scyphozoa

Summary

Summary: The class of true jellyfish, in the phylum CNIDARIA. They are mostly free-swimming marine organisms that go through five stages in their life cycle and exhibit two body forms: polyp and medusa.

Top Publications

  1. Orduña Novoa K, Segura Puertas L, Sánchez Rodríguez J, Meléndez A, Nava Ruíz C, Rembao D, et al. Possible antitumoral effect of the crude venom of Cassiopea xamachana (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) on tumors of the central nervous system induced by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) in rats. Proc West Pharmacol Soc. 2003;46:85-7 pubmed
  2. Lee H, Jung E, Kang C, Yoon W, Kim J, Kim E. Scyphozoan jellyfish venom metalloproteinases and their role in the cytotoxicity. Toxicon. 2011;58:277-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the present report proposes a novel finding of Scyphozoan jellyfish venom metalloproteinases and their potential role in the cytotoxicity. ..
  3. Acuña J, López Urrutia A, Colin S. Faking giants: the evolution of high prey clearance rates in jellyfishes. Science. 2011;333:1627-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Although larger bodies are less efficient for swimming, optimization analysis reveals that large collectors are advantageous if they move through the water sufficiently slowly...
  4. Nishimoto S, Goto Y, Morishige H, Shiraishi R, Doi M, Akiyama K, et al. Mode of action of the immunostimulatory effect of collagen from jellyfish. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2008;72:2806-14 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that collagen from jellyfish stimulated not only the transcription activity, but also the translation activity for enhanced immunoglobulin and cytokine production...
  5. Nakanishi N, Yuan D, Jacobs D, Hartenstein V. Early development, pattern, and reorganization of the planula nervous system in Aurelia (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa). Dev Genes Evol. 2008;218:511-24 pubmed publisher
    We examined the development of the nervous system in Aurelia (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) from the early planula to the polyp stage using confocal and transmission electron microscopy...
  6. Ovchinnikova T, Balandin S, Aleshina G, Tagaev A, Leonova Y, Krasnodembsky E, et al. Aurelin, a novel antimicrobial peptide from jellyfish Aurelia aurita with structural features of defensins and channel-blocking toxins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;348:514-23 pubmed
    ..Aurelin has no structural homology with any previously identified antimicrobial peptides but reveals partial similarity both with defensins and K+ channel-blocking toxins of sea anemones and belongs to ShKT domain family...
  7. Wang Q, Xiao L, He Q, Liu S, Zhang J, Li Y, et al. Comparison of haemolytic activity of tentacle-only extract from jellyfish Cyanea capillata in diluted whole blood and erythrocyte suspension: diluted whole blood is a valid test system for haemolysis study. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2012;64:831-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Diluted whole blood is a valid and convenient test system for haemolysis study in vitro...
  8. Silfen R, Vilan A, Wohl I, Leviav A. Mediterranean jellyfish (Rhopilema nomadica) sting. Burns. 2003;29:868-70 pubmed
  9. Ferguson H, Delannoy C, Hay S, Nicolson J, Sutherland D, Crumlish M. Jellyfish as vectors of bacterial disease for farmed salmon (Salmo salar). J Vet Diagn Invest. 2010;22:376-82 pubmed
    ..The high proteolytic capabilities of T. maritimum mean that partially digested gill tissues were readily available to the jellyfish, which rely heavily on intracellular digestion for their nutrition...

More Information

Publications64

  1. Marino A, Di Paola R, Crisafulli C, Mazzon E, Morabito R, Paterniti I, et al. Protective effect of melatonin against the inflammatory response elicited by crude venom from isolated nematocysts of Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa). J Pineal Res. 2009;47:56-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, based on these findings we propose that melatonin may be useful a treatment of local acute inflammation induced by P. noctiluca crude venom...
  2. Kang C, Munawir A, Cha M, Sohn E, Lee H, Kim J, et al. Cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity of jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae) venom. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2009;150:85-90 pubmed publisher
    ..SDS-PAGE analysis of N. nomurai venom showed the molecules of 20-40 kDa and 10-15 kDa appeared to be the major protein components of the venom...
  3. Lynam C, Gibbons M, Axelsen B, Sparks C, Coetzee J, Heywood B, et al. Jellyfish overtake fish in a heavily fished ecosystem. Curr Biol. 2006;16:R492-3 pubmed
  4. Calejo M, Morais Z, Fernandes A. Isolation and biochemical characterisation of a novel collagen from Catostylus tagi. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed. 2009;20:2073-87 pubmed publisher
    ..9 degrees C and multiple isoelectric points. Incubation with glutamyl endopeptidase resulted in significant digestion, in agreement with the protein's high content of Asp and Glu...
  5. Nakanishi N, Hartenstein V, Jacobs D. Development of the rhopalial nervous system in Aurelia sp.1 (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa). Dev Genes Evol. 2009;219:301-17 pubmed publisher
    ..1 (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) using confocal microscopy...
  6. Nagai H, Takuwa Kuroda K, Nakao M, Oshiro N, Iwanaga S, Nakajima T. A novel protein toxin from the deadly box jellyfish (Sea Wasp, Habu-kurage) Chiropsalmus quadrigatus. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2002;66:97-102 pubmed
    ..The deduced amino acid sequence of CqTX-A (462 amino acids) showed 25.2% and 21.6% sequence similarity to Carybdea rastoni toxins (CrTXs) and Carybdea alata toxin-A (CrTX-A), respectively, which are Cubozoan jellyfish toxins...
  7. Kariotoglou D, Mastronicolis S. Sphingophosphonolipids, phospholipids, and fatty acids from Aegean jellyfish Aurelia aurita. Lipids. 2001;36:1255-64 pubmed
    ..7%), polar (83.0%), and neutral lipids (67.6%) of A. aurita. The major phospholipid components of A. aurita were comparable to those previously found in a related organism (Pelagia noctiluca), which can injure humans...
  8. Matveev I, Shaposhnikova T, Podgornaya O. A novel Aurelia aurita protein mesoglein contains DSL and ZP domains. Gene. 2007;399:20-5 pubmed
    ..Mesoglein belongs to the lowest phyla among ZP domain-containing proteins. The protein is supposed to be a structural element of the mesoglea extracellular matrix...
  9. Kim E, Lee S, Kim J, Yoon W, Lim D, Hart A, et al. Cardiovascular effects of Nemopilema nomurai (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae) jellyfish venom in rats. Toxicol Lett. 2006;167:205-11 pubmed
    Over the past few years, populations of the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae) have increased dramatically in the waters of China, Korea, and Japan without any definitive reason...
  10. Houghton J, Doyle T, Wilson M, Davenport J, Hays G. Jellyfish aggregations and leatherback turtle foraging patterns in a temperate coastal environment. Ecology. 2006;87:1967-72 pubmed
    ..5% of leatherback distribution could be explained by these hotspots, with the inference that these coastal features may be sufficiently consistent in space and time to drive long-term foraging associations...
  11. Berking S, Czech N, Gerharz M, Herrmann K, Hoffmann U, Raifer H, et al. A newly discovered oxidant defence system and its involvement in the development of Aurelia aurita (Scyphozoa, Cnidaria): reactive oxygen species and elemental iodine control medusa formation. Int J Dev Biol. 2005;49:969-76 pubmed
  12. Uri S, Marina G, Liubov G. Severe delayed cutaneous reaction due to Mediterranean jellyfish (Rhopilema nomadica) envenomation. Contact Dermatitis. 2005;52:282-3 pubmed
    ..We report a lady with a severe delayed reaction due to jellyfish envenomation that developed 2 days after contact with jellyfish tentacles...
  13. Yu H, Liu X, Xing R, Liu S, Li C, Li P. Radical scavenging activity of protein from tentacles of jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005;15:2659-64 pubmed
    ..The radical scavenging activity was stable at high temperature so that R. esculentum may be used as a kind of natural functional food...
  14. Dabiri J, Colin S, Costello J, Gharib M. Flow patterns generated by oblate medusan jellyfish: field measurements and laboratory analyses. J Exp Biol. 2005;208:1257-65 pubmed
    ..These effects are shown to be advantageous for feeding and swimming performance, and are an important consequence of vortex interactions that have been previously neglected...
  15. Yoffe B, Baruchin A. Mediterranean jellyfish (Rhopilema nomadica) sting. Burns. 2004;30:503-4 pubmed
  16. Feng J, Yu H, Li C, Xing R, Liu S, Wang L, et al. Isolation and characterization of lethal proteins in nematocyst venom of the jellyfish Cyanea nozakii Kishinouye. Toxicon. 2010;55:118-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide the first evidence that C. nozakii produces lethal toxins. These characteristics highlight the need for the isolation and molecular characterization of new active toxins in C. nozakii...
  17. Utne Palm A, Salvanes A, Currie B, Kaartvedt S, Nilsson G, Braithwaite V, et al. Trophic structure and community stability in an overfished ecosystem. Science. 2010;329:333-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, body-tissue isotope signatures reveal that gobies consume jellyfish and sulphidic diatomaceous mud, transferring "dead-end" resources back into the food chain...
  18. Prieto L, Astorga D, Navarro G, Ruiz J. Environmental control of phase transition and polyp survival of a massive-outbreaker jellyfish. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13793 pubmed publisher
    ..Projecting this understanding to a field population under climatological variability results in a pattern coherent with in situ records...
  19. Dong Z, Liu D, Keesing J. Jellyfish blooms in China: Dominant species, causes and consequences. Mar Pollut Bull. 2010;60:954-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In the absence of improvement in coastal marine ecosystem health, jellyfish blooms could be sustained and may even spread from the locations in which they now occur...
  20. Mariottini G, Pane L. Mediterranean jellyfish venoms: a review on scyphomedusae. Mar Drugs. 2010;8:1122-52 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper reviews the knowledge about the various aspects related to the occurrence and the stinging of the Mediterranean scyphozoan jellyfish as well as the activity of their venoms...
  21. Lassen S, Helmholz H, Ruhnau C, Prange A. A novel proteinaceous cytotoxin from the northern Scyphozoa Cyanea capillata (L.) with structural homology to cubozoan haemolysins. Toxicon. 2011;57:721-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This sequence information partially matched that of two known haemolytic proteins of two cubozoan species: CaTX-1 from Carybdea alata Reynaud, 1830 and CrTX-1 from Carybdea rastonii Haacke, 1886...
  22. Feng J, Yu H, Xing R, Liu S, Wang L, Cai S, et al. Partial characterization of the hemolytic activity of the nematocyst venom from the jellyfish Cyanea nozakii Kishinouye. Toxicol In Vitro. 2010;24:1750-6 pubmed publisher
    ..PLA(2) activity was also found in the nematocyst venom of C. nozakii. These characteristics provide us a fundamental knowledge in the C. nozakii nematocyst venom which would benefit future research...
  23. Winter K, Isbister G, Schneider J, Konstantakopoulos N, Seymour J, Hodgson W. An examination of the cardiovascular effects of an 'Irukandji' jellyfish, Alatina nr mordens. Toxicol Lett. 2008;179:118-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This study characterizes the in vitro and in vivo effects of A. nr mordens venom and indicates that the cardiovascular effects are at least partially mediated by endogenous catecholamine release...
  24. Xiao L, Liu S, He Q, Wang Q, Ye X, Liu G, et al. The acute toxicity and hematological characterization of the effects of tentacle-only extract from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata. Mar Drugs. 2011;9:526-34 pubmed publisher
    ..capillata and indicate that it may also have neurotoxicity, liver toxicity and muscular toxicity in addition to hemolytic and cardiovascular toxicities, but no kidney or pancreatic toxicity...
  25. Shaposhnikova T, Matveev I, Napara T, Podgornaya O. Mesogleal cells of the jellyfish Aurelia aurita are involved in the formation of mesogleal fibres. Cell Biol Int. 2005;29:952-8 pubmed
    The extracellular matrix of the jellyfish Aurelia aurita (Scyphozoa, Cnidaria), known as the mesoglea, is populated by numerous mesogleal cells (Mc)...
  26. Xiao L, He Q, Guo Y, Zhang J, Nie F, Li Y, et al. Cyanea capillata tentacle-only extract as a potential alternative of nematocyst venom: its cardiovascular toxicity and tolerance to isolation and purification procedures. Toxicon. 2009;53:146-52 pubmed publisher
    ..0) was optimal. These results provide experimental data for optimizing the conditions for isolating the proteins with cardiovascular toxicity from jellyfish TOE, which serves as a promising alternative source of nematocyst venom...
  27. Li R, Wright C, Winkel K, Gershwin L, Angus J. The pharmacology of Malo maxima jellyfish venom extract in isolated cardiovascular tissues: A probable cause of the Irukandji syndrome in Western Australia. Toxicol Lett. 2011;201:221-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects are consistent with the catecholamine excess thought to cause Irukandji syndrome, with additional actions of CGRP release...
  28. Kayal E, Bentlage B, Collins A, Kayal M, Pirro S, Lavrov D. Evolution of linear mitochondrial genomes in medusozoan cnidarians. Genome Biol Evol. 2012;4:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..of nearly complete linear mtDNA from 24 species representing all four medusozoan classes: Cubozoa, Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa, and Staurozoa...
  29. Park E, Hwang D, Lee J, Song J, Seo T, Won Y. Estimation of divergence times in cnidarian evolution based on mitochondrial protein-coding genes and the fossil record. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2012;62:329-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The Octocorallia and Scleractinia may have originated from radiations of survivors of the Permian-Triassic mass extinction, which matches their fossil record well...
  30. Licandro P, Conway D, Daly Yahia M, Fernandez de Puelles M, Gasparini S, Hecq J, et al. A blooming jellyfish in the northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean. Biol Lett. 2010;6:688-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Since P. noctiluca is a highly venomous species, outbreaks can also be detrimental to aquaculture and make bathing waters unusable, thus having profound ecological and socio-economic consequences...
  31. Wiebring A, Helmholz H, Sötje I, Lassen S, Prange A, Tiemann H. A new method for the separation of different types of nematocysts from scyphozoa and investigation of proteinaceous toxins utilizing laser catapulting and subsequent mass spectrometry. Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2010;12:308-17 pubmed publisher
    ..In case of A. aurita, the resulting mass spectra had some constituents in common, whereas in the overall pattern, the two distinct nematocyst types differed...
  32. Xiao L, Zhang J, Wang Q, He Q, Liu S, Li Y, et al. In vitro and in vivo haemolytic studies of tentacle-only extract from jellyfish Cyanea capillata. Toxicol In Vitro. 2010;24:1203-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus we suggested that erythrocyte suspension can be used to test the damage of toxin on erythrocyte membrane, while the diluted whole blood may be more suitable to test the haemolysis of toxins...
  33. Anderson P, Trapido Rosenthal H. Physiological and chemical analysis of neurotransmitter candidates at a fast excitatory synapse in the jellyfish Cyanea capillata (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa). Invert Neurosci. 2009;9:167-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These various findings strongly suggest that either or both of these amino acids, or a closely related compound is the neurotransmitter at the fast chemical synapses between MNN neurons...
  34. Collins A, Schuchert P, Marques A, Jankowski T, Medina M, Schierwater B. Medusozoan phylogeny and character evolution clarified by new large and small subunit rDNA data and an assessment of the utility of phylogenetic mixture models. Syst Biol. 2006;55:97-115 pubmed
    ..18S; 28S; Cubozoa; Hydrozoa; medusa; molecular systematics; polyp; Scyphozoa; Staurozoa.].
  35. Xiao L, Liu G, Wang Q, He Q, Liu S, Li Y, et al. The lethality of tentacle-only extract from jellyfish Cyanea capillata is primarily attributed to cardiotoxicity in anaesthetized SD rats. Toxicon. 2010;55:838-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal that cardiodepressive effect of C. capillata TOE is the leading cause of death and acute total heart failure is the basic physiopathologic change in anaesthetized SD rats...
  36. Cuiping L, Pengcheng L, Jinhua F, Rongfeng L, Huahua Y. Cytotoxicity of the venom from the nematocysts of jellyfish Cyanea nozakii Kishinouye. Toxicol Ind Health. 2012;28:186-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Lactate dehydrogenase release assay performed on H630 cells indicated that exposure to the venom could result in damage to the cell membrane...
  37. Marino A, Morabito R, Pizzata T, La Spada G. Effect of various factors on Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) crude venom-induced haemolysis. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2008;151:144-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Such findings may suggest a pore-forming mechanism for P. noctiluca crude venom rather than an oxidative damage to the cell membrane...
  38. Nagai H, Takuwa K, Nakao M, Ito E, Miyake M, Noda M, et al. Novel proteinaceous toxins from the box jellyfish (sea wasp) Carybdea rastoni. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;275:582-8 pubmed
    ..v.) and crayfish at 5 microg/kg (i.p.). Subcutaneously injected CrTX-A (0.1 microg) caused inflammation of mouse skin. These results showed that CrTX-A is responsible for the cutaneous inflammation observed in humans stung by C. rastoni...
  39. Rastogi A, Biswas S, Sarkar A, Chakrabarty D. Anticoagulant activity of Moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) tentacle extract. Toxicon. 2012;60:719-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Autolytic degradation of the high molecular weight protein was also noted. Autolysis slowed down, but did not abolish the fibrinogenolytic activity of the extract...
  40. Yuan D, Nakanishi N, Jacobs D, Hartenstein V. Embryonic development and metamorphosis of the scyphozoan Aurelia. Dev Genes Evol. 2008;218:525-39 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the development of Aurelia (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) during embryogenesis and metamorphosis into a polyp, using antibody markers combined with confocal and transmission electron microscopy...
  41. Villanueva A, Smith C, Priya S. A biomimetic robotic jellyfish (Robojelly) actuated by shape memory alloy composite actuators. Bioinspir Biomim. 2011;6:036004 pubmed publisher
    ..Robojelly was found to consume an average power on the order of 17 W with the actuators not having fully reached a thermal steady state...
  42. Liang X, Beilei W, Ying L, Qianqian W, Sihua L, Yang W, et al. Cardiovascular effect is independent of hemolytic toxicity of tentacle-only extract from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43096 pubmed publisher
  43. Frank U, Rinkevich B. Scyphozoan jellyfish's mesoglea supports attachment, spreading and migration of anthozoans' cells in vitro. Cell Biol Int. 1999;23:307-11 pubmed
    ..Subsequently they migrated into the mesogleal matrix at a rate of 5-10 microm/h during the first 2-5 h. No difference was found between the behavior of cells from the five different cnidarian species...
  44. Song E, Yeon Kim S, Chun T, Byun H, Lee Y. Collagen scaffolds derived from a marine source and their biocompatibility. Biomaterials. 2006;27:2951-61 pubmed
    ..Jellyfish collagen was found to induce an immune response at least comparable to those caused by bovine collagen and gelatin...
  45. Kokelj F, Plozzer C. Irritant contact dermatitis from the jellyfish Rhizostoma pulmo. Contact Dermatitis. 2002;46:179-80 pubmed
  46. Schroth W, Jarms G, Streit B, Schierwater B. Speciation and phylogeography in the cosmopolitan marine moon jelly, Aurelia sp. BMC Evol Biol. 2002;2:1 pubmed
    ..We used molecular data and phenotypic traits to unravel speciation processes and phylogeographic patterns in Aurelia...
  47. Templeman M, Kingsford M. Trace element accumulation in Cassiopea sp. (Scyphozoa) from urban marine environments in Australia. Mar Environ Res. 2010;69:63-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The combination of bioaccumulative capacity, life history traits and biophysical aspects indicate that this species has high potential as a biomonitor in coastal marine systems...
  48. Masuda A, Baba T, Dohmae N, Yamamura M, Wada H, Ushida K. Mucin (qniumucin), a glycoprotein from jellyfish, and determination of its main chain structure. J Nat Prod. 2007;70:1089-92 pubmed
    ..We named this substance, which is common in jellyfish and similar to the human mucin MUC5AC, "qniumucin" and suggested the utilization of this compound as a new marine resource...
  49. Thuesen E, Rutherford L, Brommer P, Garrison K, Gutowska M, Towanda T. Intragel oxygen promotes hypoxia tolerance of scyphomedusae. J Exp Biol. 2005;208:2475-82 pubmed
    ..labiata is somewhere near its critical partial pressure, and oxygen stratification stimulates swimming back and forth across the oxycline. Intragel oxygen dynamics are recognised as a fundamental component of medusan physiology...
  50. Nagai H, Takuwa K, Nakao M, Sakamoto B, Crow G, Nakajima T. Isolation and characterization of a novel protein toxin from the Hawaiian box jellyfish (sea wasp) Carybdea alata. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;275:589-94 pubmed
    ..Secondary structure analysis of CaTX-A and CrTXs suggested the presence of amphiphilic alpha-helices, which are also seen in several known hemolytic or cytolytic protein toxins, including peptide toxins...
  51. Groger H, Callaerts P, Gehring W, Schmid V. Characterization and expression analysis of an ancestor-type Pax gene in the hydrozoan jellyfish Podocoryne carnea. Mech Dev. 2000;94:157-69 pubmed
    ..The expression data indicate that Pax-B is involved in nerve cell differentiation...
  52. Condon R, Duarte C, Pitt K, Robinson K, Lucas C, Sutherland K, et al. Recurrent jellyfish blooms are a consequence of global oscillations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:1000-5 pubmed publisher
  53. Yu H, Liu X, Dong X, Li C, Xing R, Liu S, et al. Insecticidal activity of proteinous venom from tentacle of jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005;15:4949-52 pubmed
    ..pyri Fabriciusa, and the corrected mortality recorded at 48 h was 97.86%. So, S. pyri Fabriciusa could be a potential target pest of R. esculentum full proteinous venom...
  54. Ayed Y, Boussabbeh M, Zakhama W, Bouaziz C, Abid S, Bacha H. Induction of cytotoxicity of Pelagia noctiluca venom causes reactive oxygen species generation, lipid peroxydation induction and DNA damage in human colon cancer cells. Lipids Health Dis. 2011;10:232 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the propensity of Pelagia noctiluca venom to cause oxidative damage in HCT 116 cells and its associated genotoxic effects...
  55. Spangenberg D, Coccaro E, Schwarte R, Lowe B. Touch-plate and statolith formation in graviceptors of ephyrae which developed while weightless in space. Scanning Microsc. 1996;10:875-87; discussion 887-8 pubmed