muscidae

Summary

Summary: A family of the order DIPTERA with over 700 species. Important species that may be mechanical vectors of disease include Musca domesticus (HOUSEFLIES), Musca autumnalis (face fly), Stomoxys calcitrans (stable fly), Haematobia irritans (horn fly) and Fannia spp.

Top Publications

  1. Cupp M, Cupp E, Navarre C, Wisnewski N, Brandt K, Silver G, et al. Evaluation of a recombinant salivary gland protein (thrombostasin) as a vaccine candidate to disrupt blood-feeding by horn flies. Vaccine. 2004;22:2285-97 pubmed
    ..This demonstration of the impact of disrupting TS action by vaccination provides a novel approach toward control of this veterinary pest and offers a paradigm for limiting blood-feeding in other medically-important insect species...
  2. Temeyer K, Chen A. Identification and characterization of a cDNA encoding the acetylcholinesterase of Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae). DNA Seq. 2007;18:85-91 pubmed
    ..2001. Biochem. J. 359: 175-181, Kozaki et al. 2002. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 37: 213-218), suggesting that this H. irritans AChE2 may be the target site for organophosphate...
  3. Hieu T, Kim S, Lee S, Ahn Y. Repellency to Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) of plant essential oils alone or in combination with Calophyllum inophyllum nut oil. J Med Entomol. 2010;47:575-80 pubmed
    The repellency to female Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) of 21 essential oils (EOs) alone or in combination with Calophyllum inophyllum L. (Clusiaceae) nut oil (tamanu oil) was examined using an exposed human hand bioassay...
  4. Jonsson N, Mayer D. Estimation of the effects of buffalo fly (Haematobia irritans exigua) on the milk production of dairy cattle based on a meta-analysis of literature data. Med Vet Entomol. 1999;13:372-6 pubmed
    Published reports on the effect of buffalo fly Haematobia irritans exigua De Meijere (Diptera: Muscidae) and the closely related horn fly (H...
  5. Scoles G, Broce A, Lysyk T, Palmer G. Relative efficiency of biological transmission of Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) by Dermacentor andersoni (Acari: Ixodidae) compared with mechanical transmission by Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae). J Med Entomol. 2005;42:668-75 pubmed
  6. Mullens B, Peterson N. Relationship between rainfall and stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) abundance on California dairies. J Med Entomol. 2005;42:705-8 pubmed
    ..Degree-day accumulations link the timing of significant (> or = 1.3 cm) late winter or early spring rains to peak adult stable fly activity two generations later in May and early June...
  7. Wijffels G, Hughes S, Gough J, Allen J, Don A, Marshall K, et al. Peritrophins of adult dipteran ectoparasites and their evaluation as vaccine antigens. Int J Parasitol. 1999;29:1363-77 pubmed
    ..When the adult life stages of H.i. exigua or two mosquitoes, A. vigilax and A. aegypti (Linnaeus), were fed on the sera or blood of vaccinated hosts, there were no detrimental effects to any life cycle stages of these Diptera...
  8. Taylor D, Berkebile D. Comparative efficiency of six stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) traps. J Econ Entomol. 2006;99:1415-9 pubmed
    ..Diptera: Muscidae)...
  9. Marçon P, Thomas G, Siegfried B, Campbell J. Susceptibility of stable flies (Diptera:Muscidae) from southeastern Nebraska beef cattle feedlots to selected insecticides and comparison of 3 bioassay techniques. J Econ Entomol. 1997;90:293-8 pubmed

Scientific Experts

More Information

Publications62

  1. Doyle M, Swope B, Hogsette J, Burkhalter K, Savage H, Nasci R. Vector competence of the stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) for West Nile virus. J Med Entomol. 2011;48:656-68 pubmed
    In 2006-2007, stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), were suspected of being enzootic vectors of West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) during a die-off of American white pelicans (Pelecanus ..
  2. Oyarzún M, Quiroz A, Birkett M. Insecticide resistance in the horn fly: alternative control strategies. Med Vet Entomol. 2008;22:188-202 pubmed publisher
    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the most widespread and economically important pests of cattle...
  3. Chung C, Kasten R, Paff S, Van Horn B, Vayssier Taussat M, Boulouis H, et al. Bartonella spp. DNA associated with biting flies from California. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:1311-3 pubmed
    ..11 deer flies (Chrysops spp.), and 11 horse flies (Tabanus spp.) collected on cattle in California. Partial sequencing indicated B. bovis DNA in the horn fly pool and B. henselae type M DNA in one stable fly...
  4. Guerrero F, Dowd S, Nene V, Foil L. Expressed cDNAS from embryonic and larval stages of the horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae). J Med Entomol. 2008;45:686-92 pubmed
    ..Diptera: Muscidae)...
  5. Pitzer J, Kaufman P, Tenbroeck S. Assessing permethrin resistance in the stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) in Florida by using laboratory selections and field evaluations. J Econ Entomol. 2010;103:2258-63 pubmed
    Insecticide resistance in the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae),has been demonstrated previously, but mostly with insecticides that are no longer used, such as the organochlorines...
  6. Dudaniec R, Gardner M, Donnellan S, Kleindorfer S. Genetic variation in the invasive avian parasite, Philornis downsi (Diptera, Muscidae) on the Galápagos archipelago. BMC Ecol. 2008;8:13 pubmed publisher
    ..We also examine variation at the mitochondrial gene CO1 across islands to establish if cryptic species were present...
  7. Hornok S, Földvári G, Elek V, Naranjo V, Farkas R, De La Fuente J. Molecular identification of Anaplasma marginale and rickettsial endosymbionts in blood-sucking flies (Diptera: Tabanidae, Muscidae) and hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae). Vet Parasitol. 2008;154:354-9 pubmed publisher
    ..bovinus in the transmission of A. marginale, and broaden the range of haematophagous arthropods harbouring Midichloria-like bacteria, for the first time in any Dermacentor or Tabanus species...
  8. Johnson G, Panella N, Hale K, Komar N. Detection of West Nile virus in stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) parasitizing juvenile American white pelicans. J Med Entomol. 2010;47:1205-11 pubmed
    Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), an economically important pest of livestock and humans, were observed parasitizing prefledged American white pelicans, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos (Pelecaniformes: Pelecanidae), in ..
  9. Azzolini S, Sasaki S, Campos I, S Torquato R, Juliano M, Tanaka A. The role of HiTI, a serine protease inhibitor from Haematobia irritans irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) in the control of fly and bacterial proteases. Exp Parasitol. 2005;111:30-6 pubmed
    ..The horn fly Haematobia irritans irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) and the tick Boophilus microplus are important hematophagous ectoparasites that cause losses in cattle ..
  10. Torres L, Almazan C, Ayllón N, Galindo R, Rosario Cruz R, Quiroz Romero H, et al. Functional genomics of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758). BMC Genomics. 2011;12:105 pubmed publisher
    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the most important ectoparasites of pastured cattle. Horn flies infestations reduce cattle weight gain and milk production...
  11. Azzolini S, Santos J, Souza A, Torquato R, Hirata I, Andreotti R, et al. Purification, characterization, and cloning of a serine proteinase inhibitor from the ectoparasite Haematobia irritans irritans (Diptera: Muscidae). Exp Parasitol. 2004;106:103-9 pubmed
    ..The translated amino acid sequence of HiTI cDNA confirmed a unique Kunitz-type-domain protein. Our results suggest that HiTI could control some endogenous enzyme, e.g., the H. i. irritans trypsin-like protein...
  12. Perotti M, Lysyk T. Novel growth media for rearing larval horn flies, Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae). J Med Entomol. 2003;40:22-9 pubmed
    ..This rearing system shows promise as a means for conducting standardized bioassays on a meridic diet...
  13. Swist S, Wilkerson M, Wyatt C, Broce A, Kanost M. Modulation of bovine lymphocyte response by salivary gland extracts of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae). J Med Entomol. 2002;39:900-7 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that exposure of cattle to stable fly saliva during blood feeding results in an antibody response to salivary proteins and that the saliva has a potential to modulate T lymphocyte function...
  14. Hogsette J, Carlson D, Nejame A. Development of granular boric acid sugar baits for house flies (Diptera: Muscidae). J Econ Entomol. 2002;95:1110-2 pubmed
    ..Reasons for lack of repellency and potential uses for baits are discussed. Development of efficacious granular baits would allow the presentation of higher levels of boric acid in volumes much smaller than required for liquid baits...
  15. Perotti M, Lysyk T, Kalischuk Tymensen L, Yanke L, Selinger L. Growth and survival of immature Heamatobia irritans (Diptera; Muscidae) is influenced by bacterial isolated from cattle manure and conspecific larvae. J Med Entomol. 2001;38:180-7 pubmed
    ..These groups appeared to best meet the nutritional requirements of larvae and may be used in further experiments to define an artificial rearing media for H. irritans...
  16. Scoles G, Miller J, Foil L. Comparison of the efficiency of biological transmission of Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) by Dermacentor andersoni Stiles (Acari: Ixodidae) with mechanical transmission by the horse fly, Tabanus fuscicostatus Hine (Diptera: Musc. J Med Entomol. 2008;45:109-14 pubmed
  17. Lecuona R, Turica M, Tarocco F, Crespo D. Microbial control of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) with selected strains of Beauveria bassiana. J Med Entomol. 2005;42:332-6 pubmed
    ..Up to 90% mortality was obtained within 15 d of exposure. The results indicate bait formulations of the most virulent and aggressive strain should be further developed and studied...
  18. Broce A, Hogsette J, Paisley S. Winter feeding sites of hay in round bales as major developmental sites of Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) in pastures in spring and summer. J Econ Entomol. 2005;98:2307-12 pubmed
    ..These results support the hypothesis that winter feeding sites of hay in round bales are the main source of stable flies in pastures...
  19. Torr S, Mangwiro T, Hall D. The effects of host physiology on the attraction of tsetse (Diptera: Glossinidae) and Stomoxys (Diptera: Muscidae) to cattle. Bull Entomol Res. 2006;96:71-84 pubmed
    ..The biological and practical implications of these findings are discussed...
  20. Temeyer K, Chen A. Acetylcholinesterase of Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae): cDNA sequence, baculovirus expression, and biochemical properties. Vet Parasitol. 2012;184:92-5 pubmed publisher
  21. Campbell J, Skoda S, Berkebile D, Boxler D, Thomas G, Adams D, et al. Effects of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on weight gains of grazing yearling cattle. J Econ Entomol. 2001;94:780-3 pubmed
    ..In 2 of the 3 yr after the grazing trials were completed, the calves were placed in a feedlot and fed a finishing ration. Compensatory gain did not occur in the feedlot after the stable fly stress was removed...
  22. Taylor D, Moon R, Mark D. Economic impact of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on dairy and beef cattle production. J Med Entomol. 2012;49:198-209 pubmed
    ..Additional research on the effects of stable flies on high-production dairy cows and nursing beef calves is needed to increase the reliability of the estimates...
  23. Salem A, Franc M, Jacquiet P, Bouhsira E, Lienard E. Feeding and breeding aspects of Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) under laboratory conditions. Parasite. 2012;19:309-17 pubmed
    Bionomic aspects of Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) were studied under laboratory conditions. For this reason, laboratory-rearing techniques were optimized at the National Veterinary School of Toulouse...
  24. Marquez J, Cummings M, Krafsur E. Phylogeography of stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) estimated by diversity at ribosomal 16S and cytochrome oxidase I mitochondrial genes. J Med Entomol. 2007;44:998-1008 pubmed
    The blood-feeding cosmopolitan stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera: Muscidae), is thought to disperse rapidly and widely, and earlier studies of allozyme variation were consistent with high vagility in this species...
  25. Mullens B, Reifenrath W, Butler S. Laboratory trials of fatty acids as repellents or antifeedants against houseflies, horn flies and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae). Pest Manag Sci. 2009;65:1360-6 pubmed publisher
  26. Temeyer K, Brake D, Schlechte K. Acetylcholinesterase of Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae): baculovirus expression, biochemical properties, and organophosphate insensitivity of the G262A mutant. J Med Entomol. 2012;49:589-94 pubmed
  27. Keawrayup S, Duvallet G, Sukonthabhirom S, Chareonviriyaphap T. Diversity of Stomoxys spp. (Diptera: Muscidae) and diurnal variations of activity of Stomoxys indicus and S. calcitrans in a farm, in Wang Nam Khiao District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. Parasite. 2012;19:259-65 pubmed
    ..A better understanding of stomoxyine fly behavior, especially the daily flight activity, can assist in prioritization and design of appropriate vector prevention and control strategies...
  28. Oliveira M, Barau J, Junqueira A, Feijão P, Rosa A, Abreu C, et al. Structure and evolution of the mitochondrial genomes of Haematobia irritans and Stomoxys calcitrans: the Muscidae (Diptera: Calyptratae) perspective. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2008;48:850-7 pubmed publisher
    We present the first two mitochondrial genomes of Muscidae dipterans for the species Haematobia irritans (the horn fly) and Stomoxys calcitrans (the stable fly). Typical insect mtDNA features are described, such as a high A+T content (79...
  29. O Brochta D, Atkinson P, Lehane M. Transformation of Stomoxys calcitrans with a Hermes gene vector. Insect Mol Biol. 2000;9:531-8 pubmed
    ..melanogaster should be considered for widespread, constitutive expression. All transgenic lines contained multiple (2-4) integrated Hermes elements. Hermes integration events occurred through a canonical cut-and-paste mechanism...
  30. Sommer C, Vagn Jensen K, Jespersen J. Topical treatment of calves with synthetic pyrethroids: effects on the non-target dung fly Neomyia cornicina (Diptera: Muscidae). Bull Entomol Res. 2001;91:131-7 pubmed
    ..The study strongly indicated that the use of synthetic pyrethroids affected the insect dung fauna and that such use may reduce dung decomposition...
  31. Schofield S, Torr S. A comparison of the feeding behaviour of tsetse and stable flies. Med Vet Entomol. 2002;16:177-85 pubmed
    In Zimbabwe, observations were made of the behaviour of individual stable flies (Stomoxys spp.) (Diptera: Muscidae) and tsetse (Glossina spp...
  32. Guglielmone A, Volpogni M, Scherling N, Cobeñas M, Mangold A, Anziani O, et al. Chlorfenapyr ear tags to control Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) on cattle. Vet Parasitol. 2000;93:77-82 pubmed
    ..The results of this study show that ear tags impregnated with chlorfenapyr are a useful alternative to pyrethroids and organo-phosphate compounds for horn fly control...
  33. Gilles J, David J, Duvallet G. Effects of temperature on the rate of increase of Stomoxys calcitrans and Stomoxys niger niger (Diptera: Muscidae) from La Réunion island. J Med Entomol. 2005;42:959-65 pubmed
    ..calcitrans that breeds more continuously; and 2) S. niger may outnumber S. calcitrans in warm areas, at least when development occurs in media of poor quality...
  34. Tainchum K, Sukonthabhirom S, Duvallet G, Akratanakul P, Muenworn V, Chareonviriyaphap T. Population structure of Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) from nine regions of Thailand. J Econ Entomol. 2010;103:1012-8 pubmed
    ..Diptera: Muscidae) from Thailand. Of the 13 putative loci, nine polymorphic loci were detected...
  35. Guglielmone A, Gimeno E, Idiart J, Fisher W, Volpogni M, Quaino O, et al. Skin lesions and cattle hide damage from Haematobia irritans infestations. Med Vet Entomol. 1999;13:324-9 pubmed
    The horn fly Haematobia irritans L. (Diptera: Muscidae) has recently spread to Argentina and Uruguay and is believed to cause damage to cattle hides...
  36. Renaud A, Savage J, Adamowicz S. DNA barcoding of Northern Nearctic Muscidae (Diptera) reveals high correspondence between morphological and molecular species limits. BMC Ecol. 2012;12:24 pubmed publisher
    ..The major goals of the present work were to: a) conduct the largest species-level barcoding study of the Muscidae to date and characterize the range of genetic divergence values in the northern Nearctic fauna; b) evaluate the ..
  37. de Oliveira M, de Azeredo Espin A, Lessinger A. Evolutionary and structural analysis of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene from Haematobia irritans, Stomoxys calcitrans and Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) mitochondrial DNA. DNA Seq. 2005;16:156-60 pubmed
    ..horn fly, Haematobia irritans, the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans and the house fly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) (Linnaeus). The nucleotide sequence in all species was 1536 bp in size and coded for a 512 amino acid peptide...
  38. Masmeatathip R, Gilles J, Ketavan C, Duvallet G. First survey of seasonal abundance and daily activity of Stomoxys spp. (Diptera: Muscidae) in Kamphaengsaen Campus, Nakornpathom province, Thailand. Parasite. 2006;13:245-50 pubmed
    The seasonal changes and the daily activity of Stomoxyine species (Diptera: Muscidae) were examined, using Vavoua traps, in a dairy and a beef cattle farm in Nakhonpathom province, Thailand during July 2004 to June 2005...
  39. Romero A, Hogsette J, Coronado A. Distribution and abundance of natural parasitoid (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) populations of house flies and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) at the University of Florida Dairy Research Unit. Neotrop Entomol. 2010;39:424-9 pubmed
    ..Spalangia nigroaenea was predominant in July, August, and September. Spalangia endius was most active from October to May with a peak of relative abundance in January...
  40. Patitucci L, Mulieri P, Mariluis J, Schnack J. The population ecology of Muscina stabulans (Fallén) (Diptera: Muscidae), along an urban-rural gradient of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Neotrop Entomol. 2010;39:441-6 pubmed
    ..We caught more specimens in shaded areas. The hourly activity increased toward the afternoon at the three sites. The present work was the first ecological study related to a muscid species in Argentina...
  41. Mochi D, Monteiro A, Machado A, Yoshida L. Efficiency of entomopathogenic fungi in the control of eggs and larvae of the horn fly Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae). Vet Parasitol. 2010;167:62-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Isolate CG195 of I. farinosa increased the mortality of larvae and pupae that hatched from treated eggs and promoted significant total mortality (p<0.05) of the insect at every concentration of conidia...
  42. Liu S, Li A, Witt C, Perez de Leon A. Immunohistological localization of serotonin in the CNS and feeding system of the stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera: Muscidae). Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2011;77:199-219 pubmed publisher
    ..This is tnhe first report describing neuromuscular structures of the stable fly feeding system. The results reported here suggest 5-HT may play a critical role in feeding behaviors of stable fly larvae and adults...
  43. Taylor D, Moon R, Campbell J, Berkebile D, Scholl P, Broce A, et al. Dispersal of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) from larval development sites in a Nebraska landscape. Environ Entomol. 2010;39:1101-10 pubmed publisher
    ..1 km. These results indicate that stable fly adults on cattle in a given area are most likely to have originated from larval development sites within an ? 5 km radius of the subject cattle...
  44. Gilles J, Litrico I, Tillard E, Duvallet G. Genetic structure and gene flow along an altitudinal gradient among two stomoxyine species (Diptera: Muscidae) on La Réunion Island. J Med Entomol. 2007;44:433-9 pubmed
    ..In this study, we determined the population genetic structure for two stomoxyine species (Diptera: Muscidae), Stomoxys calcitrans (L...
  45. Ameri M, Wang X, Wilkerson M, Kanost M, Broce A. An immunoglobulin binding protein (antigen 5) of the stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) salivary gland stimulates bovine immune responses. J Med Entomol. 2008;45:94-101 pubmed
    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is an economically important pest of livestock. Previous studies demonstrated lymphocyte suppression by crude salivary gland extract (SGE) of the stable fly...
  46. Kaufman P, Nunez S, Mann R, Geden C, Scharf M. Nicotinoid and pyrethroid insecticide resistance in houseflies (Diptera: Muscidae) collected from Florida dairies. Pest Manag Sci. 2010;66:290-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Five adult housefly strains from four Florida dairy farms were evaluated for resistance to four insecticides (beta-cyfluthrin, permethrin, imidacloprid and nithiazine)...
  47. Sukontason K, Sukontason K, Piangjai S, Boonchu N, Chaiwong T, Ngern Klun R, et al. Antennal sensilla of some forensically important flies in families Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae and Muscidae. Micron. 2004;35:671-9 pubmed
    ..Chrysomya rufifacies, Chrysomya nigripes and Lucilia cuprina), Sarcophagidae (Parasarcophaga dux) and Muscidae (Musca domestica) were studied using scanning electron microscopy...
  48. Guerrero F, Dowd S, Sun Y, Saldivar L, Wiley G, Macmil S, et al. Microarray analysis of female- and larval-specific gene expression in the horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae). J Med Entomol. 2009;46:257-70 pubmed
  49. Zhang B, McGraw E, Floate K, James P, Jorgensen W, Rothwell J. Wolbachia infection in Australasian and North American populations of Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae). Vet Parasitol. 2009;162:350-3 pubmed publisher
    ..H. i. exigua from Indonesia and horn fly (H. i. irritans) from Canada were also tested. All H. i. exigua samples tested were negative for Wolbachia infection whereas a very strong signal for Wolbachia was obtained from H. i. irritans...
  50. Rochon K, Lysyk T, Selinger L. Retention of Escherichia coli by house fly and stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) during pupal metamorphosis and eclosion. J Med Entomol. 2005;42:397-403 pubmed
    ..coli, whereas stable fly adults probably play a minor role in E. coli spread. However, pupae of both species have potential to act as reservoirs for E. coli...
  51. Dsouli N, Delsuc F, Michaux J, De Stordeur E, Couloux A, Veuille M, et al. Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear data in haematophagous flies support the paraphyly of the genus Stomoxys (Diptera: Muscidae). Infect Genet Evol. 2011;11:663-70 pubmed publisher
    The genus Stomoxys Geoffroy (Diptera; Muscidae) contains species of parasitic flies that are of medical and economic importance...
  52. Geden C, Devine G. Pyriproxyfen and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae): effects of direct exposure and autodissemination to larval habitats. J Med Entomol. 2012;49:606-13 pubmed
    ..Intermittent contact with treated fabric over 2 d reduced adult emergence by 63-76%...
  53. Clement S, Hellier B, Elberson L, Staska R, Evans M. Flies (Diptera: Muscidae: Calliphoridae) are efficient pollinators of Allium ampeloprasum L. (Alliaceae) in field cages. J Econ Entomol. 2007;100:131-5 pubmed
    ..Diptera: Muscidae), and Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae), and different densities of each fly species, ..