ceratopogonidae

Summary

Summary: A family of biting midges, in the order DIPTERA. It includes the genus Culicoides which transmits filarial parasites pathogenic to man and other primates.

Top Publications

  1. González M, Lopez S, Mullens B, Baldet T, Goldarazena A. A survey of Culicoides developmental sites on a farm in northern Spain, with a brief review of immature habitats of European species. Vet Parasitol. 2013;191:81-93 pubmed publisher
    Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) belonging to the Obsoletus and Pulicaris groups are considered to be the main vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV) in non Mediterranean Europe...
  2. Santiago Alarcon D, Havelka P, Schaefer H, Segelbacher G. Bloodmeal analysis reveals avian Plasmodium infections and broad host preferences of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) vectors. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31098 pubmed publisher
    ..analysis via amplification of the mtDNA COI gene we identified the vertebrate hosts of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) species in a sub-urban forest of Southwestern Germany...
  3. Schmidtmann E, Herrero M, Green A, Dargatz D, Rodriquez J, Walton T. Distribution of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Nebraska, South Dakota, and North Dakota: clarifying the epidemiology of bluetongue disease in the northern Great Plains region of the United States. J Med Entomol. 2011;48:634-43 pubmed
    The presence or absence of the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), a primary vector of bluetongue viruses (genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae, BTV) in North America, was assessed on ranches ..
  4. Felippe Bauer M, Damasceno C, Py Daniel V, Spinelli G. Culicoides baniwa sp.nov. from the Brazilian Amazon Region with a synopsis of the hylas species group (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2009;104:851-7 pubmed
    ..hylas group are presented. This paper further presents a new record of Culicoides pseudoheliconiae Felippe-Bauer out of the previously defined geographic distribution of the hylas species group, in the province of Misiones, Argentina...
  5. Yanase T, Kato T, Kubo T, Yoshida K, Ohashi S, Yamakawa M, et al. Isolation of bovine arboviruses from Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in southern Japan: 1985--2002. J Med Entomol. 2005;42:63-7 pubmed
    ..9% of 85 isolates). Isolations of all viruses except for the bunyavirus-like virus were made from this species. Our data indicated that C. oxystoma is a potential vector for bovine arboviruses in southern Japan...
  6. Wilson A, Mellor P. Bluetongue in Europe: past, present and future. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2009;364:2669-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Although attempts are being made to improve the capacity of European countries to cope with future BTV incursions, the options available are limited by a lack of basic entomological data and limited virological surveillance...
  7. Schwenkenbecher J, Mordue A, Switek K, Piertney S. Discrimination of Culicoides midge larvae using multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays based on DNA sequence variation at the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase I gene. J Med Entomol. 2009;46:610-4 pubmed
    ..l. complex. These assays yield two PCR products: one species-specific and one generic band. We show the application of the assays in the analysis of Culicoides larvae from three different farms in northeast Scotland...
  8. Mehlhorn H, Walldorf V, Klimpel S, Schmahl G, Al Quraishy S, Walldorf U, et al. Entomological survey on vectors of Bluetongue virus in Northrhine-Westfalia (Germany) during 2007 and 2008. Parasitol Res. 2009;105:321-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This conclusion needs urgently special attention on other luring epidemics in the near future...
  9. Saegerman C, Berkvens D, Mellor P. Bluetongue epidemiology in the European Union. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:539-44 pubmed publisher
    ..This condition increases the risk for reassortment of individual BTV gene segments...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Hellberg W, Wilson A, Mellor P, Doherr M, Torsteinsdottir S, Zurbriggen A, et al. Equine insect bite hypersensitivity: immunoblot analysis of IgE and IgG subclass responses to Culicoides nubeculosus salivary gland extract. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2006;113:99-112 pubmed
    ..These findings are important for the future development of a specific immunotherapy with recombinant salivary gland allergens...
  2. Poinar G, Telford S. Paleohaemoproteus burmacis gen. n., sp. n. (Haemospororida: Plasmodiidae) from an Early Cretaceous biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Parasitology. 2005;131:79-84 pubmed
    ..n. (Haemospororida: Plasmodiidae) is described from the abdominal cavity of a female biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) preserved in 100 million year old amber from Myanmar (Burma)...
  3. Harrup L, Logan J, Cook J, Golding N, Birkett M, Pickett J, et al. Collection of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) using CO2 and enantiomers of 1-octen-3-ol in the United Kingdom. J Med Entomol. 2012;49:112-21 pubmed
    ..This study investigates the response of Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to these cues using field-based experiments at two sites in the United Kingdom with very different species ..
  4. Nielsen S, Nielsen B, Chirico J. Monitoring of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides Latreille) on farms in Sweden during the emergence of the 2008 epidemic of bluetongue. Parasitol Res. 2010;106:1197-203 pubmed publisher
    ..The two species were also recorded from the island of Gotland. Culicoides pulicaris, another potential vector species, accounted for about 9% of all Culicoides captured...
  5. Racloz V, Venter G, Griot C, Stärk K. Estimating the temporal and spatial risk of bluetongue related to the incursion of infected vectors into Switzerland. BMC Vet Res. 2008;4:42 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on data generated by this surveillance system, GIS and transmission models were used in order to determine suitable seasonal vector habitat locations and risk periods for a larger and more targeted surveillance program...
  6. Mehlhorn H, Walldorf V, Klimpel S, Jahn B, Jaeger F, Eschweiler J, et al. First occurrence of Culicoides obsoletus-transmitted Bluetongue virus epidemic in Central Europe. Parasitol Res. 2007;101:219-28 pubmed
    ..The caught arthropods were weekly determined, and it could be observed that midges of the dipteran family Ceratopogonidae occurred in large numbers, sometimes representing up to 40% of all individuals...
  7. Kaufmann C, Steinmann I, Hegglin D, Schaffner F, Mathis A. Spatio-temporal occurrence of Culicoides biting midges in the climatic regions of Switzerland, along with large scale species identification by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:246 pubmed publisher
    ..g. bluetongue virus. In order to define vector-free periods/areas and to assess the vectorial role of the various Culicoides species, a comprehensive knowledge on their spatio-temporal occurrence is required...
  8. Pérez J, García Ballester J, Lopez Olvera J, Serrano E. Monitoring bluetongue virus vectors in Andalusia (SW Europe): Culicoides species composition and factors affecting capture rates of the biting midge Culicoides imicola. Parasitol Res. 2012;111:1267-75 pubmed publisher
    ..As previously remarked by other authors, standardized capture methods and protocols for trap use are needed to ensure that results obtained in different geographical areas and/or periods are comparable...
  9. Zimmer J, Haubruge E, Francis F, Bortels J, Simonon G, Losson B, et al. Breeding sites of bluetongue vectors in northern Europe. Vet Rec. 2008;162:131 pubmed
  10. Pages N, Muñoz Muñoz F, Talavera S, Sarto V, Lorca C, Núñez J. Identification of cryptic species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in the subgenus Culicoides and development of species-specific PCR assays based on barcode regions. Vet Parasitol. 2009;165:298-310 pubmed publisher
    Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of important diseases affecting wild and domestic animals...
  11. Perez de Leon A, Tabachnick W. Transmission of vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus to cattle by the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). J Med Entomol. 2006;43:323-9 pubmed
    ..The failure to observe clinical signs of vesicular stomatitis through transmission of VSNJV by C. sonorensis may explain widespread subclinical infections during vesicular stomatitis epidemics...
  12. Perrin A, Cetre Sossah C, Mathieu B, Baldet T, Delecolle J, Albina E. Phylogenetic analysis of Culicoides species from France based on nuclear ITS1-rDNA sequences. Med Vet Entomol. 2006;20:219-28 pubmed
    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) play important roles in the transmission of viral diseases affecting wild and domestic ruminants and horses, including Bluetongue (BT) and African horse sickness (AHS) ..
  13. Wenk C, Kaufmann C, Schaffner F, Mathis A. Molecular characterization of Swiss Ceratopogonidae (Diptera) and evaluation of real-time PCR assays for the identification of Culicoides biting midges. Vet Parasitol. 2012;184:258-66 pubmed publisher
    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of several viruses of veterinary relevance, and they can cause insect bite hypersensitivity...
  14. Becker M, Reeves W, Dejean S, Emery M, Ostlund E, Foil L. Detection of bluetongue virus RNA in field-collected Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) following the discovery of bluetongue virus serotype 1 in white-tailed deer and cattle in Louisiana. J Med Entomol. 2010;47:269-73 pubmed
    ..The amplicons of the positive specimens were sequenced and found to be identical to both BTV-17 and BTV-13. During our study, no BTV-1 transmission was detected in cattle, and no BTV-1 was detected in specimens of ceratopogonids...
  15. Mullens B, Gerry A, Monteys V, Pinna M, Gonzalez A. Field studies on Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) activity and response to deltamethrin applications to sheep in northeastern Spain. J Med Entomol. 2010;47:106-10 pubmed
    ..circumscriptus (7%). Parity of C. obsoletus and C. imicola did not vary between the light and fan traps. Engorged Culicoides in the barn (33 C. obsoletus and three C. imicola) had fed on sheep or goats (precipitin test)...
  16. Carpenter S, Lunt H, Arav D, Venter G, Mellor P. Oral susceptibility to bluetongue virus of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from the United Kingdom. J Med Entomol. 2006;43:73-8 pubmed
    ..genus Orbivirus, BTV) serotype 9 was characterized in three Palaearctic species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)...
  17. Baylis M, O Connell L, Mellor P. Rates of bluetongue virus transmission between Culicoides sonorensis and sheep. Med Vet Entomol. 2008;22:228-37 pubmed publisher
    ..bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 1 between a biting midge vector, Culicoides sonorensis (Wirth & Jones) (Ceratopogonidae), and a natural host, sheep...
  18. Morag N, Klement E, Saroya Y, Lensky I, Gottlieb Y. Prevalence of the symbiont Cardinium in Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) vector species is associated with land surface temperature. FASEB J. 2012;26:4025-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the observed variation of Cardinium infection of the imago stage of Culicoides may be influenced by environmental conditions during the latter's early developmental stages...
  19. Mathieu B, Cêtre Sossah C, Garros C, Chavernac D, Balenghien T, Carpenter S, et al. Development and validation of IIKC: an interactive identification key for Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) females from the Western Palaearctic region. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:137 pubmed publisher
    ..We then validated IIKC using a trial carried out by six entomologists based in this region with variable degrees of experience in identifying Culicoides...
  20. Gomulski L, Meiswinkel R, Delecolle J, Goffredo M, Gasperi G. Phylogeny of the subgenus Culicoides and related species in Italy, inferred from internal transcribed spacer 2 ribosomal DNA sequences. Med Vet Entomol. 2006;20:229-38 pubmed
    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) include vectors for the economically important animal diseases, bluetongue (BT) and African horse sickness (AHS)...
  21. Ninio C, Augot D, Dufour B, Depaquit J. Emergence of Culicoides obsoletus from indoor and outdoor breeding sites. Vet Parasitol. 2011;183:125-9 pubmed publisher
  22. Elbers A, Meiswinkel R, van Weezep E, Sloet van Oldruitenborgh Oosterbaan M, Kooi E. Schmallenberg virus in Culicoides spp. biting midges, the Netherlands, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:106-9 pubmed publisher
    ..SBV RNA was found in C. scoticus, C. obsoletus sensu stricto, and C. chiopterus. The high proportion of infected midges might explain the rapid spread of SBV throughout Europe...
  23. Veronesi E, Darpel K, Hamblin C, Carpenter S, Takamatsu H, Anthony S, et al. Viraemia and clinical disease in Dorset Poll sheep following vaccination with live attenuated bluetongue virus vaccines serotypes 16 and 4. Vaccine. 2010;28:1397-403 pubmed publisher
    ..The implications of these results are discussed with reference to the current outbreaks of BTV occurring in northern Europe and in relation to the future development of vaccines for this virus...
  24. Calvete C, Calvo J, Calavia R, Miranda M, Borras D, Estrada R, et al. Culicoides species and transmission of bluetongue virus in Spain. Vet Rec. 2008;162:255 pubmed
  25. Carpenter S, McArthur C, Selby R, Ward R, Nolan D, Luntz A, et al. Experimental infection studies of UK Culicoides species midges with bluetongue virus serotypes 8 and 9. Vet Rec. 2008;163:589-92 pubmed
    ..The method has been used to show that Culicoides scoticus can replicate btv serotype 8 and BTV serotype 9 strains to more than 3 log(10) TCID50/midge, the first evidence of the potential of this species to transmit BTV. ..
  26. Zimmer J, Saegerman C, Losson B, Beckers Y, Haubruge E, Francis F. Chemical composition of silage residues sustaining the larval development of the Culicoides obsoletus/Culicoides scoticus species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Vet Parasitol. 2013;191:197-201 pubmed publisher
    Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are biological vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV). Bluetongue is a viral disease that affects domestic and wild ruminants...
  27. Morag N, Saroya Y, Braverman Y, Klement E, Gottlieb Y. Molecular identification, phylogenetic status, and geographic distribution of Culicoides oxystoma (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Israel. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33610 pubmed publisher
    Culicoides oxystoma (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is an important vector species, reported mainly from Asia, with high potential to transmit viral diseases affecting livestock. In Japan, many arboviruses have been isolated from C...
  28. Nevill H, Nevill E, Venter G. Description and comparison of the pupae of a further two Culicoides (Avaritia) species from the dung of large herbivores in South Africa (Diptera:Ceratopogonidae). Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2009;76:277-84 pubmed
    ..sp. # 54 d.f. nor C. sp. # 54 p.f. reared from the dung of different host animals...
  29. Venter G, Paweska J. Virus recovery rates for wild-type and live-attenuated vaccine strains of African horse sickness virus serotype 7 in orally infected South African Culicoides species. Med Vet Entomol. 2007;21:377-83 pubmed
    ..rates from Culicoides (Avaritia) imicola Kieffer and Culicoides (Avaritia) bolitinos Meiswinkel (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) orally infected with vaccine strain of African horse sickness virus serotype 7 (AHSV-7) were compared with ..
  30. Guis H, Caminade C, Calvete C, Morse A, Tran A, Baylis M. Modelling the effects of past and future climate on the risk of bluetongue emergence in Europe. J R Soc Interface. 2012;9:339-50 pubmed publisher
  31. Gloster J, Mellor P, Manning A, Webster H, Hort M. Assessing the risk of windborne spread of bluetongue in the 2006 outbreak of disease in northern Europe. Vet Rec. 2007;160:54-6 pubmed
  32. Garcia Saenz A, McCarter P, Baylis M. The influence of host number on the attraction of biting midges, Culicoides spp., to light traps. Med Vet Entomol. 2011;25:113-5 pubmed publisher
    ..number of sheep below a light-suction trap affects the number of female Culicoides obsoletus Meigen (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) caught...
  33. Mercer D, Castillo Pizango M. Changes in relative species compositions of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) and an outbreak of Oropouche virus in Iquitos, Peru. J Med Entomol. 2005;42:554-8 pubmed
    Species compositions of Culicoides paraensis (Goeldi) (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), the major vector of Oropouche virus to humans in Central and South American urban cycles, and Culicoides insinuatus Ortiz & Leon differed along a ..
  34. Bishop J, Mejia J, Perez de Leon A, Tabachnick W, Titus R. Salivary gland extracts of Culicoides sonorensis inhibit murine lymphocyte proliferation and no production by macrophages. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;75:532-6 pubmed
    ..A 66-kDa glycoprotein was purified from C. sonorensis salivary gland extract, which may be in part responsible for these observations and may be considered as a vaccine candidate...
  35. Santiago Alarcon D, Havelka P, Pineda E, Segelbacher G, Schaefer H. Urban forests as hubs for novel zoonosis: blood meal analysis, seasonal variation in Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) vectors, and avian haemosporidians. Parasitology. 2013;140:1799-810 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied feeding preferences and seasonal variation of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) vectors in an urban forest of Germany to determine whether humans living nearby are readily exposed to ..
  36. Calvo J, Berzal B, Calvete C, Miranda M, Estrada R, Lucientes J. Host feeding patterns of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) within the Picos de Europa National Park in northern Spain. Bull Entomol Res. 2012;102:692-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, feeding on multiple potential host species was observed. One midge acquired blood meals from human and chicken hosts, while four other midges fed on two different sheep...
  37. Viennet E, Garros C, Lancelot R, Allène X, Gardes L, Rakotoarivony I, et al. Assessment of vector/host contact: comparison of animal-baited traps and UV-light/suction trap for collecting Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), vectors of Orbiviruses. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:119 pubmed publisher
    ..consequences for sheep and cattle production and confirmed the ability of Palaearctic Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to transmit the virus...
  38. Meiswinkel R, Goffredo M, Dijkstra E, van der Ven I, Baldet T, Elbers A. Endophily in Culicoides associated with BTV-infected cattle in the province of Limburg, south-eastern Netherlands, 2006. Prev Vet Med. 2008;87:182-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Because diurnal biting in vector Culicoides may constitute a significant and underestimated component of BTV transmission a novel capture methodology will be required in future and is discussed briefly...
  39. Spinelli G, Ronderos M, Marino P, Carrasco D, Ferreira R. Description of Culicoides (Mataemyia) felippebauerae sp. n., Forcipomyia musae immatures, and occurrence of F. genualis, breeding in banana stems in Brazilian Amazonia (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2007;102:659-69 pubmed
    The following three species of Ceratopogonidae were collected breeding in the rhizomatous herb Phenakospermum guyannense Endl...
  40. Falconi C, Lopez Olvera J, Gortazar C. BTV infection in wild ruminants, with emphasis on red deer: a review. Vet Microbiol. 2011;151:209-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, red deer could be used as BT sentinels. Serum and spleen tissue of calves sampled from late autumn onwards should be the target samples when establishing a BTV surveillance program...
  41. Spinelli G, Ronderos M, Diaz F, Marino P. The bloodsucking biting midges of Argentina (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2005;100:137-50 pubmed
    ..pseudocrescentis Tavares and Luna Dias, and C. trilineatus; and C. estevezae Ronderos and Spinelli is newly recorded from Misiones province of Argentina. C. lopesi Barretto is excluded from the Argentinean ceratopogonid fauna...
  42. Augot D, Sauvage F, Jouet D, Simphal E, Veuille M, Couloux A, et al. Discrimination of Culicoides obsoletus and Culicoides scoticus, potential bluetongue vectors, by morphometrical and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I analysis. Infect Genet Evol. 2010;10:629-37 pubmed publisher
    Biting midges of the Culicoides obsoletus Meigen species complex (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are increasingly suspected as vectors of the recent emergence of bluetongue virus in Europe. Within this complex, identification of the C...
  43. White D, Wilson W, Blair C, Beaty B. Studies on overwintering of bluetongue viruses in insects. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:453-62 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that BTVs could overwinter in the insect vector and that there is reduced expression of the outer capsid genes during persistent infection...
  44. Sanders C, Gubbins S, Mellor P, Barber J, Golding N, Harrup L, et al. Investigation of diel activity of Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in the United Kingdom by using a vehicle-mounted trap. J Med Entomol. 2012;49:757-65 pubmed
    Truck trap collections of Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were made during 2 yr of sampling from 2008 to 2009 at a farm site in southern England...
  45. Pettersson E, Bensch S, Ander M, Chirico J, Sigvald R, Ignell R. Molecular identification of bloodmeals and species composition in Culicoides biting midges. Med Vet Entomol. 2013;27:104-12 pubmed publisher
    Investigations of host preferences in haematophagous insects, including Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), are critical in order to assess transmission routes of vector-borne diseases...
  46. Kato C, Mayer R. An improved, high-throughput method for detection of bluetongue virus RNA in Culicoides midges utilizing infrared-dye-labeled primers for reverse transcriptase PCR. J Virol Methods. 2007;140:140-7 pubmed
    ..5 pfu of purified BTV RNA. All 24 serotypes of BTV prototype strains and none of the 8 serotypes of the closely related epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) prototype strains were detected...
  47. Racloz V, Straver R, Kuhn M, Thur B, Vanzetti T, Stärk K, et al. Establishment of an early warning system against bluetongue virus in Switzerland. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd. 2006;148:593-8 pubmed
    ..Therefore, a new surveillance method based on sentinel herds in high risk areas was implemented in 2004 for the early detection of both an incursion of BT vectors into Switzerland, and potential virus circulation among cattle...
  48. Takken W, Verhulst N, Scholte E, Jacobs F, Jongema Y, van Lammeren R. The phenology and population dynamics of Culicoides spp. in different ecosystems in The Netherlands. Prev Vet Med. 2008;87:41-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The question now arises whether the virus can survive the winter conditions in north-western Europe and whether measures can be taken that effectively halt further spread of the disease...
  49. Carpenter S, Wilson A, Mellor P. Culicoides and the emergence of bluetongue virus in northern Europe. Trends Microbiol. 2009;17:172-8 pubmed publisher
  50. Baylis M, Parkin H, Kreppel K, Carpenter S, Mellor P, McIntyre K. Evaluation of housing as a means to protect cattle from Culicoides biting midges, the vectors of bluetongue virus. Med Vet Entomol. 2010;24:38-45 pubmed publisher
    ..was investigated as a possible means of protecting them from attack by Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), the vectors of bluetongue...
  51. Seblová V, Sadlova J, Carpenter S, Volf P. Development of Leishmania parasites in Culicoides nubeculosus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) and implications for screening vector competence. J Med Entomol. 2012;49:967-70 pubmed
    Biting midges of the genus Forcipomyia (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) have recently been implicated as vectors of kinetoplastid parasites in the Leishmania enrietti complex...
  52. van der Rijt R, van den Boom R, Jongema Y, van Oldruitenborgh Oosterbaan M. Culicoides species attracted to horses with and without insect hypersensitivity. Vet J. 2008;178:91-7 pubmed
    ..All of the Culicoides species were most active at sunset, less so at sunrise and very few or no midges were trapped in the afternoon or at night...
  53. Purse B, Falconer D, Sullivan M, Carpenter S, Mellor P, Piertney S, et al. Impacts of climate, host and landscape factors on Culicoides species in Scotland. Med Vet Entomol. 2012;26:168-77 pubmed publisher
    Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) vector a wide variety of internationally important arboviral pathogens of livestock and represent a widespread biting nuisance...