Summary: An order of parasitic, blood-sucking, wingless INSECTS with the common name of fleas.

Top Publications

  1. Warburton E, VAN DER Mescht L, Stanko M, Vinarski M, Korallo Vinarskaya N, Khokhlova I, et al. Beta-diversity of ectoparasites at two spatial scales: nested hierarchy, geography and habitat type. Oecologia. 2017;184:507-520 pubmed publisher
    ..Compositional and phylogenetic components of beta-diversity were higher in fleas than mites but the opposite was true for functional beta-diversity in some, but not all, traits. ..
  2. Schriefer M, Sacci J, Taylor J, Higgins J, Azad A. Murine typhus: updated roles of multiple urban components and a second typhuslike rickettsia. J Med Entomol. 1994;31:681-5 pubmed
    ..Involvement of the ELB agent in the biology of murine typhus is suggested by its prevalence among suspected vectors and reservoir hosts. ..
  3. Mann J, Martone W, Boyce J, Kaufmann A, Barnes A, Weber N. Endemic human plague in New Mexico: risk factors associated with infection. J Infect Dis. 1979;140:397-401 pubmed
    ..Plague in New Mexico appears to result primarily from entry of the reservoir host into the habitat of the human rather than from entry of the human into the sylvatic habitat of the reservoir host. ..
  4. Stone R. China. Race to contain plague in quake zone. Science. 2010;328:559 pubmed publisher
  5. Foley P, Roth T, Foley J, Ray C. Rodent-Pika Parasite Spillover in Western North America. J Med Entomol. 2017;54:1251-1257 pubmed publisher
    ..With global climate change, both biotic and abiotic niche shrinkage demand our attention. ..
  6. Maioli G, Horta M, Ogrzewalska M, Capelli G, Souza S, Richtzenhain L, et al. First detection of Rickettsia felis in Ctenocephalides felis fleas from Italy. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009;15 Suppl 2:222-3 pubmed publisher
  7. Bieńkowski A, Orlova Bienkowskaja M. World checklist of flea-beetles of the genus Epitrix (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini). Zootaxa. 2017;4268:523-540 pubmed publisher
    ..We have compiled the catalogue of all species described to date. There are 162 species and 11 subspecies in the world. The geographic distribution is indicated for each species. ..
  8. Vaughan J, Azad A. Acquisition of murine typhus rickettsiae by fleas. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1990;590:70-5 pubmed
  9. Adams W, Emmons R, Brooks J. The changing ecology of murine (endemic) typhus in Southern California. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1970;19:311-8 pubmed

More Information


  1. Kosoy M, Reynolds P, Bai Y, Sheff K, Enscore R, Montenieri J, et al. Small-Scale Die-Offs in Woodrats Support Long-Term Maintenance of Plague in the U.S. Southwest. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2017;17:635-644 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations suggest that small-scale die-offs in woodrats can support maintenance of plague in the active U.S. Southwestern focus. ..
  2. Cavanaugh D, Elisberg B, Llewellyn C, Marshall J, Rust J, Williams J, et al. Plague immunization. V. Indirect evidence for the efficacy of plague vaccine. J Infect Dis. 1974;129:Suppl:S37-40 pubmed
  3. Alves A, Milhano N, Santos Silva M, Santos A, Vilhena M, De Sousa R. Evidence of Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in domestic, shelter and stray cat blood and fleas, Portugal. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009;15 Suppl 2:1-3 pubmed publisher
  4. Eidson M, Tierney L, Rollag O, Becker T, Brown T, Hull H. Feline plague in New Mexico: risk factors and transmission to humans. Am J Public Health. 1988;78:1333-5 pubmed
  5. Poché D, Hartman D, Polyakova L, Poché R. Efficacy of a fipronil bait in reducing the number of fleas (Oropsylla spp.) infesting wild black-tailed prairie dogs. J Vector Ecol. 2017;42:171-177 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest the potential for this form of treatment to reduce flea population density on prairie dogs, and subsequently plague transmission, among mammalian hosts across the United States and beyond. ..
  6. Adams J, Schmidtmann E, Azad A. Infection of colonized cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché), with a rickettsia-like microorganism. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1990;43:400-9 pubmed
    ..25-0.45 microns in diameter with lengths up to 1.5 microns. It was observed repeatedly in fleas of 1 laboratory colony, including newly emerged non-bloodfed specimens, but not in specimens from several other sources. ..
  7. Mediannikov O, Abdissa A, Diatta G, Trape J, Raoult D. Rickettsia felis in fleas, southern Ethiopia, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:1385-6 pubmed publisher
  8. Maestas L, Britten H. Flea and Small Mammal Species Composition in Mixed-Grass Prairies: Implications for the Maintenance of Yersinia pestis. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2017;17:467-474 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover this study demonstrates that although small mammals may not play a large part in interepizootic plague cycling in shortgrass prairie ecosystems, their role in mixed-grass prairies requires further evaluation. ..
  9. Azad A. Epidemiology of murine typhus. Annu Rev Entomol. 1990;35:553-69 pubmed
  10. Kho K, Koh F, Hasan L, Wong L, Kisomi M, Bulgiba A, et al. Rickettsial seropositivity in the indigenous community and animal farm workers, and vector surveillance in Peninsular Malaysia. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2017;6:e18 pubmed publisher
  11. Stock I. [Yersinia pestis and plague - an update]. Med Monatsschr Pharm. 2014;37:441-8; quiz 449 pubmed
    ..For treatment of plague, streptomycin is still considered the drug of choice. Chloramphenicol, doxycycline, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin are also promising drugs. Recombinant vaccines against plague are in clinical development. ..
  12. Berrelha J, Briolant S, Muller F, Rolain J, Marie J, Pages F, et al. Rickettsia felis and Rickettsia massiliae in Ivory Coast, Africa. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009;15 Suppl 2:251-2 pubmed publisher
  13. Bitam I, Baziz B, Kernif T, Harrat Z, Parola P, Raoult D. Molecular detection of Rickettsia typhi and Rickettsia felis in fleas from Algeria. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009;15 Suppl 2:255-6 pubmed publisher
  14. Varagnol M, Parola P, Jouan R, Beaucournu J, Rolain J, Raoult D. First detection of Rickettsia felis and Bartonella clarridgeiae in fleas from Laos. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009;15 Suppl 2:334-5 pubmed publisher
  15. Karpathy S, Hayes E, Williams A, Hu R, Krueger L, Bennett S, et al. Detection of Rickettsia felis and Rickettsia typhi in an area of California endemic for murine typhus. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009;15 Suppl 2:218-9 pubmed publisher
  16. Nyirenda S, Hang Ombe B, Machang u R, Mwanza J, Kilonzo B. Identification of Risk Factors Associated with Transmission of Plague Disease in Eastern Zambia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;97:826-830 pubmed publisher
    ..6878, P < 0.05), between digging of rodents from their burrows and the presence of fleas on the hunter's bodies or clothes, which exposes humans to potentially flea bites in an enzootic cycle. ..
  17. Eads D. Swabbing Prairie Dog Burrows for Fleas That Transmit Yersinia pestis: Influences on Efficiency. J Med Entomol. 2017;54:1273-1277 pubmed publisher
    ..If the swabbing technique is used to survey for Y. pestis on colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs, investigators might use the results of this study to modify their methods and increase the number of fleas collected. ..
  18. Rolain J, Bitam I, Buffet S, Marie J, Bourry O, Portelli Clerc C, et al. Presence or absence of plasmid in Rickettsia felis depending on the source of fleas. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009;15 Suppl 2:296-7 pubmed publisher
  19. Hinnebusch B, Perry R, Schwan T. Role of the Yersinia pestis hemin storage (hms) locus in the transmission of plague by fleas. Science. 1996;273:367-70 pubmed
    ..Thus, the hms locus markedly alters the course of Y. pestis infection in its insect vector, leading to a change in blood-feeding behavior and to efficient transmission of plague. ..