Summary: An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.

Top Publications

  1. Böröczky K, Zylstra K, McCartney N, Mastro V, Tumlinson J. Volatile profile differences and the associated Sirex noctilio activity in two host tree species in the Northeastern United States. J Chem Ecol. 2012;38:213-21 pubmed publisher
    ..However, qualitative differences were found between the volatile profiles of the two species as well as between the two Scots pine chemotypes, which could account for the differential attractiveness of the species and chemotypes tested...
  2. Klopfstein S, Ronquist F. Convergent intron gains in hymenopteran elongation factor-1?. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2013;67:266-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we study the evolution of eEF1A based on a broad sample of taxa in the insect order Hymenoptera. The gene is universally present in two copies - F1 and F2 - both of which apparently originated before the ..
  3. Ronquist F, Klopfstein S, Vilhelmsen L, Schulmeister S, Murray D, Rasnitsyn A. A total-evidence approach to dating with fossils, applied to the early radiation of the hymenoptera. Syst Biol. 2012;61:973-99 pubmed publisher
    ..As a test case, we focus on the early radiation of the Hymenoptera, mostly documented by poorly preserved impression fossils that are difficult to place phylogenetically...
  4. Blum S, Gunzinger A, Muller U, Helbling A. Influence of total and specific IgE, serum tryptase, and age on severity of allergic reactions to Hymenoptera stings. Allergy. 2011;66:222-8 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of total serum IgE and other potential risk factors on severity of systemic allergic Hymenoptera sting reactions.
  5. Wei S, Shi M, Sharkey M, van Achterberg C, Chen X. Comparative mitogenomics of Braconidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) and the phylogenetic utility of mitochondrial genomes with special reference to Holometabolous insects. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:371 pubmed publisher
    ..conducted a comparative study of mitochondrial genomes of the family Braconidae, one of the largest families of Hymenoptera, and assessed the utility of mitochondrial genomic data for phylogenetic inference at three different ..
  6. Opitz S, Mix A, Winde I, Muller C. Desulfation followed by sulfation: metabolism of benzylglucosinolate in Athalia rosae (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae). Chembiochem. 2011;12:1252-7 pubmed publisher
    The sawfly species Athalia rosae (L.) (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) is phytophagous on plants of the family Brassicaceae and thus needs to cope with the plant defence, the glucosinolate-myrosinase system...
  7. Luna M, Wada V, La Salle J, Sanchez N. Neochrysocharis formosa (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a newly recorded parasitoid of the tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in Argentina. Neotrop Entomol. 2011;40:412-4 pubmed
    ..Parasitism rates varied from 1.5% to 5%. The finding of this species is a new record for Argentina and South America, and T. absoluta is a new host record. ..
  8. Plantard O, Bouju Albert A, Malard M, Hermouet A, Capron G, Verheyden H. Detection of Wolbachia in the tick Ixodes ricinus is due to the presence of the hymenoptera endoparasitoid Ixodiphagus hookeri. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30692 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that the endoparasitoid wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Encyrtidae)--strictly associated with ticks for their development--infested at almost 100% ..
  9. Leppänen S, Altenhofer E, Liston A, Nyman T. Ecological versus phylogenetic determinants of trophic associations in a plant-leafminer-parasitoid food web. Evolution. 2013;67:1493-502 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Dacks A, Reisenman C, PAULK A, Nighorn A. Histamine-immunoreactive local neurons in the antennal lobes of the hymenoptera. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:2917-33 pubmed publisher
    ..examined, although there were significant morphological differences between major groups within the Hymenoptera. The ALs of other insect taxa examined lacked HA-ir LNs, suggesting that this population of LNs arose within ..
  2. Biondi A, Desneux N, Amiens Desneux E, Siscaro G, Zappalà L. Biology and developmental strategies of the Palaearctic parasitoid Bracon nigricans (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on the neotropical moth Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). J Econ Entomol. 2013;106:1638-47 pubmed
    ..Among these, Bracon nigricans Szépligeti (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is widely distributed in the Palaearctic region, and has been frequently recovered from South ..
  3. Hamilton R. Diagnosis and treatment of allergy to hymenoptera venoms. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;10:323-9 pubmed publisher
    This review overviews select advances reported in the literature from mid-2008 to the present in the diagnosis and management of individuals with immediate-type hypersensitivity to hymenoptera venom(s).
  4. Stolle E, Kidner J, Moritz R. Patterns of evolutionary conservation of microsatellites (SSRs) suggest a faster rate of genome evolution in Hymenoptera than in Diptera. Genome Biol Evol. 2013;5:151-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Relative to divergence time, Diptera lost SSRs twice as fast as Hymenoptera. The loss of SSRs on the Drosophila melanogaster X-chromosome was higher than on the other chromosomes...
  5. Riccio A, Saverino D, Pesce G, Rogkakou A, Severino M, Bonadonna P, et al. Effects of different up-dosing regimens for hymenoptera venom immunotherapy on serum CTLA-4 and IL-10. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37980 pubmed publisher
    ..It has been shown that the circulating form of CTLA-4 is elevated in patients with hymenoptera allergy and can be down regulated by immunotherapy.
  6. Borer Reinhold M, Haeberli G, Bitzenhofer M, Jandus P, Hausmann O, Fricker M, et al. An increase in serum tryptase even below 11.4 ng/mL may indicate a mast cell-mediated hypersensitivity reaction: a prospective study in Hymenoptera venom allergic patients. Clin Exp Allergy. 2011;41:1777-83 pubmed publisher
    ..During a systemic hypersensitivity reaction (SR), an increase in serum tryptase compared to the baseline value is an indicator of mast cell activation, most often due to an IgE-mediated mechanism...
  7. Kaltenpoth M, Showers Corneli P, Dunn D, Weiss R, Strohm E, Seger J. Accelerated evolution of mitochondrial but not nuclear genomes of Hymenoptera: new evidence from crabronid wasps. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32826 pubmed publisher
    ..Several insect orders, notably Hymenoptera and Phthiraptera, show exceptionally high rates of mitochondrial molecular evolution, which has been attributed ..
  8. Adán A, Viñuela E, Bengochea P, Budia F, Del Estal P, Aguado P, et al. Lethal and sublethal toxicity of fipronil and imidacloprid on Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). J Econ Entomol. 2011;104:1541-9 pubmed
    Psyttalia concolor (Szèpligeti) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a koinobiont endoparasitoid of several species of tephritid (Diptera) larvae, such as Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)...
  9. Reumer B, van Alphen J, Kraaijeveld K. Occasional males in parthenogenetic populations of Asobara japonica (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): low Wolbachia titer or incomplete coadaptation?. Heredity (Edinb). 2012;108:341-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the occasional male production by Wolbachia-infected females is most likely a maladaptive side effect of incomplete coevolution between symbiont and host in this relatively young infection...
  10. Yoder M, Miko I, Seltmann K, Bertone M, Deans A. A gross anatomy ontology for hymenoptera. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15991 pubmed publisher
    b>Hymenoptera is an extraordinarily diverse lineage, both in terms of species numbers and morphotypes, that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants...
  11. Zhang S, Chen L, Gu S, Cui J, Gao X, Zhang Y, et al. Binding characterization of recombinant odorant-binding proteins from the parasitic wasp, Microplitis mediator (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). J Chem Ecol. 2011;37:189-94 pubmed publisher
    ..and purified seven recombinant OBPs (MmedOBP1-MmedOBP7) from the parasitic wasp, Microplitis mediator (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in a prokaryotic expression system...
  12. Nomura T, Takahashi J. Effective population size in eusocial Hymenoptera with worker-produced males. Heredity (Edinb). 2012;109:261-8 pubmed publisher
    In many eusocial Hymenoptera, a proportion of males are produced by workers...
  13. Rueff F, Przybilla B, Biló M, Muller U, Scheipl F, Aberer W, et al. Predictors of side effects during the buildup phase of venom immunotherapy for Hymenoptera venom allergy: the importance of baseline serum tryptase. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126:105-11.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..Severe side effects during venom immunotherapy (VIT) are associated with a variety of risk factors...
  14. Leppänen S, Altenhofer E, Liston A, Nyman T. Phylogenetics and evolution of host-plant use in leaf-mining sawflies (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae: Heterarthrinae). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2012;64:331-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, both present and historical host-use patterns within the Heterarthrinae exhibit striking similarities to patterns found in co-occurring herbivore taxa...
  15. Ghising K, Harmon J, Beauzay P, Prischmann Voldseth D, Helms T, Ode P, et al. Impact of Rag1 aphid resistant soybeans on Binodoxys communis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Environ Entomol. 2012;41:282-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that biological control by B. communis may be compromised when host plant resistance is widely used for pest management of soybean aphids...
  16. Lohse K, Sharanowski B, Blaxter M, Nicholls J, Stone G. Developing EPIC markers for chalcidoid Hymenoptera from EST and genomic data. Mol Ecol Resour. 2011;11:521-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We used existing genomic data and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for Hymenoptera and other insects to design intron-crossing primers for 40 loci, mainly ribosomal proteins, for chalcidoid ..
  17. Veenstra J, Rodriguez L, Weaver R. Allatotropin, leucokinin and AKH in honey bees and other Hymenoptera. Peptides. 2012;35:122-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here that honey bees and other Hymenoptera do have a typical allatotropin gene, although the peptides predicted have a somewhat different structure from ..
  18. Nondillo A, Solis D, Fox E, Rossi M, Botton M, Bueno O. Description of the immatures of workers of the ant Linepithema micans Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Microsc Res Tech. 2011;74:337-42 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, L. micans was unique for having shorter hairs, predominantly denticulate, intraspecific variation in the number of antennal sensilla and in the types of sensilla on the labial palps were reported...
  19. Romero A, Hogsette J, Coronado A. Distribution and abundance of natural parasitoid (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) populations of house flies and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) at the University of Florida Dairy Research Unit. Neotrop Entomol. 2010;39:424-9 pubmed
    ..Spalangia nigroaenea was predominant in July, August, and September. Spalangia endius was most active from October to May with a peak of relative abundance in January...
  20. Korosec P, Silar M, Erzen R, Celesnik N, Bajrovic N, Zidarn M, et al. Clinical routine utility of basophil activation testing for diagnosis of hymenoptera-allergic patients with emphasis on individuals with negative venom-specific IgE antibodies. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2013;161:363-8 pubmed publisher
    Previous reports suggest the usefulness of basophil activation testing (BAT) in Hymenoptera-allergic patients with negative venom-specific IgE antibodies...
  21. Yoshiyama N, Tojo K, Hatakeyama M. A survey of the effectiveness of non-cell autonomous RNAi throughout development in the sawfly, Athalia rosae (Hymenoptera). J Insect Physiol. 2013;59:400-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, RNAi by dsRNA injection seems to be hardly effective in mid- to late-larval stages...
  22. Klopfstein S, Vilhelmsen L, Heraty J, Sharkey M, Ronquist F. The hymenopteran tree of life: evidence from protein-coding genes and objectively aligned ribosomal data. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e69344 pubmed publisher
  23. Munro J, Heraty J, Burks R, Hawks D, Mottern J, Cruaud A, et al. A molecular phylogeny of the Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e27023 pubmed publisher
    Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) are extremely diverse with more than 23,000 species described and over 500,000 species estimated to exist...
  24. Peters R, Meyer B, Krogmann L, Borner J, Meusemann K, Schütte K, et al. The taming of an impossible child: a standardized all-in approach to the phylogeny of Hymenoptera using public database sequences. BMC Biol. 2011;9:55 pubmed publisher
    ..It combines some well-established programs with numerous newly developed software tools (available at http://software.zfmk.de/)...
  25. Müller U. Hymenoptera venom proteins and peptides for diagnosis and treatment of venom allergic patients. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2011;10:420-8 pubmed
    Stings by insects of the order Hymenoptera cause systemic, sometimes life threatening allergic reactions in 1 - 5% of the population in Europe and North America...
  26. De León J, Neumann G, Follett P, Hollingsworth R. Molecular markers discriminate closely related species Encarsia diaspidicola and Encarsia berlesei (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae): biocontrol candidate agents for white peach scale in Hawaii. J Econ Entomol. 2010;103:908-16 pubmed
    We genetically characterized Encarsia diapsidicola Silvestri and Encarsia berlesei Howard (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) by two molecular methods: phylogenetic analysis of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI) and intersimple sequence ..
  27. Schmidt S, McKinnon A, Moore C, Walter G. Chemical detoxification vs mechanical removal of host plant toxins in Eucalyptus feeding sawfly larvae (Hymenoptera: Pergidae). J Insect Physiol. 2010;56:1770-6 pubmed publisher
  28. Vilhelmsen L, Turrisi G. Per arborem ad astra: morphological adaptations to exploiting the woody habitat in the early evolution of Hymenoptera. Arthropod Struct Dev. 2011;40:2-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The evolution of some of the characters is explored by mapping them on a recently published phylogeny of Hymenoptera. Based on this phylogeny, it is reasonable to assume that wood-living wasps evolved from a xylophagous/..
  29. Munoz Torres M, Reese J, Childers C, Bennett A, Sundaram J, Childs K, et al. Hymenoptera Genome Database: integrated community resources for insect species of the order Hymenoptera. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:D658-62 pubmed publisher
    The Hymenoptera Genome Database (HGD) is a comprehensive model organism database that caters to the needs of scientists working on insect species of the order Hymenoptera...
  30. Singh R, Levitt A, Rajotte E, Holmes E, Ostiguy N, vanEngelsdorp D, et al. RNA viruses in hymenopteran pollinators: evidence of inter-Taxa virus transmission via pollen and potential impact on non-Apis hymenopteran species. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14357 pubmed publisher
    ..This study adds to our present understanding of virus epidemiology and may help explain bee disease patterns and pollinator population decline in general. ..
  31. Bilò B, Bonifazi F. Hymenoptera venom immunotherapy. Immunotherapy. 2011;3:229-46 pubmed publisher
    Subcutaneous venom immunotherapy is the only effective treatment for patients who experience severe hymenoptera sting-induced allergic reactions, and the treatment also improves health-related quality of life...
  32. Krishna M, Ewan P, Diwakar L, Durham S, Frew A, Leech S, et al. Diagnosis and management of hymenoptera venom allergy: British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (BSACI) guidelines. Clin Exp Allergy. 2011;41:1201-20 pubmed publisher
    This guidance for the management of patients with hymenoptera venom allergy has been prepared by the Standards of Care Committee (SOCC) of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (BSACI)...
  33. Schmidt S, Walter G. Young clades in an old family: major evolutionary transitions and diversification of the eucalypt-feeding pergid sawflies in Australia (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Pergidae). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2014;74:111-21 pubmed publisher
  34. Ahmed T, Zhang T, Wang Z, He K, Bai S. Morphology and ultrastructure of antennal sensilla of Macrocentrus cingulum Brischke (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and their probable functions. Micron. 2013;50:35-43 pubmed publisher
    Macrocentrus cingulum Brischke (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a polyembryonic endoparasitoid of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis and the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis...
  35. Kapranas A, Hardy I, Morse J, Luck R. Parasitoid developmental mortality in the field: patterns, causes and consequences for sex ratio and virginity. J Anim Ecol. 2011;80:192-203 pubmed publisher
    ..3. We contribute a large set of field data on Metaphycus luteolus Timberlake (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an endoparasitoid of soft scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccidae), which has sex allocation ..
  36. Rossler W, Zube C. Dual olfactory pathway in Hymenoptera: evolutionary insights from comparative studies. Arthropod Struct Dev. 2011;40:349-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparison across insects suggests that the lateral projection neuron tract represents a special feature of Hymenoptera. We hypothesize that this promotes advanced olfactory processing associated with chemical communication, ..
  37. Polidori C, Jorge García A, Nieves Aldrey J. Antennal sensillar equipment in closely related predatory wasp species (Hymenoptera: Philanthinae) hunting for different prey types. C R Biol. 2012;335:279-91 pubmed publisher
    ..This hypothesis needs to be further tested quantitatively using a larger species set, more individuals per species, additional sensilla features, and a correction for phylogeny...
  38. Incorvaia C, Mauro M, Pravettoni V, Pucci S. Hypersensitivity to Hymenoptera venom: advances in diagnosis and implications for treatment. Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov. 2011;5:128-35 pubmed
    Diagnosis and treatment of hypersensitivity to Hymenoptera venom took a landmark step forward in the late 1970s with the introduction of venom as an adequate material instead of whole body extracts...
  39. Josso C, Moiroux J, Vernon P, van Baaren J, van Alphen J. Temperature and parasitism by Asobara tabida (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) influence larval pupation behaviour in two Drosophila species. Naturwissenschaften. 2011;98:705-9 pubmed publisher
    ..tabida, but were not parasitized, pupated lower than the control unparasitized larvae. These results provide new insights of host behaviour manipulation by A. tabida larvae...
  40. Tirosh Y, Morpurgo N, Cohen M, Linial M, Bloch G. Raalin, a transcript enriched in the honey bee brain, is a remnant of genomic rearrangement in Hymenoptera. Insect Mol Biol. 2012;21:305-18 pubmed publisher
    ..short sequences in insects in which insertions and genome rearrangements may have disrupted this locus in the branch leading to the Hymenoptera. The regulated expression of this transcript suggests that it has a brain-specific function.
  41. Lampert E, Dyer L, Bowers M. Caterpillar chemical defense and parasitoid success: Cotesia congregata parasitism of Ceratomia catalpae. J Chem Ecol. 2010;36:992-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Future trials examining the importance of catalpol sequestration to potential natural enemies of C. congregata and C. catalpae are necessary to strengthen this conclusion...
  42. Gols R, Bullock J, Dicke M, Bukovinszky T, Harvey J. Smelling the wood from the trees: non-linear parasitoid responses to volatile attractants produced by wild and cultivated cabbage. J Chem Ecol. 2011;37:795-807 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that unraveling which compound(s) are innately attractive to parasitoids of cabbage pests should include wild Brassicaceae...
  43. Duan J, Bauer L, Abell K, Lelito J, Van Driesche R. Establishment and abundance of Tetrastichus planipennisi (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Michigan: potential for success in classical biocontrol of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). J Econ Entomol. 2013;106:1145-54 pubmed
    ..planipennisi is established in southern Michigan and that its populations are increasing and expanding. This suggests that T. planipennisi will likely play a critical role in suppressing emerald ash borer populations in Michigan...
  44. Pitzer J, Kaufman P, Hogsette J, Geden C, Tenbroeck S. Seasonal abundance of stable flies and filth fly pupal parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) at Florida equine facilities. J Econ Entomol. 2011;104:1108-15 pubmed
    ..consisting of Spalangia cameroni Perkins (56.5%), Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis (34.0%), Spalangia endius Walker (5.8%), and Spalangia nigra Latreille (3.7%). The implications of these findings are discussed...
  45. Simola D, Wissler L, Donahue G, Waterhouse R, Helmkampf M, Roux J, et al. Social insect genomes exhibit dramatic evolution in gene composition and regulation while preserving regulatory features linked to sociality. Genome Res. 2013;23:1235-47 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that changes in gene regulation played a key role in the origins of insect eusociality, whereas changes in gene composition were more relevant for lineage-specific eusocial adaptations. ..
  46. Zhou H, Wu W, Zhnag Z, Zhnag Y. Antennal sensilla of Apanteles cypris Nixon (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a larval endoparasitoid of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenée (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Microsc Res Tech. 2011;74:1199-208 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations could facilitate future studies on the biology of olfaction in A. cypris...
  47. Meng Z, Yan S, Yang C, Ruan C. Asymmetrical distribution of antennal sensilla in the female Anastatus japonicus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae). Microsc Res Tech. 2012;75:1066-75 pubmed publisher
    Anastatus japonicus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) is an important egg parasitoid of several major insect pests...
  48. Wang B, Xiao J, Bian S, Gu H, Huang D. Adaptive evolution of vertebrate-type cryptochrome in the ancestors of Hymenoptera. Biol Lett. 2013;9:20120958 pubmed publisher
    One of the most mysterious aspects of insect clock mechanisms is that some insects, including Hymenoptera and Tribolium, only express a vertebrate-type cryptochrome (cry2)...
  49. Rivers D, Uckan F, Ergin E, Keefer D. Pathological and ultrastructural changes in cultured cells induced by venom from the ectoparasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). J Insect Physiol. 2010;56:1935-48 pubmed publisher
  50. Hustert R. Giant and dwarf axons in a miniature insect, Encarsia formosa, (Hymenoptera, Calcididae). Arthropod Struct Dev. 2012;41:535-43 pubmed publisher
    ..They should belong to rapid sensory alerting systems. The largest, a bilateral pair in the abdominal CNS, could integrate afferents from long wind sensitive hairs on the abdomen...
  51. Gebiola M, Gómez Zurita J, Monti M, Navone P, Bernardo U. Integration of molecular, ecological, morphological and endosymbiont data for species delimitation within the Pnigalio soemius complex (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Mol Ecol. 2012;21:1190-208 pubmed publisher
    ..The Pnigalio soemius complex (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) represents an interesting taxonomical and ecological study case, as it is characterized by a lack ..
  52. Heraty J, Ronquist F, Carpenter J, Hawks D, Schulmeister S, Dowling A, et al. Evolution of the hymenopteran megaradiation. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2011;60:73-88 pubmed publisher
    The Hymenoptera--ants, bees and wasps--represent one of the most successful but least understood insect radiations. We present the first comprehensive molecular study spanning the entire order Hymenoptera...
  53. Tormos J, de Pedro L, Beitia F, Sabater B, Asís J, Polidori C. Development, preimaginal phases and adult sensillar equipment in Aganaspis parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) of fruit flies. Microsc Microanal. 2013;19:1475-89 pubmed publisher
    Aganaspis daci and Aganaspis pelleranoi (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) are important parasitoids of fruit flies...
  54. Kaltenpoth M, Yildirim E, Gürbüz M, Herzner G, Strohm E. Refining the roots of the beewolf-Streptomyces symbiosis: antennal symbionts in the rare genus Philanthinus (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae). Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:822-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Solitary wasps of the genera Philanthus and Trachypus (beewolves; Hymenoptera, Crabronidae) cultivate the actinomycete "Candidatus Streptomyces philanthi" in specialized antennal ..
  55. Matysiak J, Matysiak J, Breborowicz A, Kokot Z. Diagnosis of hymenoptera venom allergy--with special emphasis on honeybee (Apis mellifera) venom allergy. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2013;20:875-9 pubmed
    b>Hymenoptera stings occur very frequently and usually are not dangerous. The normal reaction after sting includes such symptoms as: mild swelling, redness and pain lasting from several minutes to several hours...
  56. Andersen J, Mills N. DNA extraction from museum specimens of parasitic Hymenoptera. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45549 pubmed publisher
    ..concerns, we examined the suitability of non-invasive DNA extraction techniques on three species of parasitic Hymenoptera (Braconidae), and test the effects of body size (parasitoid species), age (time since collection), and DNA ..
  57. Moreau S. "It stings a bit but it cleans well": venoms of Hymenoptera and their antimicrobial potential. J Insect Physiol. 2013;59:186-204 pubmed publisher
    Venoms from Hymenoptera display a wide range of functions and biological roles...
  58. Ma W, Kuijper B, de Boer J, van de Zande L, Beukeboom L, Wertheim B, et al. Absence of complementary sex determination in the parasitoid wasp genus Asobara (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e60459 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss how the absence of CSD can be reconciled with the variation in life-history traits among Asobara species, and the ramifications for the phylogenetic distribution of sex determination mechanisms in the Hymenoptera.
  59. Gao T, Shih C, Rasnitsyn A, Ren D. Hoplitolyda duolunica gen. et sp. nov. (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Praesiricidae), the Hitherto largest sawfly from the Mesozoic of China. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62420 pubmed publisher
    ..Hymenopterans, most being phytophagous or parasitic, have a relatively small to medium body size, typically under 50.0 mm in body length...
  60. Sharanowski B, Robbertse B, Walker J, Voss S, YODER R, Spatafora J, et al. Expressed sequence tags reveal Proctotrupomorpha (minus Chalcidoidea) as sister to Aculeata (Hymenoptera: Insecta). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2010;57:101-12 pubmed publisher
    b>Hymenoptera is one of the most diverse groups of animals on the planet and have vital importance for ecosystem function as pollinators and parasitoids...