psychodidae

Summary

Summary: Small, hairy, moth-like flies which are of considerable public health importance as vectors of certain pathogenic organisms. Important disease-related genera are PHLEBOTOMUS, Lutzomyia, and Sergentomyia.

Top Publications

  1. Brazil R, Pontes M, Passos W, Fuzari A, Brazil B. Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in the region of Saquarema: potential area of visceral leishmaniasis transmission in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2012;45:120-1 pubmed
    ..Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of Leishmania infantum chagasi in the Americas...
  2. Stauch A, Sarkar R, Picado A, Ostyn B, Sundar S, Rijal S, et al. Visceral leishmaniasis in the Indian subcontinent: modelling epidemiology and control. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1405 pubmed publisher
    ..A mathematical model was developed to support this elimination program with basic quantifications of transmission, disease and intervention parameters. This model was used to predict the effects of different intervention strategies...
  3. McCarthy C, Diambra L, Rivera Pomar R. Metagenomic analysis of taxa associated with Lutzomyia longipalpis, vector of visceral leishmaniasis, using an unbiased high-throughput approach. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1304 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the first VL outbreak was recently reported in Argentina, which has already caused 7 deaths and 83 reported cases...
  4. Machado T, Bragança M, Carvalho M, Andrade Filho J. Species diversity of sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) during different seasons and in different environments in the district of Taquaruçú, state of Tocantins, Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2012;107:955-9 pubmed
    ..However, during the rainy season, the forest displayed the highest species richness and the domestic environment exhibited the greatest species abundance. Several important vector species are reported in this study...
  5. Souza G, Santos E, Andrade Filho J. The first report of the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in America, Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2009;104:1181-2 pubmed
    ..The captures were carried out with CDC light traps on three consecutive nights in 2008. A total of 39 specimens of Lu. longipalpis were captured, thereby increasing the knowledge of the geographical distribution of this important vector...
  6. Fernández M, Lestani E, Cavia R, Salomón O. Phlebotominae fauna in a recent deforested area with American tegumentary leishmaniasis transmission (Puerto Iguazú, Misiones, Argentina): seasonal distribution in domestic and peridomestic environments. Acta Trop. 2012;122:16-23 pubmed publisher
  7. Silva P, Freitas R, Silva D, Alencar R. [Phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a campina reserve in the State of Amazonas, and its epidemiological importance]. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2010;43:78-81 pubmed
    ..In Brazil, the largest diversity of phlebotomines is found in the Amazon region, particularly in undisturbed terra-firma forest. However, the phlebotomine fauna in other ecosystems of this region is still not well known...
  8. Prates D, Araújo Santos T, Luz N, Andrade B, França Costa J, Afonso L, et al. Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva drives apoptosis and enhances parasite burden in neutrophils. J Leukoc Biol. 2011;90:575-82 pubmed publisher
  9. Barata R, Apolinário E. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from caves of the quartzite Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2012;107:1016-20 pubmed
    ..The presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis, Lutzomyia whitmani and Lutzomyia pessoai, proven or suspected vectors of leishmaniasis, is of concern because the area is visited by many tourists...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Barata R, Paz G, Bastos M, Andrade R, Barros D, Silva F, et al. Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Governador Valadares, a transmission area for American tegumentary leishmaniasis in State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2011;44:136-9 pubmed
    ..A study on the phlebotomine sandfly fauna was carried out in an endemic area for American tegumentary leishmaniasis in the municipality of Governador Valadares, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil...
  2. Widaa S, Ahmed K, Bari A, Ali M, Ibrahim M, Bashir M, et al. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a focus of visceral leishmaniasis in White Nile, Sudan. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2012;107:470-5 pubmed
    ..Further investigation is required to elucidate the seasonal abundance and distribution of the vector, as well as the transmission season of VL in both habitats so that appropriate control strategies for the vector can be designed...
  3. Kumar N, Srinivasan R, Jambulingam P. DNA barcoding for identification of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in India. Mol Ecol Resour. 2012;12:414-20 pubmed publisher
    ..bailyi, into two genetically isolated groups. Also, this study characterizes DNA barcodes of P. argentipes and P. papatasi, the vector species of leishmaniasis in India, for the first time...
  4. Polseela R, Apiwathnasorn C, Samung Y. Seasonal distribution of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Tham Phra Phothisat temple, Saraburi province, Thailand. Trop Biomed. 2011;28:366-75 pubmed
    ..1%, Sergentomyia quatei 0.1% and Sergentomyia bailyi 0.1%. The results revealed seasonal variation in sand fly prevalence, with the highest peak in July. Soil samples collected were characterized by alkaline (pH 7.6)...
  5. Peterkova Koci K, Robles Murguia M, Ramalho Ortigao M, Zurek L. Significance of bacteria in oviposition and larval development of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:145 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we assessed the significance of the microbial community of rabbit feces in oviposition and larval development of Lutzomyia longipalpis as well as bacterial colonization of the gut of freshly emerged flies...
  6. Randrianambinintsoa F, Depaquit J, Brengues C, Dhondt C, Yahaya I, Ouledi A, et al. First record of Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the Comoros Archipelago with description of Sergentomyia (Vattieromyia) pessoni n. sp. and S. (Rondanomyia) goodmani comorensis n. ssp. Parasite. 2012;19:195-206 pubmed
    ..two females from Mohéli). The individualisation of these taxa was inferred both from morphological criteria and sequencing of a part of the cytochrome b of the mitochondrial DNA. These taxa are closely related to Malagasy sandflies...
  7. Carvalho G, Brazil R, Saraiva L, Quaresma P, Botelho H, Ramos M, et al. Hourly activity and natural infection of sandflies (Diptera: psychodidae) captured from the aphotic zone of a cave, minas gerais state, Brazil. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e52254 pubmed publisher
  8. Carvalho G, Gontijo C, Falcao A, Andrade Filho J. Study of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) collected in a Leishmania-endemic area of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. J Med Entomol. 2010;47:972-6 pubmed
  9. Garlapati R, Abbasi I, Warburg A, Poché D, Poché R. Identification of bloodmeals in wild caught blood fed Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae) using cytochrome b PCR and reverse line blotting in Bihar, India. J Med Entomol. 2012;49:515-21 pubmed
    ..In the current study, sand flies mostly fed on humans, followed by cattle, buffalo, and goats. In this regard, it is necessary to also consider cattle, buffalo, and goats when addressing vector control in Bihar, India...
  10. Prudhomme J, Gunay F, Rahola N, Ouanaimi F, Guernaoui S, Boumezzough A, et al. Wing size and shape variation of Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) populations from the south and north slopes of the Atlas Mountains in Morocco. J Vector Ecol. 2012;37:137-47 pubmed publisher
    ..According to centroid size analyses, which were used as measures of wing size differences among different sites, the north population of P. papatasi had relatively larger wings than the south population...
  11. Azpurua J, De La Cruz D, Valderama A, WINDSOR D. Lutzomyia sand fly diversity and rates of infection by Wolbachia and an exotic Leishmania species on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e627 pubmed publisher
    Sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) in the genus Lutzomyia are the predominant vectors of the protozoan disease leishmaniasis in the New World...
  12. Souza A, Andrade B, Aquino D, Entringer P, Miranda J, Alcantara R, et al. Using recombinant proteins from Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva to estimate human vector exposure in visceral Leishmaniasis endemic areas. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e649 pubmed publisher
    ..Performing large-scale serological studies to detect vector exposure has been limited by the difficulty in obtaining sand fly saliva. Here, we validate the use of two sand fly salivary recombinant proteins as markers for vector exposure...
  13. Svarovska A, Ant T, Seblová V, Jecna L, Beverley S, Volf P. Leishmania major glycosylation mutants require phosphoglycans (lpg2-) but not lipophosphoglycan (lpg1-) for survival in permissive sand fly vectors. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e580 pubmed publisher
    ..The sand fly species used were the permissive species Phlebotomus perniciosus and P. argentipes, and the specific vector P. duboscqi, a species resistant to L. infantum development...
  14. Pinto M, Bray D, Eiras A, Carvalheira H, Puertas C. Attraction of the cutaneous leishmaniasis vector Nyssomyia neivai (Diptera: Psychodidae) to host odour components in a wind tunnel. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:210 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding how ACL vectors locate their hosts will be essential to developing new vector control strategies to combat this debilitating disease...
  15. Salomón O, Basmajdian Y, Fernández M, Santini M. Lutzomyia longipalpis in Uruguay: the first report and the potential of visceral leishmaniasis transmission. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2011;106:381-2 pubmed
    ..This is a first report of an area of potential VL transmission in Uruguay. Active and coordinated surveillance is required immediately the Uruguay-Argentina-Brazil border area...
  16. Vigoder F, Souza N, Peixoto A. Copulatory courtship song in Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: psychodidae). Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2010;105:1065-7 pubmed
    ..migonei males also produce a song during copulation. This "lovesong" presents short trains (6-8 pulses) with an inter-pulse interval around 26 ms and is potentially involved in cryptic female choice and insemination success...
  17. Maia C, Seblová V, Sadlova J, Votypka J, Volf P. Experimental transmission of Leishmania infantum by two major vectors: a comparison between a viscerotropic and a dermotropic strain. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1181 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding emphasizes the importance of determining the natural infective dose for the development of an accurate experimental model useful for the evaluation of new drugs and vaccines...
  18. Kaye P, Scott P. Leishmaniasis: complexity at the host-pathogen interface. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2011;9:604-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the extent of this diversity will be increasingly important in ensuring the development of broadly applicable vaccines, drugs and immunotherapeutic interventions...
  19. Carvalho G, Brazil R, Sanguinette C, Andrade Filho J. Description of a new phlebotomine species, Martinsmyia reginae sp. nov. (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) from a cave in the state of Tocantins Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2010;105:336-40 pubmed
    ..The morphological features of this new species permit it to be included in the alphabetica group of the Martinsmyia genus...
  20. Pavli A, Maltezou H. Leishmaniasis, an emerging infection in travelers. Int J Infect Dis. 2010;14:e1032-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Appropriate counseling should be provided to adventure travelers, military personnel, researchers, and other groups of travelers likely to be exposed to sandflies in endemic areas...
  21. Mascari T, Stout R, Foil L. Laboratory evaluation of rubidium as a long-lasting marker for bloodfeeding sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae). J Med Entomol. 2012;49:227-30 pubmed
  22. Zapata S, Mejia L, Le Pont F, Leon R, Pesson B, Ravel C, et al. A study of a population of Nyssomyia trapidoi (Diptera: Psychodidae) caught on the Pacific coast of Ecuador. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:144 pubmed publisher
    ..Dujardin et al. [1] recorded some differences in body pigmentation and isoenzymatic profiles in sympatric populations of Ny. trapidoi from the Pacific coast of Ecuador and suggested the existence of two cryptic species...
  23. Guernaoui S, Garcia D, Gazanion E, Ouhdouch Y, Boumezzough A, Pesson B, et al. Bacterial flora as indicated by PCR-temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) of 16S rDNA gene fragments from isolated guts of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae). J Vector Ecol. 2011;36 Suppl 1:S144-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of such methodology, in conjunction with other culture-based methods, will be of great help in investigating the behavior of the Leishmania-bacterial community in an ecological context...
  24. Diaz Albiter H, Mitford R, Genta F, Sant Anna M, Dillon R. Reactive oxygen species scavenging by catalase is important for female Lutzomyia longipalpis fecundity and mortality. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17486 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate the central role that catalase and ROS play in the longevity and fecundity of phlebotomine sand flies...
  25. Cohnstaedt L, Beati L, Caceres A, Ferro C, Munstermann L. Phylogenetics of the phlebotomine sand fly group Verrucarum (Diptera: Psychodidae: Lutzomyia). Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011;84:913-22 pubmed publisher
    ..COI sequences were also evaluated as a taxonomic tool based on interspecific genetic variability within the Verrucarum group and the intraspecific variability of one of its members, Lutzomyia verrucarum, across its known distribution...
  26. Margonari C, Soares R, Andrade Filho J, Xavier D, Saraiva L, Fonseca A, et al. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and Leishmania infection in Gafanhoto Park, Divinópolis, Brazil. J Med Entomol. 2010;47:1212-9 pubmed
    ..6%), L. lutziana (one; 0.6%), and Lutzomyia monticula (Costa Lima) (one; 0.6%). The finding of potential and incriminated vectors naturally infected with Leishmania reinforces the need of epidemiologic surveillance in the area...
  27. Jeraldo V, Góes M, Casanova C, Melo C, Araújo E, Brandão Filho S, et al. Sandfly fauna in an area endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in Aracaju, State of Sergipe, Northeast Brazil. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2012;45:318-22 pubmed
    ..However, there are no studies of the sandfly fauna in this municipality or its variation over the year...
  28. Teles C, Freitas R, de Oliveira A, Ogawa G, de Araújo E, Medeiros J, et al. Description of a new phlebotomine species (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) and new records of sand flies from the State of Acre, northern Brazil. Zootaxa. 2013;3609:85-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Lutzomyia naiffi sp. nov. is described here. The new species is similar to Lutzomyia columbiana (Ristorcelli & Van Ty) in measurements and other morphological characters...
  29. González C, Rebollar Tellez E, Ibáñez Bernal S, Becker Fauser I, Martinez Meyer E, Peterson A, et al. Current knowledge of Leishmania vectors in Mexico: how geographic distributions of species relate to transmission areas. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011;85:839-46 pubmed publisher
    ..cruciata and Lu. shannoni are likely also involved as primary vectors in those areas. Our study provides useful information of potential risk areas of leishmaniasis transmission in Mexico...
  30. Boussaa S, Neffa M, Pesson B, Boumezzough A. Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) of southern Morocco: results of entomological surveys along the Marrakech-Ouarzazat and Marrakech-Azilal roads. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2010;104:163-70 pubmed publisher
    ..4%), P. sergenti (4.0%), P. longicuspis (3.0%), P. papatasi (2.8%), S. dreyfussi (1.1%) and P. alexandri (0.2%). The distribution of potential vectors along the two transects, according to altitude and bioclimate, was explored...
  31. Telleria E, de Araújo A, Secundino N, d Avila Levy C, Traub Cseko Y. Trypsin-like serine proteases in Lutzomyia longipalpis--expression, activity and possible modulation by Leishmania infantum chagasi. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10697 pubmed publisher
    ..We have now characterized the expression and activity of trypsin-like proteases of Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil...
  32. González Caballero N, Valenzuela J, Ribeiro J, Cuervo P, Brazil R. Transcriptome exploration of the sex pheromone gland of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae). Parasit Vectors. 2013;6:56 pubmed publisher
    ..longipalpis sex pheromone, there is no information regarding the molecular biology behind its production. To understand this process, obtaining information on which genes are expressed in the pheromone gland is essential...
  33. Pech May A, Escobedo Ortegón F, Berzunza Cruz M, Rebollar Téllez E. Incrimination of four sandfly species previously unrecognized as vectors of Leishmania parasites in Mexico. Med Vet Entomol. 2010;24:150-61 pubmed publisher
    ..mexicana in the region is the sandfly Lutzomyia olmeca olmeca (Vargas & Diáz-Nájera) (Diptera: Psychodidae)...
  34. Vásquez Trujillo A, González Reina A, Góngora Orjuela A, Prieto Suárez E, Palomares J, Buitrago Alvarez L. Seasonal variation and natural infection of Lutzomyia antunesi (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), an endemic species in the Orinoquia region of Colombia. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2013;108:463-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The natural infection rate is associated with the peaks of highest abundance. ..
  35. Vale V, Moreira B, Moraes C, Pereira M, Genta F, Gontijo N. Carbohydrate digestion in Lutzomyia longipalpis' larvae (Diptera - Psychodidae). J Insect Physiol. 2012;58:1314-24 pubmed publisher
    ..A general view of carbohydrate digestion in L. longipalpis was presented. Our results indicate that soil microorganisms appear to be the main source of nutrients for the larvae...
  36. Carrasquilla M, Munstermann L, Marín D, Ocampo C, Ferro C. Description of Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) tolimensis, a new species of phlebotomine sandfly (Diptera: Psychodidae) from Colombia. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2012;107:993-7 pubmed
    ..The female is recognized principally by the following characters: (i) palpomere V longer than III, (ii) length of labro-epipharynx and (iii) relationship of the alar indices...
  37. Stamper L, Patrick R, Fay M, Lawyer P, Elnaiem D, Secundino N, et al. Infection parameters in the sand fly vector that predict transmission of Leishmania major. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1288 pubmed publisher
  38. Galati E, Ovallos F. Description of two new sand fly species related to Nyssomyia antunesi (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae). J Med Entomol. 2012;49:238-52 pubmed
    ..Some measurements of both sexes of N. antunesi and illustration of the male genitalia and the female spermathecae as well as an identification key for males and females of the genus Nyssomyia are provided...
  39. Vilela M, Azevedo C, Carvalho B, Rangel E. Phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) and putative vectors of leishmaniases in impacted area by hydroelectric plant, State of Tocantins, Brazil. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e27721 pubmed publisher
  40. Bezerra Vasconcelos D, Melo L, Albuquerque E, Luciano M, Bevilaqua C. Real-time PCR to assess the Leishmania load in Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies: screening of target genes and assessment of quantitative methods. Exp Parasitol. 2011;129:234-9 pubmed publisher
    ..infantum chagasi in L. longipalpis was improved by targeting high copy-number genes; amplification of high copy-number targets increased the sensitivity, accuracy and precision of DNA-based parasite enumeration...
  41. Acardi S, Liotta D, Santini M, Romagosa C, Salomón O. Detection of Leishmania infantum in naturally infected Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) and Canis familiaris in Misiones, Argentina: the first report of a PCR-RFLP and sequencing-based confirmation assay. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2010;105:796-9 pubmed
    ..longipalpis among the analyzed samples. These results contribute to incriminate Lu. longipalpis as the vector of L. infantum in the municipality of Posadas, where cases of the disease in humans and dogs have been reported since 2005...
  42. Lantová L, Ghosh K, Svobodova M, Braig H, Rowton E, Weina P, et al. The life cycle and host specificity of Psychodiella sergenti n. sp. and Ps. tobbi n. sp. (Protozoa: Apicomplexa) in sand flies Phlebotomus sergenti and Ph. tobbi (Diptera: Psychodidae). J Invertebr Pathol. 2010;105:182-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Both gregarines are considered as serious pathogens in laboratory-reared colonies of Old World sand flies...
  43. Rosa J, Pereira D, Brazil R, Filho J, Salomón O, Szelag E. Natural infection of cortelezzii complex (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) with Leishmania braziliensis in Chaco, Argentina. Acta Trop. 2012;123:128-31 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present work, Ev. cortelezzii females were found naturally infected, thus reinforcing the hypothesis that the members of the cortelezzii complex act as vectors of the disease...
  44. Fuenzalida A, Quintana M, Salomón O, de Grosso M. Hourly activity of Lutzomyia neivai in the endemic zone of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tucumán, Argentina: preliminary results. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2011;106:635-8 pubmed
    ..neivai was the temperature, whereas in April, that variable was humidity. These results may contribute to the design of anti-vectorial control measures at a micro-focal scale...
  45. Alves V, Freitas R, Santos F, Barrett T. Diversity of sandflies (Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) captured in sandstone caves from Central Amazonia, Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2011;106:353-9 pubmed
    ..Adult specimens of this species are apparently parthenogenetic and autogenous and represent the second record of parthenogenesis for the subfamily Phlebotominae...
  46. Tavares N, Silva R, Costa D, Pitombo M, Fukutani K, Miranda J, et al. Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva or salivary protein LJM19 protects against Leishmania braziliensis and the saliva of its vector, Lutzomyia intermedia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1169 pubmed publisher
    ..longipalpis saliva or a DNA plasmid coding for LJM19 salivary protein would be protective against L. braziliensis infection in the presence of Lu. intermedia saliva, the natural vector for L. braziliensis...
  47. Pinto I, dos Santos C, Ferreira A, Falqueto A. Richness and diversity of sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in an Atlantic rainforest reserve in southeastern Brazil. J Vector Ecol. 2010;35:325-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We also discuss the possibility of wild transmission of Leishmania in the DBBR and the influence of the sand fly species in leishmaniasis transmission to the adjacent areas of the reserve...
  48. Bejarano E, Vivero R, Uribe S. Description of Lutzomyia velezi, a new species of phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Department of Antioquia, Colombia. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2010;105:322-5 pubmed
  49. Cerino D, Teodoro U, Silveira T. Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the urban area of the municipality of Cianorte, Paraná State, Brazil. Neotrop Entomol. 2009;38:853-8 pubmed
    ..Our data illustrate the necessity of maintaining the measures that contributed to reduce human contact with sand flies, thereby reducing the transmission risk of ACL...
  50. Casanova C, Andrighetti M, Sampaio S, Marcoris M, Colla Jacques F, Prado A. Larval breeding sites of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in visceral leishmaniasis endemic urban areas in Southeastern Brazil. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2443 pubmed publisher
    ..Identifying the breeding sites of sand flies is essential to the understanding of the vector's population dynamic and could be used to develop novel control strategies...
  51. Romero G, Boelaert M. Control of visceral leishmaniasis in latin america-a systematic review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e584 pubmed publisher
  52. Gomes R, Oliveira F, Teixeira C, Meneses C, Gilmore D, Elnaiem D, et al. Immunity to sand fly salivary protein LJM11 modulates host response to vector-transmitted leishmania conferring ulcer-free protection. J Invest Dermatol. 2012;132:2735-43 pubmed publisher
  53. Carvalho G, Brazil R, Sanguinette C, Filho J. Description of evandromyia spelunca, a new phlebotomine species of the cortelezzii complex, from a cave in Minas Gerais State, Brazil (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae). Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:158 pubmed publisher
    ..A new species of sand fly from Minas Gerais is described based in females and males collected in a cave of the municipality of Lassance...