butterflies

Summary

Summary: Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.

Top Publications

  1. Olofsson M, Vallin A, Jakobsson S, Wiklund C. Marginal eyespots on butterfly wings deflect bird attacks under low light intensities with UV wavelengths. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10798 pubmed publisher
    ..Among butterflies, deflecting attacks is likely to be particularly important at dawn when low ambient temperatures make escape by ..
  2. Slove J, Janz N. The relationship between diet breadth and geographic range size in the butterfly subfamily Nymphalinae--a study of global scale. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16057 pubmed publisher
    ..Data on diet breadth and global geographic range were collected for 182 Nymphalinae butterflies species and the size of the geographic range was measured using a GIS...
  3. Vandewoestijne S, Van Dyck H. Population genetic differences along a latitudinal cline between original and recently colonized habitat in a butterfly. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13810 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Butterflies from woodland and agricultural landscapes differ in several phenotypic traits (including morphology, behavior ..
  4. Møller A, Mousseau T. Low-dose radiation, scientific scrutiny, and requirements for demonstrating effects. BMC Biol. 2013;11:92 pubmed publisher
    ..These exchanges highlight the role of scrutiny in studies with potential effects on humans, but also raise questions about minimum requirements for demonstrating biological effects. ..
  5. van den Heuvel J, Saastamoinen M, Brakefield P, Kirkwood T, Zwaan B, Shanley D. The predictive adaptive response: modeling the life-history evolution of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana in seasonal environments. Am Nat. 2013;181:E28-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that for B. anynana, early-stage cues can direct development toward a better adapted phenotype later in life and, therefore, that a PAR has evolved in this species. ..
  6. Patricelli D, Sielezniew M, Ponikwicka Tyszko D, Ratkiewicz M, Bonelli S, Barbero F, et al. Contrasting genetic structure of rear edge and continuous range populations of a parasitic butterfly infected by Wolbachia. BMC Evol Biol. 2013;13:14 pubmed publisher
    ..e., Italy and Poland), which fully represent the ecological and morphological variation occurring across the continent...
  7. Habel J, Husemann M, Schmitt T, Dapporto L, Rödder D, Vandewoestijne S. A forest butterfly in sahara desert oases: isolation does not matter. J Hered. 2013;104:234-47 pubmed publisher
    ..However, one exception to this general trend resulted from the analyses of wing shape; wings of butterflies from oases are more elongated compared with those from the other habitats...
  8. Russell J, Funaro C, Giraldo Y, Goldman Huertas B, Suh D, Kronauer D, et al. A veritable menagerie of heritable bacteria from ants, butterflies, and beyond: broad molecular surveys and a systematic review. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e51027 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss the correlates, potential causes, and implications of these patterns, providing hypotheses on host attributes that may shape the distributions of these influential bacteria...
  9. Monteiro A, Chen B, Ramos D, Oliver J, Tong X, Guo M, et al. Distal-less regulates eyespot patterns and melanization in Bicyclus butterflies. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2013;320:321-31 pubmed publisher
    ..transcription factors, including Distal-less (Dll), Engrailed (En), and Spalt (Sal), in eyespot development in butterflies, but direct evidence testing the function of any of these proteins is still missing...

More Information

Publications73

  1. Ferguson L, Maroja L, Jiggins C. Convergent, modular expression of ebony and tan in the mimetic wing patterns of Heliconius butterflies. Dev Genes Evol. 2011;221:297-308 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we study insect melanin synthesis genes in Heliconius butterflies, a group characterised by its diversity of wing patterns consisting of black (melanin), and yellow and red (..
  2. Buckley L, Waaser S, Maclean H, Fox R. Does including physiology improve species distribution model predictions of responses to recent climate change?. Ecology. 2011;92:2214-21 pubmed
    ..K. butterflies in response to recent climate warming...
  3. Salunke B, Salunkhe R, Dhotre D, Walujkar S, Khandagale A, Chaudhari R, et al. Determination of Wolbachia diversity in butterflies from Western Ghats, India, by a multigene approach. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:4458-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we present the first detailed analyses of Wolbachia in butterflies from India with screening of 56 species...
  4. Hines H, Counterman B, Papa R, Albuquerque de Moura P, Cardoso M, Linares M, et al. Wing patterning gene redefines the mimetic history of Heliconius butterflies. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:19666-71 pubmed publisher
    The mimetic butterflies Heliconius erato and Heliconius melpomene have undergone parallel radiations to form a near-identical patchwork of over 20 different wing-pattern races across the Neotropics...
  5. Jahner J, Shapiro A, Forister M. Drivers of hybridization in a 66-generation record of Colias butterflies. Evolution. 2012;66:818-830 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we take advantage of a unique dataset consisting of records of hybridization between the butterflies Colias eurytheme and C...
  6. Monteiro A. Gene regulatory networks reused to build novel traits: co-option of an eye-related gene regulatory network in eye-like organs and red wing patches on insect wings is suggested by optix expression. Bioessays. 2012;34:181-6 pubmed publisher
    ..gene regulatory network may have led to the appearance of novel functional traits on the wings of flies and butterflies. The first trait is a recently described wing organ in a species of extinct midge resembling the outer layers ..
  7. Ugelvig L, Andersen A, Boomsma J, Nash D. Dispersal and gene flow in the rare, parasitic Large Blue butterfly Maculinea arion. Mol Ecol. 2012;21:3224-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Although further work is needed, our results suggest that M. arion can maintain fully functional metapopulations when they consist of optimal habitat patches that are no further apart than ?10km...
  8. Dierks A, Baumann B, Fischer K. Response to selection on cold tolerance is constrained by inbreeding. Evolution. 2012;66:2384-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Traits more closely related to fitness showed a clear fitness rebound, suggesting a trait-specific impact of purging. Our findings have important implications for the longer term survival of small populations in fragmented landscapes...
  9. Lin T, Zheng L, Hedrick T, Mittal R. The significance of moment-of-inertia variation in flight manoeuvres of butterflies. Bioinspir Biomim. 2012;7:044002 pubmed publisher
    ..high-resolution videogrammetry is used to quantify the trajectory and body conformation of Painted Lady butterflies during flight manoeuvres; the 3D kinematics of the centre of masses of the various body parts of the insect is ..
  10. Zhan S, Merlin C, Boore J, Reppert S. The monarch butterfly genome yields insights into long-distance migration. Cell. 2011;147:1171-85 pubmed publisher
    ..of oriented flight behavior; microRNAs that are differentially expressed between summer and migratory butterflies; monarch-specific expansions of chemoreceptors potentially important for long-distance migration; and a variant ..
  11. Martin S, Dasmahapatra K, Nadeau N, Salazar C, Walters J, Simpson F, et al. Genome-wide evidence for speciation with gene flow in Heliconius butterflies. Genome Res. 2013;23:1817-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we use new methodology to quantify admixture at different stages of divergence in Heliconius butterflies, based on whole-genome sequences of 31 individuals...
  12. Schultz C, Franco A, Crone E. Response of butterflies to structural and resource boundaries. J Anim Ecol. 2012;81:724-34 pubmed publisher
    ..4. Responses to physical structure and resource patches were not congruent. Butterflies were attracted to resource patches within both prairies and open woods and moved more slowly when in resource ..
  13. Sañudo Restrepo C, Dinca V, Talavera G, Vila R. Biogeography and systematics of Aricia butterflies (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2013;66:369-79 pubmed publisher
    b>Butterflies of the Aricia species group represent a paradigm of unresolved taxonomy, both at the genus and species levels...
  14. Futahashi R. Whole-mount in situ hybridization of sectioned tissues of species hybrids to detect cis-regulatory changes in gene expression pattern. Methods Mol Biol. 2011;772:319-28 pubmed publisher
    ..here the detection of yellow-related gene (YRG) expression pattern in the larval epidermis of swallowtail butterflies, this protocol can be adapted to other species and tissues...
  15. Kodandaramaiah U, Weingartner E, Janz N, Leski M, Slove J, Warren A, et al. Investigating concordance among genetic data, subspecies circumscriptions and hostplant use in the nymphalid butterfly Polygonia faunus. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41058 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study will be crucial in designing further experiments to understand the evolution of hostplant utilization in this species. ..
  16. Martin A, Papa R, Nadeau N, Hill R, Counterman B, Halder G, et al. Diversification of complex butterfly wing patterns by repeated regulatory evolution of a Wnt ligand. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:12632-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we take advantage of the extensive diversity of Heliconius butterflies to identify a gene that causes adaptive variation of black wing patterns within and between species...
  17. Supple M, Hines H, Dasmahapatra K, Lewis J, Nielsen D, Lavoie C, et al. Genomic architecture of adaptive color pattern divergence and convergence in Heliconius butterflies. Genome Res. 2013;23:1248-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The mosaic of mimetic wing patterns in Heliconius butterflies makes an excellent system for exploring adaptive variation using next-generation sequencing...
  18. Carlsson M, Schäpers A, Nassel D, Janz N. Organization of the olfactory system of nymphalidae butterflies. Chem Senses. 2013;38:355-67 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Butterflies have been considered a microsmatic group of insects that mainly rely on vision due to their diurnal lifestyle...
  19. Sarto I Monteys V, Acín P, Rosell G, Quero C, Jiménez M, Guerrero A. Moths behaving like butterflies. Evolutionary loss of long range attractant pheromones in castniid moths: a Paysandisia archon model. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29282 pubmed publisher
    In the course of evolution butterflies and moths developed two different reproductive behaviors...
  20. Chen M, Tian L, Shi Q, Cao T, Hao J. Complete mitogenome of the Lesser Purple Emperor Apatura ilia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Apaturinae) and comparison with other nymphalid butterflies. Dongwuxue Yanjiu. 2012;33:191-201 pubmed publisher
    ..The 403 bp AT-rich region harbored two conserved motifs (ATAGA, ATTTA), a 21 bp polyT stretch, a 10 bp poly-A region, along with two microsatellite-like repeats ( (TA)(10) and (TA)(7)), as detected in other nymphalid butterflies.
  21. Cuthill J, Charleston M. Phylogenetic codivergence supports coevolution of mimetic Heliconius butterflies. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36464 pubmed publisher
    The unpalatable and warning-patterned butterflies Heliconius erato and Heliconius melpomene provide the best studied example of mutualistic Müllerian mimicry, thought-but rarely demonstrated-to promote coevolution...
  22. Saura A, Von Schoultz B, Saura A, Brown K. Chromosome evolution in Neotropical butterflies. Hereditas. 2013;150:26-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Factors that stabilize chromosome numbers include hybridization among species sharing the same number, migration, sexual selection and possibly the distribution of chromosomes within the nucleus...
  23. Poelman E, Zheng S, Zhang Z, Heemskerk N, Cortesero A, Dicke M. Parasitoid-specific induction of plant responses to parasitized herbivores affects colonization by subsequent herbivores. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:19647-52 pubmed publisher
  24. Hines H, Papa R, Ruiz M, Papanicolaou A, Wang C, Nijhout H, et al. Transcriptome analysis reveals novel patterning and pigmentation genes underlying Heliconius butterfly wing pattern variation. BMC Genomics. 2012;13:288 pubmed publisher
    ..This included applying over 140 transcriptome microarrays to assay gene expression in dissected wing pattern elements across a range of developmental stages and wing pattern morphs of Heliconius erato...
  25. Guerra P, Merlin C, Gegear R, Reppert S. Discordant timing between antennae disrupts sun compass orientation in migratory monarch butterflies. Nat Commun. 2012;3:958 pubmed publisher
    To navigate during their long-distance migration, monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a time-compensated sun compass. The sun compass timing elements reside in light-entrained circadian clocks in the antennae...
  26. Dhungel B, Ohno Y, Matayoshi R, Otaki J. Baculovirus-mediated gene transfer in butterfly wings in vivo: an efficient expression system with an anti-gp64 antibody. BMC Biotechnol. 2013;13:27 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we developed a simple, practical method to efficiently deliver and express a foreign gene using baculovirus-mediated gene transfer in butterfly wings in vivo...
  27. Westwood A, Blair D. Effect of regional climate warming on the phenology of butterflies in boreal forests in Manitoba, Canada. Environ Entomol. 2010;39:1122-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The early autumn and winter months warmed significantly, and butterflies seem to be responding to this warming trend with a change in the length of certain life stages...
  28. Radchuk V, Turlure C, Schtickzelle N. Each life stage matters: the importance of assessing the response to climate change over the complete life cycle in butterflies. J Anim Ecol. 2013;82:275-85 pubmed publisher
    As ectothermic organisms, butterflies have widely been used as models to explore the predicted impacts of climate change...
  29. Sahara K, Yoshido A, Traut W. Sex chromosome evolution in moths and butterflies. Chromosome Res. 2012;20:83-94 pubmed publisher
    Lepidoptera, i.e. moths and butterflies, have a female heterogametic sex chromosome system, with most females having a WZ constitution while males are ZZ...
  30. Talavera G, Lukhtanov V, Rieppel L, Pierce N, Vila R. In the shadow of phylogenetic uncertainty: the recent diversification of Lysandra butterflies through chromosomal change. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2013;69:469-78 pubmed publisher
    ..We argue that population bottlenecks might be a prerequisite for chromosomal speciation in this group. ..
  31. Hiyama A, Nohara C, Taira W, Kinjo S, Iwata M, Otaki J. The Fukushima nuclear accident and the pale grass blue butterfly: evaluating biological effects of long-term low-dose exposures. BMC Evol Biol. 2013;13:168 pubmed publisher
    ..Immediately following publication, many questions and comments were generated from all over the world. Here, we have clarified points made in the original paper and answered questions posed by the readers...
  32. Flockhart D, Wassenaar L, Martin T, Hobson K, Wunder M, Norris D. Tracking multi-generational colonization of the breeding grounds by monarch butterflies in eastern North America. Proc Biol Sci. 2013;280:20131087 pubmed publisher
    ..hydrogen isotope measurements, we tracked multi-generational colonization of the breeding grounds of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in eastern North America...
  33. Ozaki K, Ryuda M, Yamada A, Utoguchi A, Ishimoto H, Calas D, et al. A gustatory receptor involved in host plant recognition for oviposition of a swallowtail butterfly. Nat Commun. 2011;2:542 pubmed publisher
    Swallowtail butterflies belonging to the family of Papilionidae selectively utilize a limited number of plants from a single or a few families...
  34. Guerra P, Reppert S. Coldness triggers northward flight in remigrant monarch butterflies. Curr Biol. 2013;23:419-23 pubmed publisher
    Each fall, eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from their northern range to their overwintering grounds in central Mexico...
  35. Oliver J, Tong X, Gall L, Piel W, Monteiro A. A single origin for nymphalid butterfly eyespots followed by widespread loss of associated gene expression. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002893 pubmed publisher
    ..The eyespot of nymphalid butterflies has served as an example of a novel complex trait, as multiple genes are expressed during eyespot development...
  36. Berger D, Olofsson M, Friberg M, Karlsson B, Wiklund C, Gotthard K. Intraspecific variation in body size and the rate of reproduction in female insects - adaptive allometry or biophysical constraint?. J Anim Ecol. 2012;81:1244-1258 pubmed publisher
    ..with data on the butterfly Pararge aegeria to compare model predictions with reproductive rates of wild butterflies. However, simulated reproductive allometry was a poor predictor of that observed...
  37. Dierks A, Kölzow N, Franke K, Fischer K. Does selection on increased cold tolerance in the adult stage confer resistance throughout development?. J Evol Biol. 2012;25:1650-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Four generations after having terminated selection, a response to selection was found in 1-day-old butterflies (the age at which selection took place). Older adults showed a very similar although weaker response...
  38. Lyons J, Pierce A, Barribeau S, Sternberg E, Mongue A, de Roode J. Lack of genetic differentiation between monarch butterflies with divergent migration destinations. Mol Ecol. 2012;21:3433-44 pubmed publisher
    Monarch butterflies are best known for their spectacular annual migration from eastern North America to Mexico...
  39. Hiyama A, Nohara C, Kinjo S, Taira W, Gima S, Tanahara A, et al. The biological impacts of the Fukushima nuclear accident on the pale grass blue butterfly. Sci Rep. 2012;2:570 pubmed publisher
    ..Adult butterflies collected in September 2011 showed more severe abnormalities than those collected in May...
  40. Nadeau N, Whibley A, Jones R, Davey J, Dasmahapatra K, Baxter S, et al. Genomic islands of divergence in hybridizing Heliconius butterflies identified by large-scale targeted sequencing. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2012;367:343-53 pubmed publisher
    Heliconius butterflies represent a recent radiation of species, in which wing pattern divergence has been implicated in speciation...
  41. Sternberg E, Li H, Wang R, Gowler C, de Roode J. Patterns of host-parasite adaptation in three populations of monarch butterflies infected with a naturally occurring protozoan disease: virulence, resistance, and tolerance. Am Nat. 2013;182:E235-48 pubmed publisher
    ..to test for local adaptation in Hawaiian, south Floridian, and eastern North American populations of monarch butterflies and their protozoan parasites...
  42. Zheng L, Hedrick T, Mittal R. Time-varying wing-twist improves aerodynamic efficiency of forward flight in butterflies. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53060 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we use computational models derived from experiments on free-flying butterflies to understand the effect of time-varying twist and camber on the aerodynamic performance of these insects...
  43. Muñoz A, Baxter S, Linares M, Jiggins C. Deep mitochondrial divergence within a Heliconius butterfly species is not explained by cryptic speciation or endosymbiotic bacteria. BMC Evol Biol. 2011;11:358 pubmed publisher
  44. Briscoe A, Macias Muñoz A, Kozak K, Walters J, Yuan F, Jamie G, et al. Female behaviour drives expression and evolution of gustatory receptors in butterflies. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003620 pubmed publisher
    ..melpomene, suggesting that female oviposition behaviour drives the evolution of new gustatory receptors in butterfly genomes...
  45. Shirai L, Saenko S, Keller R, Jerónimo M, Brakefield P, Descimon H, et al. Evolutionary history of the recruitment of conserved developmental genes in association to the formation and diversification of a novel trait. BMC Evol Biol. 2012;12:21 pubmed publisher
    ..Eyespots have greatly diversified under natural and sexual selection, and their formation involves genetic circuitries shared across insects...
  46. Condamine F, Sperling F, Wahlberg N, Rasplus J, Kergoat G. What causes latitudinal gradients in species diversity? Evolutionary processes and ecological constraints on swallowtail biodiversity. Ecol Lett. 2012;15:267-77 pubmed publisher
    ..to investigate the ecological and evolutionary processes responsible for the global LDG observed in swallowtail butterflies (Papilionidae)...
  47. Regier J, Mitter C, Zwick A, Bazinet A, Cummings M, Kawahara A, et al. A large-scale, higher-level, molecular phylogenetic study of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58568 pubmed publisher
    ..We present the most comprehensive molecular analysis of lepidopteran phylogeny to date, focusing on relationships among superfamilies...
  48. Jones R, Le Poul Y, Whibley A, Merot C, Ffrench Constant R, Joron M. Wing shape variation associated with mimicry in butterflies. Evolution. 2013;67:2323-34 pubmed publisher
    Mimetic resemblance in unpalatable butterflies has been studied by evolutionary biologists for over a century, but has largely focused on the convergence in wing color patterns...
  49. Wahlberg N, Wheat C, Pena C. Timing and patterns in the taxonomic diversification of Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths). PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e80875 pubmed publisher
    ..Almost all extant families appear to have begun diversifying soon after the Cretaceous/Paleogene event 65.51 mya. ..
  50. Stevens V, Trochet A, Van Dyck H, Clobert J, Baguette M. How is dispersal integrated in life histories: a quantitative analysis using butterflies. Ecol Lett. 2012;15:74-86 pubmed publisher
    ..with dispersal, and investigated the correlations that may constrain dispersal using published information on butterflies. Our quantitative analysis revealed that (1) dispersal directly correlated with demographic traits, mostly ..
  51. Blenn B, Bandoly M, Küffner A, Otte T, Geiselhardt S, Fatouros N, et al. Insect egg deposition induces indirect defense and epicuticular wax changes in Arabidopsis thaliana. J Chem Ecol. 2012;38:882-92 pubmed publisher
    ..brassicae egg parasitoids. (b) Application of ARG secretion of mated female butterflies or of BC to leaves had the same inductive effects as egg deposition...
  52. Bazinet A, Cummings M, Mitter K, Mitter C. Can RNA-Seq resolve the rapid radiation of advanced moths and butterflies (Hexapoda: Lepidoptera: Apoditrysia)? An exploratory study. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e82615 pubmed publisher
    ..In sharp contrast, relationships among the superfamilies of more advanced moths and butterflies that comprise the mega-diverse clade Apoditrysia (ca. 145,000 spp.) remain mostly poorly supported...
  53. Pardo Diaz C, Salazar C, Baxter S, Merot C, Figueiredo Ready W, Joron M, et al. Adaptive introgression across species boundaries in Heliconius butterflies. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002752 pubmed publisher
    ..we have examined the role of introgressive hybridisation in transferring adaptations between mimetic Heliconius butterflies, taking advantage of the recent identification of a gene regulating red wing patterns in this genus...
  54. Otaki J. Artificially induced changes of butterfly wing colour patterns: dynamic signal interactions in eyespot development. Sci Rep. 2011;1:111 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate limitations of the conventional gradient model and support a dynamic interactive nature of morphogenic signals for colour-pattern determination in butterfly wings...
  55. Karlsson B. Extended season for northern butterflies. Int J Biometeorol. 2014;58:691-701 pubmed publisher
    b>Butterflies are like all insects in that they are temperature sensitive and a changing climate with higher temperatures might effect their phenology...
  56. Wang W, Zhang W, Chen W, Gu J, Liu Q, Deng T, et al. Large-visual-angle microstructure inspired from quantitative design of Morpho butterflies' lamellae deviation using the FDTD/PSO method. Opt Lett. 2013;38:169-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Using the FDTD method, different parameters in the Morpho butterflies' treelike structure were studied and their contributions to the angular dependence were analyzed...
  57. Davis A, Chi J, Bradley C, Altizer S. The redder the better: wing color predicts flight performance in monarch butterflies. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41323 pubmed publisher
    ..totaling 121 individuals) we used image analysis to measure body size and four wing traits among newly-emerged butterflies prior to flight trials: wing area, aspect ratio (length/width), melanism, and orange hue...
  58. Otaki J. Color pattern analysis of nymphalid butterfly wings: revision of the nymphalid groundplan. Zoolog Sci. 2012;29:568-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, I examined wing-wide elemental patterns of various nymphalid butterflies and confirmed that wing-wide color patterns are composed of the border, central, and basal symmetry systems...
  59. Otaki J. Structural analysis of eyespots: dynamics of morphogenic signals that govern elemental positions in butterfly wings. BMC Syst Biol. 2012;6:17 pubmed publisher
  60. Wheat C, Wahlberg N. Critiquing blind dating: the dangers of over-confident date estimates in comparative genomics. Trends Ecol Evol. 2013;28:636-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that such an approach calls for research into the biological causes of conflict between molecular and fossil signatures. ..
  61. Otaki J. Generation of butterfly wing eyespot patterns: a model for morphological determination of eyespot and parafocal element. Zoolog Sci. 2011;28:817-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, I examined various color patterns of nymphalid butterflies to propose the mechanics of the induction model...
  62. Franke K, Fischer K. Effects of inbreeding and temperature stress on life history and immune function in a butterfly. J Evol Biol. 2013;26:517-28 pubmed publisher
    ..We stress that more data are needed on the effects of inbreeding, temperature variation and sexual differences on insect immune function before more general conclusions can be drawn...
  63. Dias F, Casagrande M, Mielke O. External morphology and ultra-structure of eggs and first instar of Prepona laertes laertes (Hübner, [1811]), with notes on host plant use and taxonomy. J Insect Sci. 2011;11:100 pubmed publisher
    ..Descriptions and illustrations of the head capsule, chaetotaxy, tegument, and setae are presented. The taxonomy, morphological characters, and host plant use of Prepona laertes immature stages are discussed...
  64. Heinze S, Reppert S. Anatomical basis of sun compass navigation I: the general layout of the monarch butterfly brain. J Comp Neurol. 2012;520:1599-628 pubmed publisher
    Each fall, eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a time-compensated sun compass to migrate to their overwintering grounds in central Mexico...