houseflies

Summary

Summary: Flies of the species Musca domestica (family MUSCIDAE), which infest human habitations throughout the world and often act as carriers of pathogenic organisms.

Top Publications

  1. Geden C, Kaufman P. Development of Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) on live house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) pupae and pupae killed by heat shock, irradiation, and cold. Environ Entomol. 2007;36:34-9 pubmed
    ..Killing pupae by heat shock provides a simple and low-cost method for stockpiling high-quality hosts for mass-rearing both of these filth fly biological control agents...
  2. Srinivasan R, Jambulingam P, Gunasekaran K, Boopathidoss P. Tolerance of house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) to dichlorvos (76% EC) an insecticide used for fly control in the tsunami-hit coastal villages of southern India. Acta Trop. 2008;105:187-90 pubmed
  3. Izumi N, Yanagibori R, Shigeno S, Sajiki J. Effects of bisphenol A on the development, growth, and sex ratio of the housefly Musca domestica. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2008;27:1343-53 pubmed publisher
  4. Kristensen M, Jespersen J, Knorr M. Cross-resistance potential of fipronil in Musca domestica. Pest Manag Sci. 2004;60:894-900 pubmed
    The toxicity of fipronil to insecticide-susceptible houseflies and the cross-resistance potential of fipronil were determined for six insecticide-resistant laboratory housefly strains by topical application and feeding bioassay...
  5. Morey R, Khandagle A. Bioefficacy of essential oils of medicinal plants against housefly, Musca domestica L. Parasitol Res. 2012;111:1799-805 pubmed
    ..Pest management strategies for populations of houseflies are needed...
  6. Doud C, Zurek L. Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF:pMV158 survives and proliferates in the house fly digestive tract. J Med Entomol. 2012;49:150-5 pubmed
    ..faecalis, demonstrating that the flies disseminated E. faecalis. Our data support the notion that house flies can act as a bioenhanced vector for bacteria..
  7. Joffe T, Gunning R, Allen G, Kristensen M, Alptekin S, Field L, et al. Investigating the potential of selected natural compounds to increase the potency of pyrethrum against houseflies Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae). Pest Manag Sci. 2012;68:178-84 pubmed publisher
  8. Markussen M, Kristensen M. Spinosad resistance in female Musca domestica L. from a field-derived population. Pest Manag Sci. 2012;68:75-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Constitutive and spinosad-induced expression levels of three cytochrome P450 genes, CYP6A1, CYP6D1 and CYP6D3, previously reported to be involved in insecticide resistance, were examined...
  9. Cançado F, Valério A, Marana S, Barbosa J. The crystal structure of a lysozyme c from housefly Musca domestica, the first structure of a digestive lysozyme. J Struct Biol. 2007;160:83-92 pubmed
    ..These structural elements affecting the pK(a)s of the catalytic residues should contribute to the acidic pH optimum presented by MdL1...
  10. Szczerbina T, Banach Z, Tylko G, Pyza E. Toxic effects of acrylamide on survival, development and haemocytes of Musca domestica. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46:2316-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the housefly's blood cells showed to be sensitive to toxin, which suggests their usefulness to test toxicity of substances present in food products...

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Geden C, Kaufman P. Development of Spalangia cameroni and Muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) on live house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) pupae and pupae killed by heat shock, irradiation, and cold. Environ Entomol. 2007;36:34-9 pubmed
    ..Killing pupae by heat shock provides a simple and low-cost method for stockpiling high-quality hosts for mass-rearing both of these filth fly biological control agents...
  2. Srinivasan R, Jambulingam P, Gunasekaran K, Boopathidoss P. Tolerance of house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) to dichlorvos (76% EC) an insecticide used for fly control in the tsunami-hit coastal villages of southern India. Acta Trop. 2008;105:187-90 pubmed
  3. Izumi N, Yanagibori R, Shigeno S, Sajiki J. Effects of bisphenol A on the development, growth, and sex ratio of the housefly Musca domestica. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2008;27:1343-53 pubmed publisher
  4. Kristensen M, Jespersen J, Knorr M. Cross-resistance potential of fipronil in Musca domestica. Pest Manag Sci. 2004;60:894-900 pubmed
    The toxicity of fipronil to insecticide-susceptible houseflies and the cross-resistance potential of fipronil were determined for six insecticide-resistant laboratory housefly strains by topical application and feeding bioassay...
  5. Morey R, Khandagle A. Bioefficacy of essential oils of medicinal plants against housefly, Musca domestica L. Parasitol Res. 2012;111:1799-805 pubmed
    ..Pest management strategies for populations of houseflies are needed...
  6. Doud C, Zurek L. Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF:pMV158 survives and proliferates in the house fly digestive tract. J Med Entomol. 2012;49:150-5 pubmed
    ..faecalis, demonstrating that the flies disseminated E. faecalis. Our data support the notion that house flies can act as a bioenhanced vector for bacteria..
  7. Joffe T, Gunning R, Allen G, Kristensen M, Alptekin S, Field L, et al. Investigating the potential of selected natural compounds to increase the potency of pyrethrum against houseflies Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae). Pest Manag Sci. 2012;68:178-84 pubmed publisher
  8. Markussen M, Kristensen M. Spinosad resistance in female Musca domestica L. from a field-derived population. Pest Manag Sci. 2012;68:75-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Constitutive and spinosad-induced expression levels of three cytochrome P450 genes, CYP6A1, CYP6D1 and CYP6D3, previously reported to be involved in insecticide resistance, were examined...
  9. Cançado F, Valério A, Marana S, Barbosa J. The crystal structure of a lysozyme c from housefly Musca domestica, the first structure of a digestive lysozyme. J Struct Biol. 2007;160:83-92 pubmed
    ..These structural elements affecting the pK(a)s of the catalytic residues should contribute to the acidic pH optimum presented by MdL1...
  10. Szczerbina T, Banach Z, Tylko G, Pyza E. Toxic effects of acrylamide on survival, development and haemocytes of Musca domestica. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46:2316-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the housefly's blood cells showed to be sensitive to toxin, which suggests their usefulness to test toxicity of substances present in food products...
  11. Ren Q, Zhao X, Wang J. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of a chicken-type lysozyme gene from housefly (Musca domestica). J Genet Genomics. 2009;36:7-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Recombinant MdLys displayed inhibitory activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Together, these results suggest that MdLys may play an important role in the innate immunity of houseflies.
  12. Kristensen M, Huang J, Qiao C, Jespersen J. Variation of Musca domestica L. acetylcholinesterase in Danish housefly populations. Pest Manag Sci. 2006;62:738-45 pubmed
    ..made of toxicological data and AChE activity gathered from 21 field populations and nine laboratory strains of houseflies, Musca domestica L...
  13. Wang Y, Dang X, Zheng X, Wang J, Zhang W. Effect of extracted housefly pupae peptide mixture on chilled pork preservation. J Food Sci. 2010;75:M383-8 pubmed publisher
    ..According to the effect on chilled pork preservation, extracted housefly peptide mixture has a great potential as a food preservative...
  14. Haselton A, Stoffolano J, Nichols R, Yin C. Peptidergic innervation of the crop and the effects of an ingested nonpeptidal agonist on longevity in female Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae). J Med Entomol. 2004;41:684-90 pubmed
    ..domestica. Flies exhibited a dose-dependent mortality; avoidance and subsequent dehydration are probably the cause of the low survivorship at higher Bztc concentrations...
  15. Tang T, Huang D, Zhou C, Li X, Xie Q, Liu F. Molecular cloning and expression patterns of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase and manganese superoxide dismutase in Musca domestica. Gene. 2012;505:211-20 pubmed publisher
    ..domestica under stress. This may provide new insights into the role of the two SOD genes in protecting M. domestica against both stress and bacterial invasion...
  16. Bouamamaa L, Sorlozano A, Laglaoui A, Lebbadi M, Aarab A, Gutierrez J. Antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial strains isolated from Periplaneta americana and Musca domestica in Tangier, Morocco. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2010;4:194-201 pubmed
    ..This study examines Periplaneta americana and Musca domestica collected from the residential areas of six districts in Tangier, Morocco...
  17. Predel R, Russell W, Tichy S, Russell D, Nachman R. Mass spectrometric analysis of putative capa-gene products in Musca domestica and Neobellieria bullata. Peptides. 2003;24:1487-91 pubmed
    ..The species-specific peptide sequences differ remarkably between the related dipteran species. These differences could make it possible to develop peptide-analogs with group- or species-specific efficacy...
  18. Abbas N, Khan H, Shad S. Cross-resistance, genetics, and realized heritability of resistance to fipronil in the house fly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae): a potential vector for disease transmission. Parasitol Res. 2014;113:1343-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Houseflies, Musca domestica (L.), are ubiquitous pests that have the potential to spread a variety of pathogens to humans, poultries, and dairies. Pesticides are commonly used for the management of this pest...
  19. Burton B, Laughlin S. Neural images of pursuit targets in the photoreceptor arrays of male and female houseflies Musca domestica. J Exp Biol. 2003;206:3963-77 pubmed
    Male houseflies use a sex-specific frontal eye region, the lovespot, to detect and pursue mates...
  20. Liu F, Tang T, Sun L, Jose Priya T. Transcriptomic analysis of the housefly (Musca domestica) larva using massively parallel pyrosequencing. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:1927-34 pubmed publisher
    ..As the first attempt on large-scale RNA sequencing of M. domestica, this general picture of the transcriptome can establish a fundamental resource for further research on functional genomics...
  21. Nayduch D, Cho H, Joyner C. Staphylococcus aureus in the house fly: temporospatial fate of bacteria and expression of the antimicrobial peptide defensin. J Med Entomol. 2013;50:171-8 pubmed
    ..The combined effects of excretion, digestion and antimicrobial effectors likely contribute to loss of ingested bacteria. Nonetheless, house flies are relevant vectors for S. aureus up to 2 h PI and environmental reservoirs up to 6 h PI...
  22. Kiriyama K, Nishiwaki H, Nakagawa Y, Nishimura K. Insecticidal activity and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor binding of dinotefuran and its analogues in the housefly, Musca domestica. Pest Manag Sci. 2003;59:1093-100 pubmed
    ..Quantitative analysis of the insecticidal activity of the test compounds with the binding activity measured with [3H]IMI showed that the higher the binding activity, the higher was the insecticidal activity...
  23. Liang Y, Wang J, Zhao X, Du X, Xue J. Molecular cloning and characterization of cecropin from the housefly (Musca domestica), and its expression in Escherichia coli. Dev Comp Immunol. 2006;30:249-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Recombinant Md-Cec exhibited antimicrobial activity against E. coli...
  24. Wratten N, McGregor A, Shaw P, Dover G. Evolutionary and functional analysis of the tailless enhancer in Musca domestica and Drosophila melanogaster. Evol Dev. 2006;8:6-15 pubmed
    ..Therefore, during the rapid evolution of enhancer sequences individual binding sites are continually lost and gained, but the transcriptional output is maintained by compensatory mutations in cis and in trans...
  25. Pyza E, Meinertzhagen I. The regulation of circadian rhythms in the fly's visual system: involvement of FMRFamide-like neuropeptides and their relationship to pigment dispersing factor in Musca domestica and Drosophila melanogaster. Neuropeptides. 2003;37:277-89 pubmed
  26. Wang C, Xia Y, Nie J, Zhou M, Zhang R, Niu L, et al. Musca domestica larva lectin induces apoptosis in BEL-7402 cells through a Ca(2+)/JNK-mediated mitochondrial pathway. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2013;66:319-29 pubmed publisher
    ..According to a comprehensive review of all the evidence, it is concluded that MLL induces apoptosis of BEL-7402 cells through a Ca(2+)/JNK-mediated MPTP pathway...
  27. Zhu F, Liu N. Differential expression of CYP6A5 and CYP6A5v2 in pyrethroid-resistant house flies, Musca domestica. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2008;67:107-19 pubmed publisher
  28. Burton B. Adaptation of single photon responses in photoreceptors of the housefly, Musca domestica: a novel spectral analysis. Vision Res. 2006;46:622-35 pubmed
    ..In the dark exists a 'dark event', which I suggest represents spontaneous activation of G-protein...
  29. Gao J, Scott J. Role of the transcriptional repressor mdGfi-1 in CYP6D1v1-mediated insecticide resistance in the house fly, Musca domestica. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2006;36:387-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Partial sequences of mdGfi-1 (spanning the first intron) from individual houseflies from 11 different strains revealed the presence of 23 alleles...
  30. Holt P, Geden C, Moore R, Gast R. Isolation of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis from houseflies (Musca domestica) found in rooms containing Salmonella serovar Enteritidis-challenged hens. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:6030-5 pubmed
    b>Houseflies (Musca domestica) released into rooms containing hens challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella serovar Enteritidis) rapidly became contaminated with Salmonella serovar Enteritidis...
  31. Hediger M, Burghardt G, Siegenthaler C, Buser N, Hilfiker Kleiner D, Dübendorfer A, et al. Sex determination in Drosophila melanogaster and Musca domestica converges at the level of the terminal regulator doublesex. Dev Genes Evol. 2004;214:29-42 pubmed
    ..These results strongly support a role of Md-dsx as the final regulatory gene in the sex-determining hierarchy of the housefly...
  32. Wasala L, Talley J, DeSilva U, Fletcher J, Wayadande A. Transfer of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to spinach by house flies, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae). Phytopathology. 2013;103:373-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are consistent with the hypothesis of bioenhanced transmission of human pathogens by house flies and suggest that filth flies may affect the microbial safety of fresh produce...
  33. Petridis M, Bagdasarian M, Waldor M, Walker E. Horizontal transfer of Shiga toxin and antibiotic resistance genes among Escherichia coli strains in house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) gut. J Med Entomol. 2006;43:288-95 pubmed
    ..The house fly gut may provide a favorable environment for the evolution and emergence of pathogenic bacterial strains through acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes or virulence factors...
  34. Kumar P, Mishra S, Malik A, Satya S. Repellent, larvicidal and pupicidal properties of essential oils and their formulations against the housefly, Musca domestica. Med Vet Entomol. 2011;25:302-10 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates the effectiveness of EC formulations of selected essential oils in reducing housefly populations in field conditions...
  35. Zhu F, Feng J, Zhang L, Liu N. Characterization of two novel cytochrome P450 genes in insecticide-resistant house-flies. Insect Mol Biol. 2008;17:27-37 pubmed publisher
    ..This evidence suggests the importance of CYP6A36 in detoxification of insecticides and evolution of insecticide resistance in ALHF...
  36. Hamm R, Gao J, Lin G, Scott J. Selective advantage for IIIM males over YM males in cage competition, mating competition, and pupal emergence in Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae). Environ Entomol. 2009;38:499-504 pubmed
    ..The implications of these studies to the distribution of III(M) and Y(M) males in field populations are discussed...
  37. Qian C, Liu Y, Fang Q, Min Li Y, Liu S, Ye G, et al. Venom of the ectoparasitoid, Nasonia vitripennis, influences gene expression in Musca domestica hemocytes. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2013;83:211-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the actions of venom on host gene expression influence host biology in ways that benefit the development and emergence of the next generation of parasitoids. ..
  38. Rossi Y, Canavoso L, Palacios S. Molecular response of Musca domestica L. to Mintostachys verticillata essential oil, (4R)+-pulegone and menthone. Fitoterapia. 2012;83:336-42 pubmed publisher
    ..verticillata EO. Consequently, resistant strains overexpressing P450 genes will be more susceptible to either M. verticillata EO or (4R)(+)-pulegone and menthone...
  39. Kamaraj C, Rajakumar G, Rahuman A, Velayutham K, Bagavan A, Zahir A, et al. Feeding deterrent activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles using Manilkara zapota leaf extract against the house fly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae). Parasitol Res. 2012;111:2439-48 pubmed publisher
    ..domestica. This method is considered as a new approach to control sanitary pest. Therefore, this study provides first report on the feeding deterrent activity of synthesized Ag NPs against housefly...
  40. Wang F, Ai H, Chen X, Lei C. Hepatoprotective effect of a protein-enriched fraction from the maggots (Musca domestica) against CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats. Biotechnol Lett. 2007;29:853-8 pubmed
    ..Hyperplasia of kupffer cells was observed after treatment with PEF (100 and 200 mg/kg). We conclude that PEF is effective in this model of liver damage...
  41. Anderson R, Bell A, Blanford S, Paaijmans K, Thomas M. Comparative growth kinetics and virulence of four different isolates of entomopathogenic fungi in the house fly (Muscadomestica L.). J Invertebr Pathol. 2011;107:179-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that variation in virulence between isolates, species and doses is determined more by quantitative rather than qualitative differences in fungal growth kinetics...
  42. Scott J, Liu N, Kristensen M, Clark A. A case for sequencing the genome of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae). J Med Entomol. 2009;46:175-82 pubmed
    ..The community of researchers investigating Musca domestica are well prepared and highly motivated to apply genomic analyses to their widely varied research programs...
  43. Prompiboon P, Lietze V, Denton J, Geden C, Steenberg T, Boucias D. Musca domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus, a globally distributed insect virus that infects and sterilizes female houseflies. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:994-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, houseflies were collected from various locations and dissected to observe SGH symptoms, and infected gland pairs were ..
  44. Fu P, Wu J, Guo G. Purification and molecular identification of an antifungal peptide from the hemolymph of Musca domestica (housefly). Cell Mol Immunol. 2009;6:245-51 pubmed publisher
    Antibacterial and antifungal peptides found in houseflies (Musca domestica) in large number are indispensable components of its immune defense mechanism...
  45. Nazni W, Seleena B, Lee H, Jeffery J, T Rogayah T, Sofian M. Bacteria fauna from the house fly, Musca domestica (L.). Trop Biomed. 2005;22:225-31 pubmed
    ..Enterobacter sp., Proteus sp., Escherichia sp., Klebsiella sp. and yeast cells were isolated from feaces, vomitus, external surfaces and internal organs of house fly. Newly emerged house fly did not harbour any bacteria...
  46. Sukontason K, Bunchoo M, Khantawa B, Piangjai S, Rongsriyam Y, Sukontason K. Comparison between Musca domestica and Chrysomya megacephala as carriers of bacteria in northern Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2007;38:38-44 pubmed
    ..megacephala was non-fermentative gram-negative bacilli (n=59) followed by coagulase-negative staphylococci (n=54)...
  47. Rossi Y, Palacios S. Fumigant toxicity of Citrus sinensis essential oil on Musca domestica L. adults in the absence and presence of a P450 inhibitor. Acta Trop. 2013;127:33-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In this experiment, an increase in the toxicity of the EO and (4R)(+)-limonene was observed, as well as a lower production of carveol and carvone...
  48. Malik A, Singh N, Satya S. House fly (Musca domestica): a review of control strategies for a challenging pest. J Environ Sci Health B. 2007;42:453-69 pubmed
  49. Kristensen M, Jespersen J. Susceptibility to thiamethoxam of Musca domestica from Danish livestock farms. Pest Manag Sci. 2008;64:126-32 pubmed
    Neonicotinoid baits are currently replacing anticholinesterase baits for control of adult houseflies (Musca domestica L.)...
  50. Gao J, Deacutis J, Scott J. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit Mdalpha6 from Musca domestica is diversified via post-transcriptional modification. Insect Mol Biol. 2007;16:325-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These comparisons indicate that Mdalpha6 is not responsible for spinosad resistance in house flies...
  51. Burghardt G, Hediger M, Siegenthaler C, Moser M, D bendorfer A, Bopp D. The transformer2 gene in Musca domestica is required for selecting and maintaining the female pathway of development. Dev Genes Evol. 2005;215:165-76 pubmed publisher
    ..This function of F and Mdtra2 appears not to be mediated by Mddsx, suggesting that bifurcation of the pathway at this level is a conserved feature in the genetic architecture of Musca and Drosophila...
  52. Meffert L, Hagenbuch K. The genetic architecture of house fly mating behavior. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2005;66:189-213 pubmed
  53. Fetene T, Worku N, Huruy K, Kebede N. Cryptosporidium recovered from Musca domestica, Musca sorbens and mango juice accessed by synanthropic flies in Bahirdar, Ethiopia. Zoonoses Public Health. 2011;58:69-75 pubmed publisher
    ..05) in mango juice samples accessed by filth flies for longer period. Role of filth flies to carry and deposit Cryptosporidium species oocyst for development of food-borne cryptosporidiosis is signified...
  54. Garcia Maruniak A, Abd Alla A, Salem T, Parker A, Lietze V, van Oers M, et al. Two viruses that cause salivary gland hypertrophy in Glossina pallidipes and Musca domestica are related and form a distinct phylogenetic clade. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:334-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Although MdSGHV and GpSGHV are different viruses, their pathology, host range and genome composition indicate that they are related...
  55. Gao J, Deacutis J, Scott J. Characterization of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit gene Mdalpha2 from the house fly, Musca domestica. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2007;64:30-42 pubmed publisher
  56. Cao X, Huo Z, Lu M, Mao D, Zhao Q, Xu C, et al. Purification of lectin from larvae of the fly, Musca domestica, and in vitro anti-tumor activity in MCF-7 cells. J Insect Sci. 2010;10:164 pubmed publisher
    ..4 ± 3.0 vs. 1749.2 ± 6.0, P <0.01). Since MLL-2 induced apoptosis in MCF-7cells the mitochondrial pathway may be the main pathway of antitumor activity...
  57. McGaughey J, Nayduch D. Temporal and spatial fate of GFP-expressing motile and nonmotile Aeromonas hydrophila in the house fly digestive tract. J Med Entomol. 2009;46:123-30 pubmed
    ..Thus, regurgitation may be more significant than fecal transmission in the spread of some house fly transmitted bacterial diseases...
  58. Diclaro J, Cohnstaedt L, Pereira R, Allan S, Koehler P. Behavioral and physiological response of Musca domestica to colored visual targets. J Med Entomol. 2012;49:94-100 pubmed
    ..There is a direct correlation of house fly attractiveness to visual targets and the intensity of electrophysiological response, except for the yellow targets, which repel flies despite of intense electrophysiological response...
  59. White W, McCoy C, Meyer J, Winkle J, Plummer P, Kemper C, et al. Knockdown and mortality comparisons among spinosad-, imidacloprid-, and methomyl-containing baits against susceptible Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) under laboratory conditions. J Econ Entomol. 2007;100:155-63 pubmed
  60. Palacios S, Bertoni A, Rossi Y, Santander R, Urzua A. Efficacy of essential oils from edible plants as insecticides against the house fly, Musca domestica L. Molecules. 2009;14:1938-47 pubmed publisher
    ..2 mg/dm(3)). Dimethyl 2,2-dichlorovinyl phosphate (DDVP) selected as a positive control, showed an LC(50) of 0.5 mg/dm(3). EOs from C. sinensis, C. aurantium, and E. cinerea show promise as natural insecticides against houseflies.
  61. Akhtar M, Hirt H, Zurek L. Horizontal transfer of the tetracycline resistance gene tetM mediated by pCF10 among Enterococcus faecalis in the house fly (Musca domestica L.) alimentary canal. Microb Ecol. 2009;58:509-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results emphasize the importance of this insect as a potential vector of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains...
  62. Barin A, Arabkhazaeli F, Rahbari S, Madani S. The housefly, Musca domestica, as a possible mechanical vector of Newcastle disease virus in the laboratory and field. Med Vet Entomol. 2010;24:88-90 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study 2000 aerial net-captured houseflies were examined for their ability to harbour Newcastle disease virus (NDV)...