. Recurrent jellyfish blooms are a consequence of global oscillations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:1000-5 pubmed publisher
  27. Brancaccio A, Adams J. An evaluation of the evolution of the gene structure of dystroglycan. BMC Res Notes. 2017;10:19 pubmed publisher
    ..e., all metazoan phyla except Ctenophora). The gene structure of three exons and two introns is remarkably conserved...
  28. Lang T, Klasson S, Larsson E, Johansson M, Hansson G, Samuelsson T. Searching the Evolutionary Origin of Epithelial Mucus Protein Components-Mucins and FCGBP. Mol Biol Evol. 2016;33:1921-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Their presence in Cnidaria, Porifera, and in Ctenophora (comb jellies) shows that these proteins were present early in metazoan evolution...
  29. Fierro Constain L, Schenkelaars Q, Gazave E, Haguenauer A, Rocher C, Ereskovsky A, et al. The Conservation of the Germline Multipotency Program, from Sponges to Vertebrates: A Stepping Stone to Understanding the Somatic and Germline Origins. Genome Biol Evol. 2017;9:474-488 pubmed publisher
    ..Because Porifera and Ctenophora are currently the best candidates to be the sister-group to all other animals, the comparative analysis of gene ..
  30. Condon R, Steinberg D, del Giorgio P, Bouvier T, Bronk D, Graham W, et al. Jellyfish blooms result in a major microbial respiratory sink of carbon in marine systems. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:10225-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These results further suggest fundamental transformations in the biogeochemical functioning and biological structure of food webs associated with jellyfish blooms. ..
  31. Tamm S. Functional consequences of the asymmetric architecture of the ctenophore statocyst. Biol Bull. 2015;229:173-84 pubmed
    ..The asymmetric architecture of the ctenophore statocyst thus has functional consequences, but a possible adaptive value is not known. ..
  32. Aronova M, Alekseeva T. [Development of chemoreceptor cells in oral epithelium of adult ctenophore Beroe cucumis]. Zh Evol Biokhim Fiziol. 2003;39:577-85 pubmed
  33. Feuda R, Dohrmann M, Pett W, Philippe H, Rota Stabelli O, Lartillot N, et al. Improved Modeling of Compositional Heterogeneity Supports Sponges as Sister to All Other Animals. Curr Biol. 2017;27:3864-3870.e4 pubmed publisher
    ..to resolve, with the current debate focusing on whether sponges (phylum Porifera) or comb jellies (phylum Ctenophora) are the sister group of all other animals [1-5]...
  34. Jensen L, Grant J, Laughinghouse H, Katz L. Assessing the effects of a sequestered germline on interdomain lateral gene transfer in Metazoa. Evolution. 2016;70:1322-33 pubmed publisher
    ..e., triploblast lineages) as compared to early-diverging Metazoa (i.e., Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Porifera, and Placozoa)...
  35. Ryan J, Baxevanis A. Hox, Wnt, and the evolution of the primary body axis: insights from the early-divergent phyla. Biol Direct. 2007;2:37 pubmed
    ..encompasses the overwhelming majority of animals, including all but four early-branching phyla: Porifera, Ctenophora, Placozoa, and Cnidaria...
  36. Nath R, Bedbrook C, Abrams M, Basinger T, Bois J, Prober D, et al. The Jellyfish Cassiopea Exhibits a Sleep-like State. Curr Biol. 2017;27:2984-2990.e3 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that sleep is also present in Cnidaria [6-8], an earlier-branching metazoan lineage. Cnidaria and Ctenophora are the first metazoan phyla to evolve tissue-level organization and differentiated cell types, such as neurons ..
  37. Stepanyuk G, Liu Z, Burakova L, Lee J, Rose J, Vysotski E, et al. Spatial structure of the novel light-sensitive photoprotein berovin from the ctenophore Beroe abyssicola in the Ca(2+)-loaded apoprotein conformation state. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1834:2139-46 pubmed publisher
  38. Whelan N, Kocot K, Moroz T, Mukherjee K, Williams P, Paulay G, et al. Ctenophore relationships and their placement as the sister group to all other animals. Nat Ecol Evol. 2017;1:1737-1746 pubmed publisher
    b>Ctenophora, comprising approximately 200 described species, is an important lineage for understanding metazoan evolution and is of great ecological and economic importance...
  39. Dabe E, Sanford R, Kohn A, Bobkova Y, Moroz L. DNA Methylation in Basal Metazoans: Insights from Ctenophores. Integr Comp Biol. 2015;55:1096-110 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, despite their compact genomes, there is a wide variety of epigenomic mechanisms employed by basal metazoans that provide novel insights into the evolutionary origins of biological novelties. ..
  40. Daniels C, Breitbart M. Bacterial communities associated with the ctenophores Mnemiopsis leidyi and Beroe ovata. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2012;82:90-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Future work needs to elucidate the functional roles and mode of acquisition of these bacteria. ..
  41. Jaspers C, Møller L, Kiørboe T. Salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea limits the reproduction and population expansion of the newly invaded comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24065 pubmed publisher
    ..leidyi population in the central Baltic Sea where a self-sustaining population, due to the low salinity, cannot be maintained. ..
  42. Malakhov V. [Origin of bilateral-symmetrical animals (Bilateria)]. Zh Obshch Biol. 2004;65:371-88 pubmed
    ..in Cambrian time. It is postulated that Ctenophora is the only group recent eumetazoans with primary axial symmetry.
  43. Davidson P, Koch B, Schnitzler C, Henry J, Martindale M, Baxevanis A, et al. The maternal-zygotic transition and zygotic activation of the Mnemiopsis leidyi genome occurs within the first three cleavage cycles. Mol Reprod Dev. 2017;84:1218-1229 pubmed publisher
    ..the MZT vary among taxa, little is known about early-stage transcriptional dynamics in the non-bilaterian phylum Ctenophora. We sought to better understand the extent of maternal mRNA loading and subsequent differential transcript ..
  44. Maxwell E, Ryan J, Schnitzler C, Browne W, Baxevanis A. MicroRNAs and essential components of the microRNA processing machinery are not encoded in the genome of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi. BMC Genomics. 2012;13:714 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we report the first investigation of microRNAs in a species from the phylum Ctenophora. We use short RNA sequencing and the assembled genome of the lobate ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi to show that ..
  45. Oliveira O, Migotto A. First occurrence of Beroe forskalii (Ctenophora) in South American Atlantic coastal waters, with notes on the use of macrociliary patterns for beroid identification. Zootaxa. 2014;3779:470-6 pubmed publisher
  46. Avinoam O, Fridman K, Valansi C, Abutbul I, Zeev Ben Mordehai T, Maurer U, et al. Conserved eukaryotic fusogens can fuse viral envelopes to cells. Science. 2011;332:589-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, FF proteins are part of an ancient family of cellular fusogens that can promote fusion when expressed on a viral particle. ..
  47. Moroz L, Kohn A. Unbiased View of Synaptic and Neuronal Gene Complement in Ctenophores: Are There Pan-neuronal and Pan-synaptic Genes across Metazoa?. Integr Comp Biol. 2015;55:1028-49 pubmed publisher
    ..distribution of the bilaterian "synaptic" and "neuronal" protein-coding genes in non-bilaterian basal metazoans (Ctenophora, Porifera, Placozoa, and Cnidaria)...
  48. Lucić D, Pestoric B, Malej A, Lopez Lopez L, Drakulovic D, Onofri V, et al. Mass occurrence of the ctenophore Bolinopsis vitrea (L. Agassiz, 1860) in the nearshore southern Adriatic Sea (Kotor Bay, Montenegro). Environ Monit Assess. 2012;184:4777-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This first evidence of such events for this species may indicate changes in the functioning of marine ecosystems of the southern Adriatic...
  49. Fidler A, Darris C, Chetyrkin S, Pedchenko V, Boudko S, Brown K, et al. Collagen IV and basement membrane at the evolutionary dawn of metazoan tissues. elife. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    The role of the cellular microenvironment in enabling metazoan tissue genesis remains obscure. Ctenophora has recently emerged as one of the earliest-branching extant animal phyla, providing a unique opportunity to explore the ..
  50. Welch V, Vigneron J, Lousse V, Parker A. Optical properties of the iridescent organ of the comb-jellyfish Beroë cucumis (Ctenophora). Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2006;73:041916 pubmed
    ..The high transparency of the structure at the maximal bioluminescence wavelength is also explained...
  51. Whelan N, Kocot K, Halanych K. Employing Phylogenomics to Resolve the Relationships among Cnidarians, Ctenophores, Sponges, Placozoans, and Bilaterians. Integr Comp Biol. 2015;55:1084-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding relationships among Bilateria, Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Placozoa, and Porifera is essential for studying how complex traits such as neurons, muscles, and ..
  52. Tamm S, Tamm S. Novel bridge of axon-like processes of epithelial cells in the aboral sense organ of ctenophores. J Morphol. 2002;254:99-120 pubmed
    ..We discuss the possibility that the bridge is an electrical conduction pathway to balancers that coordinates tentacle-evoked swimming responses of ctenophores, such as global ciliary excitation...
  53. Bolte S, Roth O, Philipp E, Saphörster J, Rosenstiel P, Reusch T. Specific immune priming in the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi. Biol Lett. 2013;9:20130864 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first experimental evidence for specific immune priming in Ctenophora and generally in non-bilaterian animals, hereby adding to our growing notion of plasticity in innate immune ..
  54. Osigus H, Eitel M, Bernt M, Donath A, Schierwater B. Mitogenomics at the base of Metazoa. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2013;69:339-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of our analyses illustrate the value of mitogenomics and support previously known topologies between animal phyla but also identify several problematic taxa, which are sensitive to long branch artifacts or missing data...
  55. Pang K, Martindale M. Ctenophores. Curr Biol. 2008;18:R1119-20 pubmed publisher
  56. Stone R. Science in Iran. Attack of the killer jellies. Science. 2005;309:1805-6 pubmed
  57. Molakarimi M, Mohseni A, Taghdir M, Pashandi Z, Gorman M, Parker M, et al. QM/MM simulations provide insight into the mechanism of bioluminescence triggering in ctenophore photoproteins. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182317 pubmed publisher
    ..This work also revealed that a hydrogen bonding network formed by a D158- R41-Y204 triad could be responsible for shuttling the proton from the 2- hydroperoxy group of the substrate to bulk solvent...
  58. Yamada A, Martindale M. Expression of the ctenophore Brain Factor 1 forkhead gene ortholog (ctenoBF-1) mRNA is restricted to the presumptive mouth and feeding apparatus: implications for axial organization in the Metazoa. Dev Genes Evol. 2002;212:338-48 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the apical organ is not homologous to the brain of bilaterians but that the oral pole of ctenophores corresponds to the anterior pole of bilaterian animals...
  59. Colin S, Costello J, Hansson L, Titelman J, Dabiri J. Stealth predation and the predatory success of the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:17223-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The efficacy and versatility of this stealth feeding mechanism has enabled M. leidyi to be notoriously destructive as a predator and successful as an invasive species...
  60. Pashandi Z, Molakarimi M, Mohseni A, Sajedi R, Taghdir M, Naderi Manesh H. Photoinactivation related dynamics of ctenophore photoproteins: Insights from molecular dynamics simulation under electric-field. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;490:265-270 pubmed publisher
    ..This condition could presumably leads to inactivation of bioluminescence reaction due to separation of substrate from the cavity of the protein. ..
  61. Schnitzler C, Pang K, Powers M, Reitzel A, Ryan J, Simmons D, et al. Genomic organization, evolution, and expression of photoprotein and opsin genes in Mnemiopsis leidyi: a new view of ctenophore photocytes. BMC Biol. 2012;10:107 pubmed publisher
    ..variants found in photocyte cells of bioluminescent jellyfish (Phylum Cnidaria) and comb jellies (Phylum Ctenophora)...
  62. Tamm S. Regeneration of ciliary comb plates in the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi. i. morphology. J Morphol. 2012;273:109-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides a morphological foundation for histological, cellular, and molecular analysis of ciliary regeneration in ctenophores...
  63. Burakova L, Natashin P, Malikova N, Niu F, Pu M, Vysotski E, et al. All Ca(2+)-binding loops of light-sensitive ctenophore photoprotein berovin bind magnesium ions: The spatial structure of Mg(2+)-loaded apo-berovin. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2016;154:57-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The different impact of physiological concentration of Mg(2+) on berovin bioluminescence as compared to hydromedusan photoproteins was attributed to different affinities of the Ca(2+)-binding sites of these photoproteins to Mg(2+). ..
  64. Aronova M, Alekseeva T. [Ultrastructural identification of glial cells in the mouth of jellyfish Beroe cocumis]. Zh Evol Biokhim Fiziol. 2004;40:579-88 pubmed
  65. Jaspers C, Haraldsson M, Bolte S, Reusch T, Thygesen U, Kiørboe T. Ctenophore population recruits entirely through larval reproduction in the central Baltic Sea. Biol Lett. 2012;8:809-12 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first account of a ctenophore population entirely recruiting through larval reproduction (paedogenesis). We hypothesize that early reproduction is favoured over growth to compensate for high predation pressure...
  66. Calder D. Harry Beal Torrey (1873-1970) of California, USA, and his research on hydroids and other coelenterates. Zootaxa. 2013;3599:549-63 pubmed publisher
    ..or coauthor of six genera and 48 species-group taxa of Cnidaria, and he also described one new species each of Ctenophora and Phoronida...
  67. Reitzel A, Sullivan J, Brown B, Chin D, Cira E, Edquist S, et al. Ecological and developmental dynamics of a host-parasite system involving a sea anemone and two ctenophores. J Parasitol. 2007;93:1392-402 pubmed publisher
    ..lineata parasite is not well adapted for feeding in B. ovata; these developmental and ecological factors underlie the host specificity of this recently evolved parasite...
  68. Yamada A, Pang K, Martindale M, Tochinai S. Surprisingly complex T-box gene complement in diploblastic metazoans. Evol Dev. 2007;9:220-30 pubmed
    ..Our results from two diploblastic animals indicate that the common ancestor of eumetazoans had a complex set of T-box genes and that two distinct subfamilies might have appeared during triploblastic evolution...
  69. Pang K, Martindale M. Developmental expression of homeobox genes in the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi. Dev Genes Evol. 2008;218:307-19 pubmed publisher
    ..We have found that most of these homeobox genes begin expression at gastrulation, and their expression patterns suggest a possible role in patterning of the tentacle apparati and pharynx...
  70. Kohn A, Sanford R, Yoshida M, Moroz L. Parallel Evolution and Lineage-Specific Expansion of RNA Editing in Ctenophores. Integr Comp Biol. 2015;55:1111-20 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, despite their compact genomes, a wide variety of epigenomic mechanisms employed by ctenophores and other non-bilaterian basal metazoans can provide novel insights into the evolutionary origins of biological novelties. ..
  71. Derelle R, Manuel M. Ancient connection between NKL genes and the mesoderm? Insights from Tlx expression in a ctenophore. Dev Genes Evol. 2007;217:253-61 pubmed
    ..For that reason, we investigated the only known member of the NKL group in Ctenophora, a gene previously isolated from Pleurobrachia and attributed to the Tlx family...
  72. Vysotskiĭ E, Markova S, Frank L. [Calcium-regulated photoproteins of marine coelenterates]. Mol Biol (Mosk). 2006;40:404-17 pubmed
  73. Henry J, Martindale M. Inductive interactions and embryonic equivalence groups in a basal metazoan, the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi. Evol Dev. 2004;6:17-24 pubmed
  74. Dayraud C, Alié A, Jager M, Chang P, Le Guyader H, Manuel M, et al. Independent specialisation of myosin II paralogues in muscle vs. non-muscle functions during early animal evolution: a ctenophore perspective. BMC Evol Biol. 2012;12:107 pubmed publisher
    ..only once in ancient animal history, and decisive insights about their early evolution are expected to come from expression studies of Myosin II genes in the two non-bilaterian phyla that possess muscles, the Cnidaria and Ctenophora.
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    ..009 (+/-0.004) and 1.007 (+/-0.001). For Cyanea capillata ranging in bell diameter from 2 to 11 cm, the mean value (+/-standard deviation) of g and single value of h were 1.009 (+/-0.004) and 1.0004...
  76. Richter D, King N. The genomic and cellular foundations of animal origins. Annu Rev Genet. 2013;47:509-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The ancestral functions of these and other genes may eventually be revealed through studies of gene and genome function in early-branching animals and their closest non-animal relatives. ..
  77. Schenkelaars Q, Fierro Constain L, Renard E, Borchiellini C. Retracing the path of planar cell polarity. BMC Evol Biol. 2016;16:69 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the origin of this module or its prevalence in early emerging metazoans has yet to be elucidated...
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  79. Tamm S. Patterns of comb row development in young and adult stages of the ctenophores Mnemiopsis leidyi and Pleurobrachia pileus. J Morphol. 2012;273:1050-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In both cases, the body of a growing ctenophore is supplied with additional comb plates centripetally from opposite ends of the comb rows...
  80. Purcell J. Jellyfish and ctenophore blooms coincide with human proliferations and environmental perturbations. Ann Rev Mar Sci. 2012;4:209-35 pubmed
    ..Global warming will provide a rising baseline against which climate cycles will cause fluctuations in jelly populations. The probable acceleration of anthropogenic effects may lead to further problems with jellies...
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    ..In addition, the results highlight the complexity of the ctenophore anatomy and suggest that the SOX played an important role in the elaboration of the unique ctenophore body plan during evolution, through multiple gene co-option...
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    ..japonicus and P. longipes bispinosus collected around Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. ITS1 sequences of a wide variety of animals (Ctenophora, Cnidaria, Crustacea, Teleostei, Mollusca, and Chaetognatha) were detected.
  83. Blanco J, Pérez Martínez L, Vallejo M, Santibáñez S, Portillo A, Oteo J. Prevalence of rickettsia felis-like and Bartonella Spp. in Ctenocephalides felis and Ctenocephalides canis from La Rioja (Northern Spain). Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1078:270-4 pubmed
    ..4%), Bartonella clarridgeiae (6.8%), and Bartonella henselae (3.4%) were detected in Ctenocephalides spp. Other Bartonella sp. different from B. clarridgeiae and B. henselae could also be present in fleas from La Rioja...
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    ..Descriptions of these three species, as well as a checklist of the ctenophores from the west coast of Mexico are provided. ..
  85. Arkhipkin A, Laptikhovsky V. From gelatinous to muscle food chain: rock cod Patagonotothen ramsayi recycles coelenterate and tunicate resources on the Patagonian Shelf. J Fish Biol. 2013;83:1210-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This additional influx of production that has been diverted from the gelatinous food chain favours the increase in abundance of several piscivorous top predators and affects the trophic web structure of the Patagonian Shelf ecosystem...
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