Summary: A phylum of small sessile aquatic animals living as small tufted colonies. Some appear like hydroids or corals, but their internal structure is more advanced. Most bryozoans are matlike, forming thin encrustations on rocks, shells, or kelp. (Storer & Stebbins, General Zoology, 6th ed, p443)

Top Publications

  1. Dafforn K, Glasby T, Johnston E. Differential effects of tributyltin and copper antifoulants on recruitment of non-indigenous species. Biofouling. 2008;24:23-33 pubmed
    ..Conversely, copper antifoulants on recreational vessels may be facilitating the transport and establishment of copper tolerant NIS into disturbed estuarine habitats...
  2. McGurk C, Morris D, Auchinachie N, Adams A. Development of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa: Malacosporea) in bryozoan hosts (as examined by light microscopy) and quantitation of infective dose to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Vet Parasitol. 2006;135:249-57 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that small numbers of bryozoans are capable of releasing sufficient spores to infect large numbers of fish, having implications for future control methods for PKD in salmonid farming...
  3. Ostrovsky A, Grischenko A, Taylor P, Bock P, Mawatari S. Comparative anatomical study of internal brooding in three anascan bryozoans (Cheilostomata) and its taxonomic and evolutionary implications. J Morphol. 2006;267:739-49 pubmed
    ..Possible reasons for this transformation are discussed, and the hypothesis of Santagata and Banta (Santagata and Banta1996) that internal brooding evolved prior to incubation in ovicells is rejected...
  4. Hausdorf B, Helmkampf M, Nesnidal M, Bruchhaus I. Phylogenetic relationships within the lophophorate lineages (Ectoprocta, Brachiopoda and Phoronida). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2010;55:1121-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The hypotheses that phoronids are the sister group of articulate or inarticulate brachiopods could be rejected by topology tests, thus confirming the monophyly of Brachiopoda...
  5. Morris D, Adams A. Sacculogenesis of Buddenbrockia plumatellae (Myxozoa) within the invertebrate host Plumatella repens (Bryozoa) with comments on the evolutionary relationships of the Myxozoa. Int J Parasitol. 2007;37:1163-71 pubmed
    ..Current phylogenies indicate the Myxozoa are basal bilaterians along with the Acoela and Mesozoa. Comparison with these other basal groups may help to resolve the placement of Myxozoa within the tree of life...
  6. Schwaha T, Handschuh S, Redl E, Walzl M. Organogenesis in the budding process of the freshwater bryozoan Cristatella mucedo Cuvier, 1798 (Bryozoa, Phylactolaemata). J Morphol. 2011;272:320-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Nonetheless, our results show that comparative organogenesis can contribute to phylactolaemate systematics and, when more data are available, possibly to that of other bryozoan classes and bilaterian phyla...
  7. Lim Fong G, Regali L, Haygood M. Evolutionary relationships of "Candidatus endobugula" bacterial symbionts and their Bugula bryozoan hosts. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:3605-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Symbiont-derived compounds known to defend host larvae from predation were only detected in two out of four symbiotic Bugula species...
  8. Helmkampf M, Bruchhaus I, Hausdorf B. Phylogenomic analyses of lophophorates (brachiopods, phoronids and bryozoans) confirm the Lophotrochozoa concept. Proc Biol Sci. 2008;275:1927-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Monophyly of lophophorates was not recovered but that of Bryozoa including Ectoprocta and Entoprocta and monophyly of Brachiozoa including Brachiopoda and Phoronida were strongly ..
  9. Anderson C, Haygood M. Alpha-proteobacterial symbionts of marine bryozoans in the genus Watersipora. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:303-11 pubmed
    ..We propose the names "Candidatus Endowatersipora palomitas" and "Candidatus Endowatersipora rubus" for the symbionts of "W. subtorquata" and "W. arcuata," respectively...

More Information


  1. Schwaha T, Wanninger A. Myoanatomy and serotonergic nervous system of plumatellid and fredericellid Phylactolaemata (Lophotrochozoa, Ectoprocta). J Morphol. 2012;273:57-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Although this study shows some support for the 'Lophophorata', more comparative analyses of possibly related phyla are required...
  2. Sun M, Shen X, Liu H, Liu X, Wu Z, Liu B. Complete mitochondrial genome of Tubulipora flabellaris (Bryozoa: Stenolaemata): the first representative from the class Stenolaemata with unique gene order. Mar Genomics. 2011;4:159-65 pubmed publisher
    ..There are still many controversies concerning the phylogenetic position of the phylum Bryozoa. In this research, we have finished the complete mitochondrial genome of one bryozoan (Tubulipora flabellaris), ..
  3. Tops S, Okamura B. Infection of bryozoans by Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae at sites endemic for salmonid proliferative kidney disease. Dis Aquat Organ. 2003;57:221-6 pubmed
    ..Our data provide the first estimates of infection rates of bryozoans by T. bryosalmonae. Additionally, they provide evidence that a cryptic stage can be maintained within bryozoan hosts for a period of 4 to 6 wk...
  4. Grabner D, El Matbouli M. Transmission of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa: Malacosporea) to Fredericella sultana (Bryozoa: Phylactolaemata) by various fish species. Dis Aquat Organ. 2008;79:133-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Fredericella sultana colonies and then subsequently cohabitated with statoblast-reared parasite free Bryozoa. Statoblasts from infected colonies were tested by PCR to detect cryptic stages of T...
  5. Martin S, Rodolfo Metalpa R, Ransome E, Rowley S, Buia M, Gattuso J, et al. Effects of naturally acidified seawater on seagrass calcareous epibionts. Biol Lett. 2008;4:689-92 pubmed publisher
  6. Ostrovsky A, O Dea A, Rodriguez F. Comparative anatomy of internal incubational sacs in cupuladriid bryozoans and the evolution of brooding in free-living cheilostomes. J Morphol. 2009;270:1413-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We speculate that prominent skeletal brood chambers are disadvantageous to a free-living mode of life that demands easy movement through sediment in instable sea-floor settings...
  7. Knight S, Gordon D, Lavery S. A multi-locus analysis of phylogenetic relationships within cheilostome bryozoans supports multiple origins of ascophoran frontal shields. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2011;61:351-62 pubmed publisher
    ..uses DNA sequence data across five loci of both mitochondrial and nuclear origin from 91 species of cheilostome Bryozoa (34 species newly sequenced)...
  8. Nielsen C, Worsaae K. Structure and occurrence of cyphonautes larvae (bryozoa, ectoprocta). J Morphol. 2010;271:1094-109 pubmed publisher
    ..It may even represent the ancestral larval type of the bryozoans (= ectoprocts)...
  9. Jang K, Hwang U. Complete mitochondrial genome of Bugula neritina (Bryozoa, Gymnolaemata, Cheilostomata): phylogenetic position of Bryozoa and phylogeny of lophophorates within the Lophotrochozoa. BMC Genomics. 2009;10:167 pubmed publisher
    The phylogenetic position of Bryozoa is one of the most controversial issues in metazoan phylogeny...
  10. Zhang H, Wong Y, Wang H, Chen Z, Arellano S, Ravasi T, et al. Quantitative proteomics identify molecular targets that are crucial in larval settlement and metamorphosis of Bugula neritina. J Proteome Res. 2011;10:349-60 pubmed publisher
  11. McGurk C, Morris D, Adams A. Sequential development of Buddenbrockia plumatellae (Myxozoa: Malacosporea) within Plumatella repens (Bryozoa: Phylactolaemata). Dis Aquat Organ. 2006;73:159-69 pubmed
    ..Long-term laboratory maintenance of infected bryozoan colonies could provide a means of maintaining B. plumatellae for study until the full life cycle is ascertained...
  12. Sorte C, Williams S, Zerebecki R. Ocean warming increases threat of invasive species in a marine fouling community. Ecology. 2010;91:2198-204 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the effects of climate change on communities can occur via both direct impacts on the diversity and abundance of native species and indirect effects due to increased dominance of introduced species...
  13. Tian X, Tang H, Li Y, Lin H, Ma N, Zhang W, et al. Ceramides and cerebrosides from the marine bryozoan Bugula neritina inhabiting South China Sea. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2009;11:1005-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Compound 6 is a new cerebroside with 17 carbons in the fatty acid moiety, while 5 is a new natural product which was isolated from a natural origin for the first time...
  14. Wang H, Zhang H, Wong Y, Voolstra C, Ravasi T, B Bajic V, et al. Rapid transcriptome and proteome profiling of a non-model marine invertebrate, Bugula neritina. Proteomics. 2010;10:2972-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we demonstrated, for the first time, the combined use of two high-throughput technologies as a powerful approach for accelerating the studies of non-model but otherwise important species...
  15. Hausdorf B, Helmkampf M, Meyer A, Witek A, Herlyn H, Bruchhaus I, et al. Spiralian phylogenomics supports the resurrection of Bryozoa comprising Ectoprocta and Entoprocta. Mol Biol Evol. 2007;24:2723-9 pubmed
    ..tag projects for Ectoprocta, Entoprocta, Sipuncula, Annelida, and Acanthocephala, indicate the monophyly of Bryozoa comprising Ectoprocta and Entoprocta, 2 taxa that have been separated for more than a century based on seemingly ..
  16. Canning E, Curry A, Hill S, Okamura B. Ultrastructure of Buddenbrockia allmani n. sp. (Myxozoa, Malacosporea), a parasite of Lophopus crystallinus (Bryozoa, Phylactolaemata). J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2007;54:247-62 pubmed
  17. Peck L, Barnes D. Metabolic flexibility: the key to long-term evolutionary success in Bryozoa?. Proc Biol Sci. 2004;271 Suppl 3:S18-21 pubmed
    Oxygen consumption (MO2) and activity were evaluated in Antarctic Bryozoa. Three species representing two different morphologies, flat sheet, laminar forms, Isoseculiflustra tenuis and Kymella polaris, and the bush form Camptoplites ..
  18. Canning E, Curry A, Feist S, Longshaw M, Okamura B. A new class and order of myxozoans to accommodate parasites of bryozoans with ultrastructural observations on Tetracapsula bryosalmonae (PKX organism). J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2000;47:456-68 pubmed
  19. Fuchs J, Obst M, Sundberg P. The first comprehensive molecular phylogeny of Bryozoa (Ectoprocta) based on combined analyses of nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2009;52:225-33 pubmed publisher
    b>Bryozoa is one of the most puzzling phyla in the animal kingdom and little is known about their evolutionary history. Its phylogenetic position among the Metazoa remains unsettled, as well as its intra-phylum relationships...
  20. Waeschenbach A, Telford M, Porter J, Littlewood D. The complete mitochondrial genome of Flustrellidra hispida and the phylogenetic position of Bryozoa among the Metazoa. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2006;40:195-207 pubmed publisher
    The complete mitochondrial genome of Flustrellidra hispida (Bryozoa, Ctenostomata, Flustrellidridae) was sequenced using a transposon-mediated approach. All but one of the 36 genes were identified (trnS2)...
  21. Vieira L, Winston J, Fehlauer Ale K. Nine new species of Bugula Oken (Bryozoa: Cheilostomata) in Brazilian shallow waters. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40492 pubmed publisher
    ..The southeastern Brazilian coast in the southern Atlantic hosts the highest known diversity of the genus, a status intimately associated with the intensity of collecting efforts...
  22. Morris D, Adams A. Sacculogenesis and sporogony of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa: Malacosporea) within the bryozoan host Fredericella sultana (Bryozoa: Phylactolaemata). Parasitol Res. 2007;100:983-92 pubmed
    ..The secondary cells are engulfed by the primary cells resulting in a mature sporoplasm. It is hypothesized that autogamy occurs during the initial formation of the spore sac and that allogamy is also possible during this time...
  23. Tops S, Hartikainen H, Okamura B. The effects of infection by Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa) and temperature on Fredericella sultana (Bryozoa). Int J Parasitol. 2009;39:1003-10 pubmed
    ..Our study implies that climate change can be expected to exacerbate PKD outbreaks and increase the geographic range of PKD as a result of the combined responses of T. bryosalmonae and its bryozoan hosts to higher temperatures...
  24. Passamaneck Y, Halanych K. Evidence from Hox genes that bryozoans are lophotrochozoans. Evol Dev. 2004;6:275-81 pubmed
    ..We also found the first definitive evidence of two Deformed/Hox4 class genes in a nonvertebrate animal...
  25. Atkinson D, Morley S, Hughes R. From cells to colonies: at what levels of body organization does the 'temperature-size rule' apply?. Evol Dev. 2006;8:202-14 pubmed
  26. Feist S, Longshaw M, Canning E, Okamura B. Induction of proliferative kidney disease (PKD) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss via the bryozoan Fredericella sultana infected with Tetracapsula bryosalmonae. Dis Aquat Organ. 2001;45:61-8 pubmed
    ..Transmission was not apparent, nor was PKD induced, in fish challenged by intraperitoneal injection of spores isolated from F. sultana...
  27. Sun M, Wu Z, Shen X, Ren J, Liu X, Liu H, et al. The complete mitochondrial genome of Watersipora subtorquata (Bryozoa, Gymnolaemata, Ctenostomata) with phylogenetic consideration of Bryozoa. Gene. 2009;439:17-24 pubmed publisher
    The phylogenetic position of the Bryozoa has long been controversial. In this paper, we have determined the complete mitochondrial genome of the Watersipora subtorquata (Bryozoa, Gymnolaemata, Ctenostomata)...
  28. Stabili L, Gravili C, Tredici S, Piraino S, Tala A, Boero F, et al. Epibiotic Vibrio luminous bacteria isolated from some hydrozoa and bryozoa species. Microb Ecol. 2008;56:625-36 pubmed publisher
    Luminous bacteria are isolated from both Hydrozoa and Bryozoa with chitinous structures on their surfaces...
  29. Morris D, Adams A. Proliferative, presaccular stages of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa: Malacosporea) within the invertebrate host Fredericella sultana (Bryozoa: Phylactolaemata). J Parasitol. 2006;92:984-9 pubmed
    ..This sac formation through aggregation and assimilation suggests an intriguing mechanism by which T. bryosalmonae can cross-fertilize...
  30. Marzinelli E, Zagal C, Chapman M, Underwood A. Do modified habitats have direct or indirect effects on epifauna?. Ecology. 2009;90:2948-55 pubmed
    ..Manipulative experiments to unconfound multiple components of habitats influencing disturbances to biota are needed to understand human impacts on natural systems...
  31. McGurk C, Morris D, Bron J, Adams A. The morphology of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa: Malacosporea) spores released from Fredericella sultana (Bryozoa: Phylactolaemata). J Fish Dis. 2005;28:307-12 pubmed
  32. Gruhl A, Bartolomaeus T. Ganglion ultrastructure in phylactolaemate Bryozoa: evidence for a neuroepithelium. J Morphol. 2008;269:594-603 pubmed
    In contrast to other Bryozoa, members of the subtaxon Phylactolaemata bear a subepithelial cerebral ganglion that resembles a hollow vesicle rather than being compact...
  33. McGovern T, Hellberg M. Cryptic species, cryptic endosymbionts, and geographical variation in chemical defences in the bryozoan Bugula neritina. Mol Ecol. 2003;12:1207-15 pubmed
    ..The ability to identify the cryptic Bugula species and their differing relationships with bacterial associates provides an example of the important role molecular techniques may play in addressing ecological questions...
  34. Morris D, Morris D, Adams A. Development and release of a malacosporean (Myxozoa) from Plumatella repens (Bryozoa: Phylactolaemata). Folia Parasitol (Praha). 2002;49:25-34 pubmed
    ..Release of spores from the bryozoans was observed associated with the lophophore of the host. The use of experimental bryozoan cultures for the examination of malacosporeans is described and discussed...
  35. Hartikainen H, Okamura B. Castrating parasites and colonial hosts. Parasitology. 2012;139:547-56 pubmed publisher
  36. Waeschenbach A, Taylor P, Littlewood D. A molecular phylogeny of bryozoans. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2012;62:718-35 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss the extent of non-bryozoan contaminant sequences deposited in GenBank and their impact on the reconstruction of metazoan phylogenies and those of bryozoan interrelationships...
  37. Nesnidal M, Helmkampf M, Bruchhaus I, Hausdorf B. The complete mitochondrial genome of Flustra foliacea (Ectoprocta, Cheilostomata) - compositional bias affects phylogenetic analyses of lophotrochozoan relationships. BMC Genomics. 2011;12:572 pubmed publisher
    ..However, our study revealed several rare genomic changes like the evolution of long intergenic sequences and changes in the structure of tRNAs, which may be helpful for reconstructing ectoproct phylogeny...
  38. Tops S, Baxa D, McDowell T, Hedrick R, Okamura B. Evaluation of malacosporean life cycles through transmission studies. Dis Aquat Organ. 2004;60:109-21 pubmed
  39. Davidson S, Allen S, Lim G, Anderson C, Haygood M. Evidence for the biosynthesis of bryostatins by the bacterial symbiont "Candidatus Endobugula sertula" of the bryozoan Bugula neritina. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2001;67:4531-7 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates that it may be possible to clone bryostatin genes from B. neritina directly and use these to produce bryostatins in heterologous host bacteria...
  40. Zhang Y, Wang G, Ying X, Sougrat R, Qian P. The effect of butenolide on behavioral and morphological changes in two marine fouling species, the barnacle Balanus amphitrite and the bryozoan Bugula neritina. Biofouling. 2011;27:467-75 pubmed publisher
    ..amphitrite cyprids. In B. neritina swimming larvae, butenolide reduced the number of secretory granules in the pyriform-glandular complex...
  41. Gruhl A, Wegener I, Bartolomaeus T. Ultrastructure of the body cavities in Phylactolaemata (Bryozoa). J Morphol. 2009;270:306-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite the occurrence of podocytes, which are prerequisites for a selected fluid transfer, there is no indication for an excretory function of the forked canal, especially as no excretory porus was found...
  42. Barnes D. Biodiversity: invasions by marine life on plastic debris. Nature. 2002;416:808-9 pubmed
    ..Although the poles may be protected from invasion by freezing sea surface temperatures, these may be under threat as the fastest-warming areas anywhere are at these latitudes...
  43. Tops S, Lockwood W, Okamura B. Temperature-driven proliferation of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae in bryozoan hosts portends salmonid declines. Dis Aquat Organ. 2006;70:227-36 pubmed
  44. Wood A, Rowden A, Compton T, Gordon D, Probert P. Habitat-forming bryozoans in New Zealand: their known and predicted distribution in relation to broad-scale environmental variables and fishing effort. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e75160 pubmed publisher
  45. Sorte C, White J. Competitive and demographic leverage points of community shifts under climate warming. Proc Biol Sci. 2013;280:20130572 pubmed publisher
  46. Denisenko N. Two new species of the genus Turbicellepora Ryland, 1963 (Bryozoa: Celleporidae) found on Lophelia coral from the Greenland slope. Zootaxa. 2016;4066:177-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The most comprehensive comparative study of European species of the genus, with detailed descriptions of 13 taxa, was carried out by Hayward (1978), who noted that the genus seemed to be centred in the Atlanto-Mediterranean region. ..
  47. Carter M, Gordon D. Substratum and morphometric relationships in the bryozoan genus Odontoporella, with a description of a new paguridean-symbiont species from New Zealand. Zoolog Sci. 2007;24:47-56 pubmed
    ..Milne Edwards)) and shows sexual dimorphism at the level of the polypide. Male polypides not only have modified lophophores but also reduced guts. ..
  48. Zhang Z. Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness (Addenda 2013). Zootaxa. 2013;3703:1-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Nematoda (25,043 species), Echinodermata (20,550 species), Annelida (17,426 species), Cnidaria (16,363 species), Bryozoa (11,474 species) and Porifera (10,876 species)...
  49. König G, Kehraus S, Seibert S, Abdel Lateff A, Muller D. Natural products from marine organisms and their associated microbes. Chembiochem. 2006;7:229-38 pubmed
    ..The potent biological activity of many marine natural products is of relevance for their ecological function but is also the basis of their biomedical importance. ..
  50. Morris D, Adams A. Transmission of freshwater myxozoans during the asexual propagation of invertebrate hosts. Int J Parasitol. 2006;36:371-7 pubmed
  51. Peters L, Wright A, Kehraus S, Gündisch D, Tilotta M, König G. Prenylated indole alkaloids from Flustra foliacea with subtype specific binding on NAChRs. Planta Med. 2004;70:883-6 pubmed
    ..Deformylflustrabromine (3) and deformylflustrabromine B (4) were shown to have affinities in the lower micromolar range for nAChRs, differing in their subtype preference. ..
  52. Pukall R, Kramer I, Rohde M, Stackebrandt E. Microbial diversity of cultivatable bacteria associated with the North Sea bryozoan Flustra foliacea. Syst Appl Microbiol. 2001;24:623-33 pubmed
  53. Strathmann R, Foley G, Hysert A. Loss and gain of the juvenile rudiment and metamorphic competence during starvation and feeding of bryozoan larvae. Evol Dev. 2008;10:731-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Advantages from expendable juvenile rudiments may enhance selection for their being developmentally distinct from structures for larval swimming and feeding. ..
  54. Nong X, Zheng Z, Zhang X, Lu X, Qi S. Polyketides from a marine-derived fungus Xylariaceae sp. Mar Drugs. 2013;11:1718-27 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first time that the antifouling and enzyme-inhibitory activities of these compounds has been reported. ..
  55. Haygood M, Schmidt E, Davidson S, Faulkner D. Microbial symbionts of marine invertebrates: opportunities for microbial biotechnology. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 1999;1:33-43 pubmed
    ..Another fertile subject for investigation is the listhistid sponges that contain numerous bioactive metabolites, some of which originate from bacterial symbionts. ..
  56. Pratt M. Effect of zooid spacing on bryozoan feeding success: is competition or facilitation more important?. Biol Bull. 2004;207:17-27 pubmed
    ..These results along with the observed trend of increased zooid integration over evolutionary time suggest that the benefits of increasing coordination outweigh the consequences of intrazooid competition. ..
  57. Atalah J, Bennett H, Hopkins G, Forrest B. Evaluation of the sea anemone Anthothoe albocincta as an augmentative biocontrol agent for biofouling on artificial structures. Biofouling. 2013;29:559-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrated that augmentative biocontrol using anemones has the potential to reduce biofouling on marine artificial structures, although considerable further work is required to refine this tool before its application. ..
  58. Echevarria M, Naar J, Tomas C, Pawlik J. Effects of Karenia brevis on clearance rates and bioaccumulation of brevetoxins in benthic suspension feeding invertebrates. Aquat Toxicol. 2012;106-107:85-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, high concentrations of toxin may accumulate in the tissues of benthic suspension feeding invertebrates that may be transferred to higher-level consumers. ..
  59. Sams M, Keough M. Effects of early recruits on temperate sessile marine community composition depend on other species recruiting at the time. Oecologia. 2013;173:259-68 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that, more generally, species may influence community dynamics differently when they recruit alongside other species than when they recruit in relative isolation. ..
  60. Whitfield F, Drew M, Helidoniotis F, Svoronos D. Distribution of bromophenols in species of marine polychaetes and bryozoans from eastern Australia and the role of such animals in the flavor of edible ocean fish and prawns (shrimp). J Agric Food Chem. 1999;47:4756-62 pubmed
    ..The possible effects that dietary polychaetes and bryozoans have on the ocean-, brine-, or iodine-like flavors of certain seafoods are discussed. ..
  61. Desser S, Koehler A, Barta J, Kamyab J, Ringuette M. Trichonosema algonquinensis n. sp. (Phylum microsporidia) in Pectinatella magnifica (Bryozoa: phylactolaemata) from Algonquin Park, Ontario, Canada. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2004;51:389-93 pubmed
    ..Analysis of 16S rDNA by maximum likelihood, parsimony and Baysian inference, complements the morphological data in supporting the placement of T. algonquinensis as a sister species of T. pectinatellae. ..
  62. Wanninger A. Myo-anatomy of juvenile and adult loxosomatid Entoprocta and the use of muscular body plans for phylogenetic inferences. J Morphol. 2004;261:249-57 pubmed
    ..The phenomenon of phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for phylogenetic interpretations, however, must be carefully considered. ..
  63. Marshall D. Transgenerational plasticity in the sea: context-dependent maternal effects across the life history. Ecology. 2008;89:418-27 pubmed
  64. Hughes R, Manriquez P, Morley S, Craig S, Bishop J. Kin or self-recognition? Colonial fusibility of the bryozoan Celleporella hyalina. Evol Dev. 2004;6:431-7 pubmed
  65. Sun C, Lin X, Weinreb S. Explorations on the total synthesis of the unusual marine alkaloid chartelline A. J Org Chem. 2006;71:3159-66 pubmed
    ..Unfortunately, treatment of aldehyde 42 with p-toluenesulfonic acid did not give the desired 10-membered macrocyclic (Z)-enamide 46, but rather the highly unsaturated seven-membered ring compound 44. ..
  66. Heindl H, Wiese J, Thiel V, Imhoff J. Phylogenetic diversity and antimicrobial activities of bryozoan-associated bacteria isolated from Mediterranean and Baltic Sea habitats. Syst Appl Microbiol. 2010;33:94-104 pubmed publisher
    To date, only a small number of investigations covering microbe-bryozoa associations have been carried out. Most of them have focused on a few bryozoan species and none have covered the antibacterial activities of associated bacteria...
  67. Dick M, Herrera Cubilla A, Jackson J. Molecular phylogeny and phylogeography of free-living Bryozoa (Cupuladriidae) from both sides of the Isthmus of Panama. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2003;27:355-71 pubmed
  68. Blunt J, Copp B, Hu W, Munro M, Northcote P, Prinsep M. Marine natural products. Nat Prod Rep. 2009;26:170-244 pubmed publisher
  69. Scardino A, Guenther J, de Nys R. Attachment point theory revisited: the fouling response to a microtextured matrix. Biofouling. 2008;24:45-53 pubmed
    ..This study reinforces the potential of using attachment points to develop surfaces with increased fouling resistance or, alternatively, surfaces which promote the attachment of selected target sizes of motile propagules or larvae. ..
  70. Tang H, Cheng P, Lin H, Gao W, Lu Y. [Studies on chemical constituents of marine bryozoan Bugula neritina L]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2007;30:655-7 pubmed
    ..Compounds II-VII were isolated from Bugula neritina L. for the first time. ..
  71. Faulkner D. Marine natural products. Nat Prod Rep. 2002;19:1-48 pubmed
    ..The review contains 869 structures and 592 references, of which 434 appeared between January and December 2000. ..
  72. Mutter R, Wills M. Chemistry and clinical biology of the bryostatins. Bioorg Med Chem. 2000;8:1841-60 pubmed
    ..In this review we try to summarize the latest findings, including all the topics involved, from marine biology to medicinal chemistry...
  73. Hirose M, Mawatari S. Freshwater bryozoa of Tonle Sap, Cambodia. Zoolog Sci. 2007;24:630-41 pubmed
    ..We briefly discuss some of the taxonomic problems surrounding Hislopia cambodgiensis...
  74. Canning E, Curry A, Okamura B. Early development of the myxozoan Buddenbrockia plumatellae in the bryozoans Hyalinella punctata and Plumatella fungosa, with comments on taxonomy and systematics of the Myxozoa. Folia Parasitol (Praha). 2008;55:241-55 pubmed
    ..Finally we propose a new family name, Buddenbrockiidae, to replace Saccosporidae which was proposed previously in breach of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature...
  75. Haygood M, Davidson S. Small-subunit rRNA genes and in situ hybridization with oligonucleotides specific for the bacterial symbionts in the larvae of the bryozoan Bugula neritina and proposal of "Candidatus endobugula sertula". Appl Environ Microbiol. 1997;63:4612-6 pubmed
    ..In situ hybridization with oligonucleotides specific for the symbiont confirmed the origin of the sequence. The taxonomic status "Candidatus Endobugula sertula" is proposed for the larval symbiont...
  76. Martino E, Rosso A. Revision of the bryozoan genus Gephyrotes Norman, 1903 (Cheilostomata, Cribrilinidae) with the description of two new taxa. Zootaxa. 2015;3941:261-83 pubmed publisher
    ..saillans and T. levigata, whereas Spiniflabellum n. gen., is established to accommodate a species from the Caribbean area, S. spinosum, previously assigned to Gephyrotes. ..
  77. Elia A, Galarini R, Martin Dörr A, Taticchi M. Heavy metal contamination and antioxidant response of a freshwater bryozoan (Lophopus crystallinus Pall., Phylactolaemata). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2007;66:188-94 pubmed
    ..Total glutathione content, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities, were related with the highest metal concentrations in L. crystallinus from Lake Piediluco...
  78. Blunt J, Copp B, Munro M, Northcote P, Prinsep M. Marine natural products. Nat Prod Rep. 2006;23:26-78 pubmed
    ..Biosynthetic studies (8), and syntheses (80), including those that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included...
  79. Morris D, Adams A. Transmission of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa: Malacosporea), the causative organism of salmonid proliferative kidney disease, to the freshwater bryozoan Fredericella sultana. Parasitology. 2006;133:701-9 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that fish can transmit the parasite to bryozoans and are an integral part of this parasite's life-cycle...
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    ..Overall, our findings suggest that the Wnt signaling pathway may be important to the pattern formation of polypide and the development of epidermis...