Summary: A phylum of radially symmetrical invertebrates characterized by possession of stinging cells called nematocysts. It includes the classes ANTHOZOA; CUBOZOA; HYDROZOA, and SCYPHOZOA. Members carry CNIDARIAN VENOMS.

Top Publications

  1. Nielsen C. Six major steps in animal evolution: are we derived sponge larvae?. Evol Dev. 2008;10:241-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The evolution of the eumetazoan ancestor from a progenetic homoscleromorph larva implies that we, as well as all the other eumetazoans, are derived sponge larvae...
  2. Stopar K, Ramsak A, Trontelj P, Malej A. Lack of genetic structure in the jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa: Semaeostomeae) across European seas. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2010;57:417-28 pubmed publisher
    ..noctiluca were found. The results - long distance dispersal, insignificant F(ST) values, lack of isolation by distance - pointed toward an admixture among Mediterranean and East Atlantic populations. ..
  3. Denker E, Chatonnet A, Rabet N. Acetylcholinesterase activity in Clytia hemisphaerica (Cnidaria). Chem Biol Interact. 2008;175:125-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We thus chose to investigate this activity in the Clytia hemisphaerica (Cnidaria) medusa...
  4. Momose T, Houliston E. Two oppositely localised frizzled RNAs as axis determinants in a cnidarian embryo. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e70 pubmed
  5. Turk T, Kem W. The phylum Cnidaria and investigations of its toxins and venoms until 1990. Toxicon. 2009;54:1031-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to introducing phylum Cnidaria (Coelenterata), we provide a short history of early (until about 1990) research on cnidarian toxins and venoms, ..
  6. Siebert S, Robinson M, Tintori S, Goetz F, Helm R, Smith S, et al. Differential gene expression in the siphonophore Nanomia bijuga (Cnidaria) assessed with multiple next-generation sequencing workflows. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22953 pubmed publisher
    ..between functionally specialized feeding polyps and swimming medusae in the siphonophore Nanomia bijuga (Cnidaria) with a hybrid long-read/short-read sequencing strategy...
  7. Marino A, Crupi R, Rizzo G, Morabito R, Musci G, La Spada G. The unusual toxicity and stability properties of crude venom from isolated nematocysts of Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa). Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2007;53 Suppl:OL994-1002 pubmed
    ..The crude venom resulted even stable towards proteolysis and alkaline pH values. ..
  8. Primus A, Freeman G. The cnidarian and the canon: the role of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in the evolution of metazoan embryos. Bioessays. 2004;26:474-8 pubmed
    ..imply that this developmental mechanism is an evolutionary inheritance from a radially symmetrical ancestor. Some of the gaps in the current evidence, which must be filled to evaluate their interpretation, are discussed. ..
  9. Blunt J, Copp B, Hu W, Munro M, Northcote P, Prinsep M. Marine natural products. Nat Prod Rep. 2009;26:170-244 pubmed publisher

More Information

Publications116 found, 100 shown here

  1. Galliot B, Quiquand M, Ghila L, de Rosa R, Miljkovic Licina M, Chera S. Origins of neurogenesis, a cnidarian view. Dev Biol. 2009;332:2-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence Cnidaria share with Bilateria a large number of genetic tools...
  2. Blunt J, Copp B, Munro M, Northcote P, Prinsep M. Marine natural products. Nat Prod Rep. 2010;27:165-237 pubmed publisher
    ..Biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included...
  3. Chourrout D, Delsuc F, Chourrout P, Edvardsen R, Rentzsch F, Renfer E, et al. Minimal ProtoHox cluster inferred from bilaterian and cnidarian Hox complements. Nature. 2006;442:684-7 pubmed
    ..Consequently, the ProtoHox cluster might have consisted of only two anterior genes. Non-anterior genes could have appeared independently in the Hox and ParaHox clusters, possibly after the separation of bilaterians and cnidarians. ..
  4. David C, Ozbek S, Adamczyk P, Meier S, Pauly B, Chapman J, et al. Evolution of complex structures: minicollagens shape the cnidarian nematocyst. Trends Genet. 2008;24:431-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Within the Cnidaria there is an increase in nematocyst complexity from Anthozoa to Medusozoa and a parallel increase in the number ..
  5. Magie C, Martindale M. Cell-cell adhesion in the cnidaria: insights into the evolution of tissue morphogenesis. Biol Bull. 2008;214:218-32 pubmed
  6. Kamm K, Schierwater B. Ancient linkage of a POU class 6 and an anterior Hox-like gene in cnidaria: implications for the evolution of homeobox genes. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2007;308:777-84 pubmed
    ..Hence, the much tighter linkage of a POU class 6 gene to an anterior Hox-like gene in a cnidarian is possibly the evolutionary echo of an ancestral genomic region from which most metazoan homeobox classes emerged. ..
  7. Sinniger F, Reimer J, Pawlowski J. Potential of DNA sequences to identify zoanthids (Cnidaria: Zoantharia). Zoolog Sci. 2008;25:1253-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss advantages and disadvantages of COI and mt 16S rDNA as barcodes for Zoantharia, and recommend that either one or both of these markers be considered for zoanthid identification in the future. ..
  8. Stampar S, Maronna M, Vermeij M, Silveira F, Morandini A. Evolutionary diversification of banded tube-dwelling anemones (Cnidaria; Ceriantharia; Isarachnanthus) in the Atlantic Ocean. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41091 pubmed publisher
    ..The cladogenesis event that formed the species of the Atlantic Ocean is estimated to have occured around 8.5 million years ago (Miocene) and several possible speciation scenarios are discussed...
  9. Yanagihara A, Kuroiwa J, Oliver L, Chung J, Kunkel D. Ultrastructure of a novel eurytele nematocyst of Carybdea alata Reynaud (Cubozoa, Cnidaria). Cell Tissue Res. 2002;308:307-18 pubmed
    ..e., the nematocyst capsule and shaft base, neither tubule nor lancet structures were visible. Taken together, the morphological data suggested a series of events involved in the discharge of a novel eurytele from C. alata. ..
  10. Hayward D, Samuel G, Pontynen P, Catmull J, Saint R, Miller D, et al. Localized expression of a dpp/BMP2/4 ortholog in a coral embryo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:8106-11 pubmed
    As the closest outgroup to the Bilateria, the Phylum Cnidaria is likely to be critical to understanding the origins and evolution of body axes...
  11. Steinmetz P, Kraus J, Larroux C, Hammel J, Amon Hassenzahl A, Houliston E, et al. Independent evolution of striated muscles in cnidarians and bilaterians. Nature. 2012;487:231-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The independent evolution of eumetazoan striated muscles through the addition of new proteins to a pre-existing, ancestral contractile apparatus may serve as a model for the evolution of complex animal cell types. ..
  12. Kamm K, Schierwater B, Jakob W, Dellaporta S, Miller D. Axial patterning and diversification in the cnidaria predate the Hox system. Curr Biol. 2006;16:920-6 pubmed
    ..phylum to the Bilateria, the sea anemone Nematostella and the hydromedusa Eleutheria, we argue here that the Cnidaria predate the evolution of the Hox system...
  13. Burton P. Insights from diploblasts; the evolution of mesoderm and muscle. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2008;310:5-14 pubmed
    ..Attention has therefore been focused on two outgroups to triploblasts, Cnidaria and Ctenophora. Modern texts describe these taxa as diploblasts, lacking a mesodermal germ layer...
  14. Collins A, Schuchert P, Marques A, Jankowski T, Medina M, Schierwater B. Medusozoan phylogeny and character evolution clarified by new large and small subunit rDNA data and an assessment of the utility of phylogenetic mixture models. Syst Biol. 2006;55:97-115 pubmed
    ..nuclear ribosome (LSU or 28S) sampled from 31 diverse medusozoans greatly clarifies the phylogenetic history of Cnidaria. These data have substantial power to discern among many of the competing hypotheses of relationship derived from ..
  15. Moran Y, Praher D, Fredman D, Technau U. The evolution of microRNA pathway protein components in Cnidaria. Mol Biol Evol. 2013;30:2541-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we identified genes encoding the protein components of different parts of the microRNA pathway in Cnidaria, the likely sister phylum of Bilateria...
  16. Jimenez Guri E, Philippe H, Okamura B, Holland P. Buddenbrockia is a cnidarian worm. Science. 2007;317:116-8 pubmed
    ..This active muscular worm increases the known diversity in cnidarian body plans and demonstrates that a muscular, wormlike form can evolve in the absence of overt bilateral symmetry. ..
  17. Piatigorsky J, Kozmik Z. Cubozoan jellyfish: an Evo/Devo model for eyes and other sensory systems. Int J Dev Biol. 2004;48:719-29 pubmed
    b>Cnidaria are the most basal phylum containing a well-developed visual system located on specialized sensory structures (rhopalia) with eyes and statocyts. We have been exploring the cubozoan jellyfish, Tripedalia cystophora...
  18. Venn A, Loram J, Douglas A. Photosynthetic symbioses in animals. J Exp Bot. 2008;59:1069-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These associations are widespread in the phyla Porifera (sponges) and Cnidaria (corals, sea anemones etc.) but otherwise uncommon or absent from animal phyla...
  19. Chung H, Hong P, Su J, Hwang T, Lu M, Fang L, et al. Bioactive compounds from a gorgonian coral Echinomuricea sp. (Plexauridae). Mar Drugs. 2012;10:1169-79 pubmed publisher
    ..this compound is the first labdane-type diterpenoid to be obtained from marine organisms belonging to the phylum Cnidaria. 6-epi-Yonarasterol B (2) is the first steroid derivative to be isolated from gorgonian coral belonging to the ..
  20. Mackie G. Central neural circuitry in the jellyfish Aglantha: a model 'simple nervous system'. Neurosignals. 2004;13:5-19 pubmed
    ..Acquisition of giant axons resulted in considerable modification of this basic plan, and required novel solutions to the problems of integrating escape with non-escape circuitry. ..
  21. Blunt J, Copp B, Hu W, Munro M, Northcote P, Prinsep M. Marine natural products. Nat Prod Rep. 2007;24:31-86 pubmed
    ..Biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included. ..
  22. Plachetzki D, Degnan B, Oakley T. The origins of novel protein interactions during animal opsin evolution. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e1054 pubmed
    ..opsin visual pigment proteins from the genomes of early branching animals, including a new class of opsins from Cnidaria. We combine these data with existing knowledge of the molecular basis of opsin function in a rigorous ..
  23. Tubaro A, Durando P, Del Favero G, Ansaldi F, Icardi G, Deeds J, et al. Case definitions for human poisonings postulated to palytoxins exposure. Toxicon. 2011;57:478-95 pubmed publisher
    ..A standardized protocol for data collection could provide a more rapid and reliable diagnosis of palytoxin-poisoning, but also the collection of necessary data for the risk assessment for this family of toxins...
  24. Miller D, Ball E, Technau U. Cnidarians and ancestral genetic complexity in the animal kingdom. Trends Genet. 2005;21:536-9 pubmed
    ..By contrast, the protostomes Drosophila and Caenorhabditis have lost half of the ancestral Wnts. This pattern -- loss of genes from an ancestrally complex state -- might be more important in animal evolution than previously recognized. ..
  25. Ender A, Schierwater B. Placozoa are not derived cnidarians: evidence from molecular morphology. Mol Biol Evol. 2003;20:130-4 pubmed
    ..and some more recent molecular phylogenetic analyses have placed Trichoplax as a derived species within the Cnidaria. The latter hypothesis assumes that the primitive organization of the Placozoa is the result of secondary ..
  26. Miller D, Hemmrich G, Ball E, Hayward D, Khalturin K, Funayama N, et al. The innate immune repertoire in cnidaria--ancestral complexity and stochastic gene loss. Genome Biol. 2007;8:R59 pubmed
    ..Consideration of these patterns of gene distribution underscores the likely significance of gene loss during animal evolution whilst indicating ancient origins for many components of the vertebrate innate immune system. ..
  27. Denker E, Manuel M, Leclère L, Le Guyader H, Rabet N. Ordered progression of nematogenesis from stem cells through differentiation stages in the tentacle bulb of Clytia hemisphaerica (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria). Dev Biol. 2008;315:99-113 pubmed publisher
    Nematogenesis, the production of stinging cells (nematocytes) in Cnidaria, can be considered as a model neurogenic process...
  28. Chiori R, Jager M, Denker E, Wincker P, Da Silva C, Le Guyader H, et al. Are Hox genes ancestrally involved in axial patterning? Evidence from the hydrozoan Clytia hemisphaerica (Cnidaria). PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4231 pubmed publisher
    ..The most parsimonious interpretation is that the Hox code, collinearity and conservative role along the antero-posterior axis are bilaterian innovations. ..
  29. Mariottini G, Giacco E, Pane L. The mauve stinger Pelagia noctiluca (Forsskål, 1775). Distribution, ecology, toxicity and epidemiology of stings. A review. Mar Drugs. 2008;6:496-513 pubmed publisher
    The toxicity of Cnidaria is a subject of concern due to its influence on humans. In particular, jellyfish blooms can highly affect human economical activities, such as bathing, fishery, tourism, etc., as well as the public health...
  30. Amiel A, Houliston E. Three distinct RNA localization mechanisms contribute to oocyte polarity establishment in the cnidarian Clytia hemisphaerica. Dev Biol. 2009;327:191-203 pubmed publisher
    ..Unlike the two cortical RNAs, CheFz1 RNA was displaced in fertilized eggs upon centrifugation, potentially explaining how this treatment re-specifies the embryonic axis. ..
  31. Birsa L, Verity P, Lee R. Evaluation of the effects of various chemicals on discharge of and pain caused by jellyfish nematocysts. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2010;151:426-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus lidocaine in addition to acting as an anesthetic on skin in contact with jellyfish tentacles inhibited nematocyst discharge possibly by blocking sodium and/or calcium channels of the nematocytes...
  32. Steele R, David C, Technau U. A genomic view of 500 million years of cnidarian evolution. Trends Genet. 2011;27:7-13 pubmed publisher
    ..It is now known what cnidarian genomes, given 500 million years, are capable of; as we discuss here, the next challenge is to understand how this genomic history has led to the striking diversity seen in this group. ..
  33. Nilsson D. Eye evolution: a question of genetic promiscuity. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2004;14:407-14 pubmed
    ..Recent work on gene expression in specified cell types, together with comparative studies of developmental genes in cnidarians, now show some promise to a solution of the controversy. ..
  34. Blunt J, Copp B, Munro M, Northcote P, Prinsep M. Marine natural products. Nat Prod Rep. 2005;22:15-61 pubmed
    ..Biosynthetic studies or syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries have been included (78), including any first total syntheses of a marine natural product. ..
  35. Matus D, Pang K, Daly M, Martindale M. Expression of Pax gene family members in the anthozoan cnidarian, Nematostella vectensis. Evol Dev. 2007;9:25-38 pubmed
    ..The results of these patterns are discussed with respect to Pax gene evolution in the Bilateria. ..
  36. Skropeta D. Deep-sea natural products. Nat Prod Rep. 2008;25:1131-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Relevant synthetic studies on the deep-sea natural products have also been included. ..
  37. Blackstone N. Mitochondria and the redox control of development in cnidarians. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2009;20:330-6 pubmed publisher
    ..An extensive algal symbiosis may thus be incompatible with a well-developed capacity for mitochondrial signaling. ..
  38. Kayal E, Bentlage B, Collins A, Kayal M, Pirro S, Lavrov D. Evolution of linear mitochondrial genomes in medusozoan cnidarians. Genome Biol Evol. 2012;4:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..By contrast, mtDNA in species belonging to Medusozoa (one of the two major lineages in the phylum Cnidaria) comprises one to several linear molecules...
  39. Meyer E, Weis V. Study of cnidarian-algal symbiosis in the "omics" age. Biol Bull. 2012;223:44-65 pubmed
  40. Vollmer S, Palumbi S. Hybridization and the evolution of reef coral diversity. Science. 2002;296:2023-5 pubmed
    ..Although selection limits the evolutionary potential of hybrids, F(1) individuals can reproduce asexually and form long-lived, potentially immortal hybrids with unique morphologies. ..
  41. Seipel K, Schmid V. Evolution of striated muscle: jellyfish and the origin of triploblasty. Dev Biol. 2005;282:14-26 pubmed
    The larval and polyp stages of extant Cnidaria are bi-layered with an absence of mesoderm and its differentiation products. This anatomy originally prompted the diploblast classification of the cnidarian phylum...
  42. Niehrs C. On growth and form: a Cartesian coordinate system of Wnt and BMP signaling specifies bilaterian body axes. Development. 2010;137:845-57 pubmed publisher
  43. Nawrocki A, Cartwright P. Expression of Wnt pathway genes in polyps and medusa-like structures of Ectopleura larynx (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa). Evol Dev. 2013;15:373-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In some hydrozoans (Phylum Cnidaria), Wnt signaling is implicated in oral-aboral patterning of the different life cycle stages-the planula, polyp and ..
  44. Brugler M, France S. The mitochondrial genome of a deep-sea bamboo coral (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Octocorallia, Isididae): genome structure and putative origins of replication are not conserved among octocorals. J Mol Evol. 2008;67:125-36 pubmed publisher
  45. Piraino S, Zega G, Di Benedetto C, Leone A, Dell Anna A, Pennati R, et al. Complex neural architecture in the diploblastic larva of Clava multicornis (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria). J Comp Neurol. 2011;519:1931-51 pubmed publisher
  46. Ball E, Hayward D, Saint R, Miller D. A simple plan--cnidarians and the origins of developmental mechanisms. Nat Rev Genet. 2004;5:567-77 pubmed
  47. Flot J, Tillier S. The mitochondrial genome of Pocillopora (Cnidaria: Scleractinia) contains two variable regions: the putative D-loop and a novel ORF of unknown function. Gene. 2007;401:80-7 pubmed
    ..For the first time in a cnidarian, a putative second origin of replication is described based on its secondary structure similar to the stem-loop structure of O(L), the origin of L-strand replication in vertebrates...
  48. Matus D, Magie C, Pang K, Martindale M, Thomsen G. The Hedgehog gene family of the cnidarian, Nematostella vectensis, and implications for understanding metazoan Hedgehog pathway evolution. Dev Biol. 2008;313:501-18 pubmed
    ..represent a diverse group of animals with a predominantly epithelial body plan, and perhaps selective pressures to pattern epithelia resulted in the ontogeny of the hedgehog pathway in the common ancestor of the Cnidaria and Bilateria.
  49. Barbrook A, Visram S, Douglas A, Howe C. Molecular diversity of dinoflagellate symbionts of Cnidaria: the psbA minicircle of Symbiodinium. Protist. 2006;157:159-71 pubmed
    ..Phylogenetic analysis of the non-coding region of the psbA minicircle indicates that minicircle sequences could be a useful chloroplast-derived marker for differentiating both closely related and distantly related Symbiodinium isolates...
  50. Seipel K, Schmid V. Mesodermal anatomies in cnidarian polyps and medusae. Int J Dev Biol. 2006;50:589-99 pubmed
    ..As a consequence the diploblasty of the hydrozoan polyps may represent a derived morphology resulting from heterochronic modulations of the gastrulation process after endoderm formation...
  51. Ogishima S, Tanaka H. Missing link in the evolution of Hox clusters. Gene. 2007;387:21-30 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggested that motif gains/diversifications led to the explosive diversity of the bilaterian body plan...
  52. Goddard M, Leigh J, Roger A, Pemberton A. Invasion and persistence of a selfish gene in the Cnidaria. PLoS ONE. 2006;1:e3 pubmed
    ..Although HEGs are found in a variety of microbes, we found the previous discovery of this type of selfish genetic element in the mitochondria of a sea anemone surprising...
  53. Blunt J, Copp B, Hu W, Munro M, Northcote P, Prinsep M. Marine natural products. Nat Prod Rep. 2008;25:35-94 pubmed publisher compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green algae, brown algae, red algae, sponges, cnidaria, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates and echinoderms...
  54. Momose T, Derelle R, Houliston E. A maternally localised Wnt ligand required for axial patterning in the cnidarian Clytia hemisphaerica. Development. 2008;135:2105-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In Clytia, two variant Frizzled receptors and one Wnt ligand produced from localised RNAs cooperate to initiate regionalised Wnt pathway activation...
  55. Weis V. Cellular mechanisms of Cnidarian bleaching: stress causes the collapse of symbiosis. J Exp Biol. 2008;211:3059-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the elimination or exit of the symbiont from host tissues is described through a variety of mechanisms including exocytosis, host cell detachment and host cell apoptosis...
  56. Satterlie R. Do jellyfish have central nervous systems?. J Exp Biol. 2011;214:1215-23 pubmed publisher
    ..However, in most jellyfish, an argument can be made for the presence of centralized nervous systems that interact with the more diffuse nerve nets...
  57. Mitchelmore C, Schwarz J, Weis V. Development of symbiosis-specific genes as biomarkers for the early detection of cnidarian-algal symbiosis breakdown. Mar Environ Res. 2002;54:345-9 pubmed
  58. Blunt J, Copp B, Munro M, Northcote P, Prinsep M. Marine natural products. Nat Prod Rep. 2003;20:1-48 pubmed
    ..Syntheses that confirm or revise structures or stereochemistries have been included (95), including any first total synthesis of a marine natural product...
  59. Pang K, Matus D, Martindale M. The ancestral role of COE genes may have been in chemoreception: evidence from the development of the sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis (Phylum Cnidaria; Class Anthozoa). Dev Genes Evol. 2004;214:134-8 pubmed
    ..the COE family of helix-loop-helix transcription factors was recovered from the anthozoan Nematostella vectensis (Cnidaria)...
  60. Lee P, Pang K, Matus D, Martindale M. A WNT of things to come: evolution of Wnt signaling and polarity in cnidarians. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2006;17:157-67 pubmed
    ..Recent work in the Cnidaria has shown the diversity of Wnt genes, and regulatory components of Wnt signaling, evolved early in metazoan ..
  61. Shao Z, Graf S, Chaga O, Lavrov D. Mitochondrial genome of the moon jelly Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa): A linear DNA molecule encoding a putative DNA-dependent DNA polymerase. Gene. 2006;381:92-101 pubmed publisher
    The 16,937-nuceotide sequence of the linear mitochondrial DNA (mt-DNA) molecule of the moon jelly Aurelia aurita (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) - the first mtDNA sequence from the class Scypozoa and the first sequence of a linear mtDNA from ..
  62. Kass Simon G, Pierobon P. Cnidarian chemical neurotransmission, an updated overview. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2007;146:9-25 pubmed
    ..Behavioral and physiological studies implicate classical transmitters, neuropeptides, eicosanoids and nitric oxide in the coordination of the neuroeffector systems...
  63. Weis V, Davy S, Hoegh Guldberg O, Rodriguez Lanetty M, Pringle J. Cell biology in model systems as the key to understanding corals. Trends Ecol Evol. 2008;23:369-76 pubmed publisher
  64. Galliot B, Quiquand M. A two-step process in the emergence of neurogenesis. Eur J Neurosci. 2011;34:847-62 pubmed publisher
  65. Blunt J, Copp B, Keyzers R, Munro M, Prinsep M. Marine natural products. Nat Prod Rep. 2012;29:144-222 pubmed publisher
    ..Biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included...
  66. Ruiz Trillo I, Paps J, Loukota M, Ribera C, Jondelius U, Baguna J, et al. A phylogenetic analysis of myosin heavy chain type II sequences corroborates that Acoela and Nemertodermatida are basal bilaterians. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:11246-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This scenario has far-reaching implications for understanding the evolution of major body plans and for perceptions of the Cambrian evolutionary explosion...
  67. Finnerty J, Paulson D, Burton P, Pang K, Martindale M. Early evolution of a homeobox gene: the parahox gene Gsx in the Cnidaria and the Bilateria. Evol Dev. 2003;5:331-45 pubmed
    ..We perform a molecular phylogenetic analysis of cnox2, the best studied homeobox gene from the phylum Cnidaria, a very ancient lineage of animals...
  68. Kozmik Z, Daube M, Frei E, Norman B, Kos L, Dishaw L, et al. Role of Pax genes in eye evolution: a cnidarian PaxB gene uniting Pax2 and Pax6 functions. Dev Cell. 2003;5:773-85 pubmed
    ..protein, was the primordial Pax protein in eye evolution and that Pax6-like genes evolved in triploblasts after separation from Cnidaria, raising the possibility that cnidarian and sophisticated triploblastic eyes arose independently.
  69. Ip D, Chan S, Allen M, Bycroft M, Wan D, Wong K. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a novel orange fluorescent protein from the Cnidaria tube anemone Cerianthus sp. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2004;60:340-1 pubmed
    A novel orange fluorescent protein, with excitation and emission maxima at 548 and 565 nm, respectively, from the Cnidaria tube anemone Cerianthus sp. has been cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli...
  70. Nüchter T, Benoit M, Engel U, Ozbek S, Holstein T. Nanosecond-scale kinetics of nematocyst discharge. Curr Biol. 2006;16:R316-8 pubmed
  71. Kojima K, Kuma K, Toh H, Fujiwara H. Identification of rDNA-specific non-LTR retrotransposons in Cnidaria. Mol Biol Evol. 2006;23:1984-93 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that R2 had been generated before the split between cnidarians and bilaterians and that R8 is a retrotransposon family that changed its target from the 28S rDNA to the 18S rDNA...
  72. Lee P, Kumburegama S, Marlow H, Martindale M, Wikramanayake A. Asymmetric developmental potential along the animal-vegetal axis in the anthozoan cnidarian, Nematostella vectensis, is mediated by Dishevelled. Dev Biol. 2007;310:169-86 pubmed
    ..We examined how the axial properties of the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis (Anthozoa, Cnidaria), are established during embryogenesis...
  73. Cartwright P, Halgedahl S, Hendricks J, Jarrard R, Marques A, Collins A, et al. Exceptionally preserved jellyfishes from the Middle Cambrian. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e1121 pubmed
  74. Kayal E, Lavrov D. The mitochondrial genome of Hydra oligactis (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) sheds new light on animal mtDNA evolution and cnidarian phylogeny. Gene. 2008;410:177-86 pubmed publisher
    The 16,314-nuceotide sequence of the linear mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule of Hydra oligactis (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa)--the first from the class Hydrozoa--has been determined...
  75. Huang D, Meier R, Todd P, Chou L. Slow mitochondrial COI sequence evolution at the base of the metazoan tree and its implications for DNA barcoding. J Mol Evol. 2008;66:167-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of intra- and interspecific COI variabilities in Porifera and Cnidaria (separately as Anthozoa, Hydrozoa, and Scyphozoa) using a data set of 619 sequences from 224 species...
  76. Evans N, Lindner A, Raikova E, Collins A, Cartwright P. Phylogenetic placement of the enigmatic parasite, Polypodium hydriforme, within the Phylum Cnidaria. BMC Evol Biol. 2008;8:139 pubmed publisher
  77. Schierwater B, Kamm K, Srivastava M, Rokhsar D, Rosengarten R, Dellaporta S. The early ANTP gene repertoire: insights from the placozoan genome. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2457 pubmed publisher
    ..Whole genome sequences have recently filled in some crucial gaps for the basal metazoan phyla Cnidaria and Porifera...
  78. Mariottini G, Sottofattori E, Mazzei M, Robbiano L, Carli A. Cytotoxicity of the venom of Pelagia noctiluca forskål (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa). Toxicon. 2002;40:695-8 pubmed
    ..Treated cells showed increased ATP levels during the same time. Preliminary HPLC analyses have showed the occurrence of a protein containing peak...
  79. Martindale M, Finnerty J, Henry J. The Radiata and the evolutionary origins of the bilaterian body plan. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2002;24:358-65 pubmed
    ..We briefly review pertinent features of the body plans of the extant radial eumetazoan phyla, the Cnidaria, and Ctenophora, in the context of revealing potential evolutionary links to the bilaterians.
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    ..Five kinds of proteinase inhibitor genes were found in jellyfish for the first time, and some of them were highly expressed with unknown functions...
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    ..Syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries have been included (114), including any first total syntheses of a marine natural product...
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    ..tissue homogenates of 22 species representing the classes Anthozoa, Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa and Cubozoa of the phylum Cnidaria. High PLA2 levels were found in the hydrozoan fire coral Millepora sp...
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    b>Cnidaria are venomous animals that produce diverse protein and polypeptide toxins, stored and delivered into the prey through the stinging cells, the nematocytes...
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    ..octoradiatus, that have been considered synonymous by many workers. A stable systematic framework for Stauromedusae appears achievable through comprehensive study of both morphological and sequence data...
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    ..One of the most diverse animal phyla are the Cnidaria, which are close to the root of metazoan life and which often appear in two distinct generations and a remarkable ..
  86. Hui J, Holland P, Ferrier D. Do cnidarians have a ParaHox cluster? Analysis of synteny around a Nematostella homeobox gene cluster. Evol Dev. 2008;10:725-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This proves that the duplication that gave rise to the Hox and ParaHox regions of bilaterians occurred before the origin of cnidarians, and the cnidarian N. vectensis has bona fide Hox and ParaHox loci...
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    ..Pdx/PG3, Cdx/PG9 paralogs and produced through tandem duplication the primordial HOX and ParaHOX clusters in the Cnidaria-Bilateria ancestor...
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    ..In summary, methylated osmolytes dominate in many Cnidaria; in those with algal symbionts, host and symbiont have similar methylated amino acids, as do congeners...
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    ..The ubiquity and near-stochastic nature of gene loss can explain the discord between patterns of gene distribution and taxonomy...
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    ..alr1 was found embedded in a family of immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF)-like genes, thus establishing that the ARC histocompatibility complex is an invertebrate IgSF-like gene complex...