Summary: The class of box jellyfish, in the phylum CNIDARIA, characterized by their cube shape, and considered the most venomous jellyfish.

Top Publications

  1. Garm A, O Connor M, Parkefelt L, Nilsson D. Visually guided obstacle avoidance in the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora and Chiropsella bronzie. J Exp Biol. 2007;210:3616-23 pubmed
    ..In the flow chamber Tripedalia cystophora displayed a stronger obstacle avoidance response than Chiropsella bronzie since they had less contact with the obstacles. This seems to follow differences in their habitats...
  2. Garm A, Poussart Y, Parkefelt L, Ekstrom P, Nilsson D. The ring nerve of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora. Cell Tissue Res. 2007;329:147-57 pubmed
    ..Epithelial cells divide the ring nerve into compartments, each having a tendency to contain neurites of similar morphology. The number and arrangement of the compartments vary along the length of the ring nerve...
  3. Brinkman D, Burnell J. Biochemical and molecular characterisation of cubozoan protein toxins. Toxicon. 2009;54:1162-73 pubmed publisher
    Class Cubozoa includes several species of box jellyfish that are harmful to humans...
  4. Jacups S. Warmer waters in the Northern Territory--herald an earlier onset to the annual Chironex fleckeri Stinger season. Ecohealth. 2010;7:14-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This short report presents data to support this hypothesis, facilitating policy makers with an environmental cue upon which changes to current stinger season can be based--prior to painful and potentially life-threatening presentations...
  5. Nilsson D, Gislén L, Coates M, Skogh C, Garm A. Advanced optics in a jellyfish eye. Nature. 2005;435:201-5 pubmed
    ..We argue that this may be useful in eyes serving a single visual task. The findings indicate that tailoring of complex receptive fields might have been one of the original driving forces in the evolution of animal lenses...
  6. Collins A, Schuchert P, Marques A, Jankowski T, Medina M, Schierwater B. Medusozoan phylogeny and character evolution clarified by new large and small subunit rDNA data and an assessment of the utility of phylogenetic mixture models. Syst Biol. 2006;55:97-115 pubmed
    ..18S; 28S; Cubozoa; Hydrozoa; medusa; molecular systematics; polyp; Scyphozoa; Staurozoa.].
  7. Kozmik Z, Ruzickova J, Jonasova K, Matsumoto Y, Vopalensky P, Kozmikova I, et al. Assembly of the cnidarian camera-type eye from vertebrate-like components. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:8989-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicative of parallelism provide an insight into eye evolution. Combined, the available data favor the possibility that vertebrate and cubozoan eyes arose by independent recruitment of orthologous genes during evolution...
  8. Garm A, Mori S. Multiple photoreceptor systems control the swim pacemaker activity in box jellyfish. J Exp Biol. 2009;212:3951-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The upper lens eye, the pit eyes and the rhopalial neuropil all have close to the opposite effect. When these responses are compared with all-eye stimulations it is seen that some advanced integration must take place...
  9. Garm A, Oskarsson M, Nilsson D. Box jellyfish use terrestrial visual cues for navigation. Curr Biol. 2011;21:798-803 pubmed publisher
    ..The visual information is used to navigate to the preferred habitat at the edge of mangrove lagoons...

More Information

Publications107 found, 100 shown here

  1. Petie R, Garm A, Nilsson D. Visual control of steering in the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora. J Exp Biol. 2011;214:2809-15 pubmed publisher
    ..This causes the animals to orient their bell in such a way that, if not tethered, they would turn and swim away from the dark area. We conclude that the visual system of T. cystophora has a predictable effect on swimming behaviour...
  2. Skogh C, Garm A, Nilsson D, Ekstrom P. Bilaterally symmetrical rhopalial nervous system of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora. J Morphol. 2006;267:1391-405 pubmed
    ..The larger of the two nonneuronal cell populations comprises approximately 2,000 likely undifferentiated cells and may support a rapid cell turnover in the rhopalial nervous system...
  3. Coates M, Garm A, Theobald J, Thompson S, Nilsson D. The spectral sensitivity of the lens eyes of a box jellyfish, Tripedalia cystophora (Conant). J Exp Biol. 2006;209:3758-65 pubmed
    Box jellyfish, or cubomedusae (class Cubozoa), are unique among the Cnidaria in possessing lens eyes similar in morphology to those of vertebrates and cephalopods...
  4. Koyanagi M, Takano K, Tsukamoto H, Ohtsu K, Tokunaga F, Terakita A. Jellyfish vision starts with cAMP signaling mediated by opsin-G(s) cascade. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:15576-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These similarities imply a monophyletic origin of ciliary phototransduction cascades distributed from prebilaterian to vertebrate...
  5. Parkefelt L, Ekström P. Prominent system of RFamide immunoreactive neurons in the rhopalia of box jellyfish (Cnidaria: Cubozoa). J Comp Neurol. 2009;516:157-65 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that the system might not only integrate visual input but also signals from other senses. One of the RFamide-ir cell groups is favorably situated to represent pacemaker neurons that set the swimming rhythm of the medusa...
  6. Pereira P, Barry J, Corkeron M, Keir P, Little M, Seymour J. Intracerebral hemorrhage and death after envenoming by the jellyfish Carukia barnesi. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2010;48:390-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Irukandji syndrome is because of envenoming by a number of small jellyfish. It results in a delayed onset of generalized pain, sweating hypertension, and tachycardia. There is no antivenom...
  7. Parkefelt L, Skogh C, Nilsson D, Ekström P. Bilateral symmetric organization of neural elements in the visual system of a coelenterate, Tripedalia cystophora (Cubozoa). J Comp Neurol. 2005;492:251-62 pubmed
    ..This neuronal system provides an anatomical substrate for integration of visual signals from the different eyes...
  8. Satterlie R, Thomas K, Gray G. Muscle organization of the cubozoan jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora Conant 1897. Biol Bull. 2005;209:154-63 pubmed
  9. Brinkman D, Burnell J. Identification, cloning and sequencing of two major venom proteins from the box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri. Toxicon. 2007;50:850-60 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, remote protein homology predictions for CfTX-2 and CaTX-A suggest weak structural similarities to pore-forming insecticidal delta-endotoxins Cry1Aa, Cry3Bb and Cry3A...
  10. Gershwin L, Dawes P. Preliminary observations on the response of Chironex fleckeri (Cnidaria: Cubozoa: Chirodropida) to different colors of light. Biol Bull. 2008;215:57-62 pubmed
    ..This leaves open the possibility that Irukandji species, which are more closely related to Tripedalia than to Chironex, may be blind to red...
  11. Kintner A, Seymour J, Edwards S. Variation in lethality and effects of two Australian chirodropid jellyfish venoms in fish. Toxicon. 2005;46:699-708 pubmed
    ..owing to its greater molecular protein complexity, it confers the advantage of increased caloric intake from fish prey, facilitating larger size and potentially greater reproductive output of C. fleckeri over Chiropsalmus sp...
  12. Brinkman D, Burnell J. Partial purification of cytolytic venom proteins from the box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri. Toxicon. 2008;51:853-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, further in vivo and in vitro studies are required to investigate the potential roles of CfTX-1 and -2 in the lethal effects of C. fleckeri venom...
  13. Garm A, Andersson F, Nilsson D. Unique structure and optics of the lesser eyes of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora. Vision Res. 2008;48:1061-73 pubmed publisher
    ..They also hold a lens-like structure, but its optical power is minute. Optical modeling suggests spatial resolution, but only in one plane. These unique and intriguing traits support strong peripheral filtering...
  14. Bentlage B, Cartwright P, Yanagihara A, Lewis C, Richards G, Collins A. Evolution of box jellyfish (Cnidaria: Cubozoa), a group of highly toxic invertebrates. Proc Biol Sci. 2010;277:493-501 pubmed publisher
    b>Cubozoa (Cnidaria: Medusozoa) represents a small clade of approximately 50 described species, some of which cause serious human envenomations...
  15. Gordon M, Seymour J. Growth, development and temporal variation in the onset of six Chironex fleckeri medusae seasons: a contribution to understanding jellyfish ecology. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31277 pubmed publisher
    ..parameters of Chironex fleckeri medusae, contributing not only to the understanding of an understudied taxon, the cubozoa, but also to the broader understanding of jellyfish ecology. C...
  16. Carrette T, Alderslade P, Seymour J. Nematocyst ratio and prey in two Australian cubomedusans, Chironex fleckeri and Chiropsalmus sp. Toxicon. 2002;40:1547-51 pubmed
    ..fleckeri may also be responsible for why this species has caused numerous human fatalities, while the Australian Chiropsalmus sp. has not...
  17. Garm A, Ekstrom P, Boudes M, Nilsson D. Rhopalia are integrated parts of the central nervous system in box jellyfish. Cell Tissue Res. 2006;325:333-43 pubmed
    ..Additionally, a novel gastrodermal nerve has been found in the stalk; this nerve is not involved in visual processing but is likely to be mechanosensory and part of a proprioceptory system...
  18. Ekström P, Garm A, Pålsson J, Vihtelic T, Nilsson D. Immunohistochemical evidence for multiple photosystems in box jellyfish. Cell Tissue Res. 2008;333:115-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The results support our hypothesis that the lens eyes and the pigment cup eyes of box jellyfish are involved in different and specific visual tasks...
  19. Gray G, Martin V, Satterlie R. Ultrastructure of the retinal synapses in cubozoans. Biol Bull. 2009;217:35-49 pubmed
    ..The invaginated synapses of the lensed eyes may be useful as markers to help sort out the neural circuitry in the retinal region of these complex cubomedusan eyes...
  20. Sando J, Usher K, Buettner P. 'To swim or not to swim': the impact of jellyfish stings causing Irukandji Syndrome in Tropical Queensland. J Clin Nurs. 2010;19:109-17 pubmed publisher
    ..It is, therefore, timely to review the critical role that assessment plays in clinical care. ..
  21. Pyo M, Lee H, Bae S, Heo Y, Choudhary I, Yoon W, et al. Modulation of jellyfish nematocyst discharges and management of human skin stings in Nemopilema nomurai and Carybdea mora. Toxicon. 2016;109:26-32 pubmed publisher develop rational first aid guidelines for the stings of Nemopilema nomurai (scyphozoa) and Carybdea mora (cubozoa), the modulatory effects of various kinds of rinsing solutions have been assessed on nematocyst discharge and ..
  22. Li R, Wright C, Winkel K, Gershwin L, Angus J. The pharmacology of Malo maxima jellyfish venom extract in isolated cardiovascular tissues: A probable cause of the Irukandji syndrome in Western Australia. Toxicol Lett. 2011;201:221-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects are consistent with the catecholamine excess thought to cause Irukandji syndrome, with additional actions of CGRP release...
  23. Lippmann J, Fenner P, Winkel K, Gershwin L. Fatal and severe box jellyfish stings, including Irukandji stings, in Malaysia, 2000-2010. J Travel Med. 2011;18:275-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The internet is a recent innovation to gain information on real-time health issues of travel destinations, including Southeast Asia...
  24. Harrison S, Leggat P, Fenner P, Durrheim D, Swinbourne A. Reported knowledge, perceptions, and behavior of tourists and North Queensland residents at risk of contact with jellyfish that cause the "Irukandji syndrome". Wilderness Environ Med. 2004;15:4-10 pubmed
    ..A coordinated educational response across northern Australia may be necessary to inform the public about both the box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) and Irukandji. ..
  25. Bailey P, Bakker A, Seymour J, Wilce J. A functional comparison of the venom of three Australian jellyfish--Chironex fleckeri, Chiropsalmus sp., and Carybdea xaymacana--on cytosolic Ca2+, haemolysis and Artemia sp. lethality. Toxicon. 2005;45:233-42 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the observed lytic effects may not underlie the lethal effects of the venom, and raises the question of how such potent activities are dealt with by envenomed humans. ..
  26. Carrette T, Seymour J. Vascular dopplers: a new way of recording cardiac parameters in envenomed organisms. Toxicon. 2005;45:541-4 pubmed
    ..This method is advantageous as it is not only inexpensive and easily portable but allows for specific venom actions to be investigated in a wider variety of previously unreportable, but ecologically significant animals. ..
  27. Winter K, Isbister G, McGowan S, Konstantakopoulos N, Seymour J, Hodgson W. A pharmacological and biochemical examination of the geographical variation of Chironex fleckeri venom. Toxicol Lett. 2010;192:419-24 pubmed publisher
    ..fleckeri venoms which is most distinct between specimens from western and eastern Australia and may explain the geographical variation in reported deaths. ..
  28. Garm A, Bielecki J, Petie R, Nilsson D. Opposite patterns of diurnal activity in the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora and Copula sivickisi. Biol Bull. 2012;222:35-45 pubmed
    ..This species difference seems to have evolved to optimize foraging, since the patterns of activity follow those of the available prey items in their respective habitats. ..
  29. Corkeron M, Pereira P, Makrocanis C. Early experience with magnesium administration in Irukandji syndrome. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2004;32:666-9 pubmed
    ..Magnesium sulphate administration appears to attenuate pain and hypertension in Irukandji syndrome and warrants further evaluation in this setting. ..
  30. Huynh T, Seymour J, Pereira P, Mulcahy R, Cullen P, Carrette T, et al. Severity of Irukandji syndrome and nematocyst identification from skin scrapings. Med J Aust. 2003;178:38-41 pubmed
    ..Our finding of a cnidome not consistent with Carukia barnesi in the setting of Irukandji syndrome makes it possible that other species of jellyfish may also cause this syndrome. ..
  31. Gershwin L, Richardson A, Winkel K, Fenner P, Lippmann J, Hore R, et al. Biology and ecology of Irukandji jellyfish (Cnidaria: Cubozoa). Adv Mar Biol. 2013;66:1-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Major gaps in knowledge are identified for future research: our lack of clarity on the socio-economic impacts, and our need for time series and spatial surveys of the species, make this field particularly enticing. ..
  32. Lincoln T. Zoology: light touch on the rudder. Nature. 2003;425:360 pubmed
  33. Grady J, Burnett J. Irukandji-like syndrome in South Florida divers. Ann Emerg Med. 2003;42:763-6 pubmed
    ..We describe 3 cases of marine envenomation causing such a symptom complex in US military combat divers off Key West, FL. It is unclear what species caused the injuries, but a member of the Carybdeid genus seems most likely. ..
  34. Ramasamy S, Isbister G, Seymour J, Hodgson W. The in vivo cardiovascular effects of box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri venom in rats: efficacy of pre-treatment with antivenom, verapamil and magnesium sulphate. Toxicon. 2004;43:685-90 pubmed
    ..We show for the first time, the cardiovascular effects of a C. fleckeri venom sample free of tentacular contamination and the potential of MgSO(4) as an adjunct therapy for the treatment of potentially fatal C. fleckeri envenomings. ..
  35. Thaikruea L, Siriariyaporn P. The magnitude of severe box jellyfish cases on Koh Samui and Koh Pha-ngan in the Gulf of Thailand. BMC Res Notes. 2016;9:108 pubmed publisher
    ..There is an urgent need for informed pre-clinical emergent care. Optimal pre-clinical care is an area of active research. ..
  36. Oshiro N, Iwanaga S. [Envenomation and poisoning caused by marine biotoxins in Okinawa]. Chudoku Kenkyu. 2008;21:293-7 pubmed
  37. Fenner P, Lewin M. Sublingual glyceryl trinitrate as prehospital treatment for hypertension in Irukandji syndrome. Med J Aust. 2003;179:655 pubmed
  38. Garm A, Hedal I, Islin M, Gurska D. Pattern- and contrast-dependent visual response in the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora. J Exp Biol. 2013;216:4520-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that the medusae respond stronger to high contrast lines than to low contrast lines in a graded fashion, and propose that the medusae use contrast as a semi-reliable measure of distance to the obstacle. ..
  39. Currie B, McKinnon M, Whelan B, Alderslade P. The Gove chirodropid: a box jellyfish appearing in the "safe season". Med J Aust. 2002;177:649 pubmed
  40. Currie B. Marine antivenoms. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2003;41:301-8 pubmed
    ..It remains uncertain whether stonefish antivenom is efficacious in stings from spines of other venomous fish, and the recommendation of giving the antivenom intramuscularly needs reassessment...
  41. Hamann C, Hamann D, Richardson C, Seeburger J. Box jellyfish envenomation: case report of effective lemon and oil emulsion treatment. Trop Doct. 2014;44:106-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Lemon-oil emulsion therapy has not yet been reported in the published literature but may be an economical and novel treatment for box jellyfish envenomation. ..
  42. Winkel K, Tibballs J, Molenaar P, Lambert G, Coles P, Ross Smith M, et al. Cardiovascular actions of the venom from the Irukandji (Carukia barnesi) jellyfish: effects in human, rat and guinea-pig tissues in vitro and in pigs in vitro. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2005;32:777-88 pubmed
    ..The venom may also contain a 'direct' vasoconstrictor component. These observations explain, at least in part, the clinical features of the potentially deadly Irukandji syndrome. ..
  43. Konstantakopoulos N, Isbister G, Seymour J, Hodgson W. A cell-based assay for screening of antidotes to, and antivenom against Chironex fleckeri (box jellyfish) venom. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 2009;59:166-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, potential adjunct therapies verapamil, felodipine and MgSO(4) were found to be ineffective, with felodipine and MgSO(4) potentiating the detrimental effects of the venom. ..
  44. Koyama T, Noguchi K, Matsuzaki T, Sakanashi M, Nakasone J, Miyagi K, et al. Haemodynamic effects of the crude venom from nematocysts of the box-jellyfish Chiropsalmus quadrigatus (Habu-kurage) in anaesthetized rabbits. Toxicon. 2003;41:621-31 pubmed
  45. Greenland P, Hutchinson D, Park T. Irukandji Syndrome: what nurses need to know. Nurs Health Sci. 2006;8:66-70 pubmed
    ..Community safety and education surrounding Irukandji Syndrome requires concurrent progression of nursing knowledge and scientific inquiry. ..
  46. Winkel K, Mirtschin P, Pearn J. Twentieth century toxinology and antivenom development in Australia. Toxicon. 2006;48:738-54 pubmed
    ..This paper reviews some of the milestones of Australian toxinology, and antivenom development in particular, during the 20th century. ..
  47. O Connor M, Garm A, Nilsson D. Structure and optics of the eyes of the box jellyfish Chiropsella bronzie. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2009;195:557-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Unlike the upper lens-eye lens of T.cystophora, the same eye in C.bronzie did not display any significant optical power. ..
  48. Brinkman D, Aziz A, Loukas A, Potriquet J, Seymour J, Mulvenna J. Venom proteome of the box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47866 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides insight into the depth and diversity of protein toxins produced by harmful box jellyfish and represents the first description of a cubozoan jellyfish venom proteome. ..
  49. Colin S, Costello J, Katija K, Seymour J, Kiefer K. Propulsion in cubomedusae: mechanisms and utility. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56393 pubmed publisher
    ..Swimming characteristics were considered in conjunction with the unique foraging strategy used by cubomedusae. ..
  50. Pearn J, Fenner P. The Jellyfish hunter--Jack Barnes: a pioneer medical toxinologist in Australia. Toxicon. 2006;48:762-7 pubmed
    ..This paper is a précis of the chronology of his life, contributions and influence. ..
  51. Winter K, Isbister G, Jacoby T, Seymour J, Hodgson W. An in vivo comparison of the efficacy of CSL box jellyfish antivenom with antibodies raised against nematocyst-derived Chironex fleckeri venom. Toxicol Lett. 2009;187:94-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This indicates a very rapid action of the toxin(s) and that AV is unlikely to be clinically effective because it cannot be administered early enough. ..
  52. Garm A, Coates M, Gad R, Seymour J, Nilsson D. The lens eyes of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora and Chiropsalmus sp. are slow and color-blind. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2007;193:547-57 pubmed
    ..A single opsin is supported by selective adaptation experiments. ..
  53. Saggiomo S, Seymour J. Cardiotoxic effects of venom fractions from the Australian box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri on human myocardiocytes. Toxicon. 2012;60:391-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The difference in the results between fractioned and unfractionated venom may have been caused by compounds remaining in the FPLC column, which may interact with the toxic fraction to cause rapid cell detachment or death. ..
  54. Bielecki J, Høeg J, Garm A. Fixational eye movements in the earliest stage of metazoan evolution. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e66442 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the timing and amplitude of the rhopalial movements concur with the spatial and temporal resolution of the eye it circumvents the need for post processing in the central nervous system to remove image blur. ..
  55. Yanagihara A, Wilcox C, King R, Hurwitz K, Castelfranco A. Experimental Assays to Assess the Efficacy of Vinegar and Other Topical First-Aid Approaches on Cubozoan (Alatina alata) Tentacle Firing and Venom Toxicity. Toxins (Basel). 2016;8: pubmed publisher
  56. Carrette T, Cullen P, Little M, Peiera P, Seymour J. Temperature effects on box jellyfish venom: a possible treatment for envenomed patients?. Med J Aust. 2002;177:654-5 pubmed
    ..fleckeri venom. Although heat application may be of limited use in treating C. fleckeri envenoming because of the speed of symptom onset, its use in other box-jellyfish envenomings, such as Irukandji syndrome, requires investigation. ..
  57. Ramasamy S, Isbister G, Seymour J, Hodgson W. The in vitro effects of two chirodropid (Chironex fleckeri and Chiropsalmus sp.) venoms: efficacy of box jellyfish antivenom. Toxicon. 2003;41:703-11 pubmed
    ..This suggests that antivenom is unlikely to be useful in the treatment of neurotoxic or myotoxic effects in patients, although these effects are rarely seen clinically...
  58. Hughes R, Angus J, Winkel K, Wright C. A pharmacological investigation of the venom extract of the Australian box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri, in cardiac and vascular tissues. Toxicol Lett. 2012;209:11-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Box jellyfish antivenom was effective in attenuating CVE-induced responses in isolated cardiac and vascular tissues. ..
  59. Nomura J, Sato R, Ahern R, Snow J, Kuwaye T, Yamamoto L. A randomized paired comparison trial of cutaneous treatments for acute jellyfish (Carybdea alata) stings. Am J Emerg Med. 2002;20:624-6 pubmed
    ..6 cm (95% confidence interval, 0.9 to 2.3). This study suggests that the most efficacious initial treatment for C alata jellyfish envenomation is hot-water immersion to the afflicted site. ..
  60. Bailey P, Little M, Jelinek G, Wilce J. Jellyfish envenoming syndromes: unknown toxic mechanisms and unproven therapies. Med J Aust. 2003;178:34-7 pubmed
    ..Current understanding of jellyfish venom activity is very limited, and many treatments are unproven and based on anecdote. ..
  61. Noguchi K, Sakanashi M, Matsuzaki T, Nakasone J, Sakanashi M, Koyama T, et al. Cardiovascular effects and lethality of venom from nematocysts of the box-jellyfish Chiropsalmus quadrigatus (Habu-kurage) in anaesthetized rats. Toxicon. 2005;45:519-26 pubmed
    ..Data show that C. quadrigatus venom has both vasoconstrictor and cardiodepressive effects in rats, and suggest that a calcium channel blocker can protect against the cardiovascular and lethal effects of the venom. ..
  62. Underwood A, Seymour J. Venom ontogeny, diet and morphology in Carukia barnesi, a species of Australian box jellyfish that causes Irukandji syndrome. Toxicon. 2007;49:1073-82 pubmed
    ..Observations of prey capture in mature individuals and differences in bell warts between immature and mature medusae suggest different methods of prey capture are employed at different life stages of C. barnesi. ..
  63. Tibballs J, Yanagihara A, Turner H, Winkel K. Immunological and toxinological responses to jellyfish stings. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2011;10:438-46 pubmed
    ..The current challenge for immunotoxinologists is to deconstruct the actions of venom components to target therapeutic modalities for sting treatment. ..
  64. Bellaud G, Epelboin L, Henn A, Perignon A, Bricaire F, Caumes E. [Marine envenomation by box-jellyfish in a tourist in Cambodia]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2013;106:229-32 pubmed publisher
  65. Nimorakiotakis B, Winkel K. Marine envenomations. Part 1--Jellyfish. Aust Fam Physician. 2003;32:969-74 pubmed
    ..Many venomous marine creatures inhabit Australian waters, causing significant morbidity and occasional fatalities. Part 1 of this article looks at jellyfish envenomations, an important overall cause of marine injuries...
  66. Ramasamy S, Isbister G, Seymour J, Hodgson W. The in vivo cardiovascular effects of an Australasian box jellyfish (Chiropsalmus sp.) venom in rats. Toxicon. 2005;45:321-7 pubmed
    ..venom. This indicates that the venom of the two related box jellyfish contain different lethal components and highlights the importance of species identification prior to initiating treatment regimes following jellyfish envenoming...
  67. Kozmik Z, Swamynathan S, Ruzickova J, Jonasova K, Paces V, Vlcek C, et al. Cubozoan crystallins: evidence for convergent evolution of pax regulatory sequences. Evol Dev. 2008;10:52-61 pubmed publisher
  68. O Connor M, Nilsson D, Garm A. Temporal properties of the lens eyes of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2010;196:213-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The data collected in this study support the idea that the visual system of box jellyfish is a collection of special purpose eyes...
  69. Courtney R, Browning S, Seymour J. Early Life History of the 'Irukandji' Jellyfish Carukia barnesi. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0151197 pubmed publisher
    ..Medusae production for this species was in the form of monodisc strobilation, which left behind polyps able to continue asexual reproduction. ..
  70. Canepa A, Fuentes V, Bosch Belmar M, Acevedo M, Toledo Guedes K, Ortiz A, et al. Environmental factors influencing the spatio-temporal distribution of Carybdea marsupialis (Lineo, 1978, Cubozoa) in South-Western Mediterranean coasts. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181611 pubmed publisher
    ..Recommendations for monitoring blooms of this species along the study area and applicable to Mediterranean Sea include focus effort in coastal waters where productivity have been enriched by anthropogenic activities...
  71. Winter K, Fernando R, Ramasamy S, Seymour J, Isbister G, Hodgson W. The in vitro vascular effects of two chirodropid (Chironex fleckeri and Chiropsella bronzie) venoms. Toxicol Lett. 2007;168:13-20 pubmed
    ..Determining the mechanism of action of these venoms will allow for the development of better treatment strategies...
  72. Garm A, Bielecki J. Swim pacemakers in box jellyfish are modulated by the visual input. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2008;194:641-51 pubmed publisher
    ..A rise in intensity, on the other hand, produces a steep decline in the frequency and makes the ISIs highly variable. These electrophysiological data are correlated with behavioral observations from the natural habitat of the medusae...
  73. O Connor M, Garm A, Marshall J, Hart N, Ekström P, Skogh C, et al. Visual pigment in the lens eyes of the box jellyfish Chiropsella bronzie. Proc Biol Sci. 2010;277:1843-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, the visual pigment appears to undergo bleaching, similar to that of vertebrate visual pigments...
  74. Bielecki J, Nachman G, Garm A. Swim pacemaker response to bath applied neurotransmitters in the cubozoan Tripedalia cystophora. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2013;199:785-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Other tested neuroactive compounds (GABA, glutamate, and taurine) could not be shown to have a significant effect...
  75. Li Z, Tan X, Yu B, Zhao R. Allergic shock caused by ingestion of cooked jellyfish: A case report. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e7962 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper, we report a case of allergic shock being caused by ingestion of cooked salt-preserved jellyfish shortly after being stung by a live jellyfish...
  76. Corkeron M. Magnesium infusion to treat Irukandji syndrome. Med J Aust. 2003;178:411 pubmed
  77. Langley R. A review of venomous animal bites and stings in pregnant patients. Wilderness Environ Med. 2004;15:207-15 pubmed
    ..Adverse reproductive and teratogenic effects of venoms on gravid animals are also briefly reviewed. Although uncommon, venomous bites and stings during pregnancy may have significant adverse effects on the fetus and the mother...
  78. Barnett F, Durrheim D, Speare R, Muller R. Management of Irukandji syndrome in northern Australia. Rural Remote Health. 2005;5:369 pubmed
  79. Kayal E, Bentlage B, Collins A, Kayal M, Pirro S, Lavrov D. Evolution of linear mitochondrial genomes in medusozoan cnidarians. Genome Biol Evol. 2012;4:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..the sequences of nearly complete linear mtDNA from 24 species representing all four medusozoan classes: Cubozoa, Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa, and Staurozoa...
  80. Currie B, Jacups S. Prospective study of Chironex fleckeri and other box jellyfish stings in the "Top End" of Australia's Northern Territory. Med J Aust. 2005;183:631-6 pubmed
    ..To describe the epidemiology and clinical features of box jellyfish envenoming in the Top End of the Northern Territory and, in particular, confirmed stings from the major Australian box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri...
  81. Tiong K. Irukandji syndrome, catecholamines, and mid-ventricular stress cardiomyopathy. Eur J Echocardiogr. 2009;10:334-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The author believes that this case is important because it highlights the possible association between the sudden release in catecholamines and stress cardiomyopathy...
  82. McCullagh N, Pereira P, Cullen P, Mulcahy R, Bonin R, Little M, et al. Randomised trial of magnesium in the treatment of Irukandji syndrome. Emerg Med Australas. 2012;24:560-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Magnesium sulphate has become the standard of care despite minimal evidence. The aim of this study was to investigate if magnesium would reduce analgesic requirement and length of stay for patients with Irukandji syndrome...
  83. Carrette T, Underwood A, Seymour J. Irukandji syndrome: a widely misunderstood and poorly researched tropical marine envenoming. Diving Hyperb Med. 2012;42:214-23 pubmed
    ..However, with an increase in medical knowledge and improved diagnosis of the condition, it appears that envenomations causing Irukandji syndrome are an increasing marine problem worldwide...
  84. Petie R, Garm A, Nilsson D. Velarium control and visual steering in box jellyfish. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2013;199:315-24 pubmed publisher
    Directional swimming in the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora (cubozoa, cnidaria) is controlled by the shape of the velarium, which is a thin muscular sheet that forms the opening of the bell...
  85. Li L, McGee R, Isbister G, Webster A. Interventions for the symptoms and signs resulting from jellyfish stings. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;:CD009688 pubmed publisher
    ..Many treatments have been suggested for the symptoms and signs of jellyfish stings. However, it is unclear which interventions are most effective...
  86. Seymour J, Carrette T, Cullen P, Little M, Mulcahy R, Pereira P. The use of pressure immobilization bandages in the first aid management of cubozoan envenomings. Toxicon. 2002;40:1503-5 pubmed
  87. Sanchez Rodriguez J, Torrens E, Segura Puertas L. Partial purification and characterization of a novel neurotoxin and three cytolysins from box jellyfish (Carybdea marsupialis) nematocyst venom. Arch Toxicol. 2006;80:163-8 pubmed
    ..Three fractions containing cytolysins had protein bands in SDS PAGE with apparent molecular weights of 220, 139, and 36 kDa, and their cytolytic activity was confirmed with the haemolysis assay...
  88. Boulware D. A randomized, controlled field trial for the prevention of jellyfish stings with a topical sting inhibitor. J Travel Med. 2006;13:166-71 pubmed
    ..The field effectiveness is unknown. The objective is to evaluate the field efficacy of the jellyfish sting inhibitor, Safe Sea...
  89. de Pender A, Winkel K, Ligthelm R. A probable case of Irukandji syndrome in Thailand. J Travel Med. 2006;13:240-3 pubmed
    ..We report a case of probable Irukandji syndrome in Thailand. With this report, we hope to promote awareness to aid sting prevention and stimulate research...
  90. McIver L, Tjhung I, Parish S, Derkenne R, Kippin A. Irukandji sydrome in the Torres Strait: a series of 8 cases. Wilderness Environ Med. 2011;22:338-42 pubmed publisher
  91. Smith D, Kayal E, Yanagihara A, Collins A, Pirro S, Keeling P. First complete mitochondrial genome sequence from a box jellyfish reveals a highly fragmented linear architecture and insights into telomere evolution. Genome Biol Evol. 2012;4:52-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The silent-site nucleotide variation within the A. moseri mtDNA is among the highest observed from a eukaryotic genome and may be associated with elevated rates of recombination...
  92. Bailes H, Zhuang L, Lucas R. Reproducible and sustained regulation of G?s signalling using a metazoan opsin as an optogenetic tool. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30774 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that JellyOp is a promising new tool for mimicking the activity of Gs-coupled G protein coupled receptors with fine spatiotemporal resolution...