tenebrio

Summary

Summary: A genus of beetles which infests grain products. Its larva is called mealworm.

Top Publications

  1. Hinton A, Hammock B. Juvenile hormone esterase (JHE) from Tenebrio molitor: full-length cDNA sequence, in vitro expression, and characterization of the recombinant protein. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2003;33:477-87 pubmed
    ..In Tenebrio molitor, JHE has been previously purified from pupae and a partial cDNA was amplified by RT-PCR using fat body ..
  2. Rondot I, Quennedey B, Delachambre J. Structure, organization and expression of two clustered cuticle protein genes during the metamorphosis of an insect, Tenebrio molitor. Eur J Biochem. 1998;254:304-12 pubmed
    A 4-kb DNA segment of Tenebrio molitor (Insecta, Coleoptera) genomic DNA containing two larval-pupal cuticular genes has been cloned and sequenced...
  3. Vinokurov K, Elpidina E, Oppert B, Prabhakar S, Zhuzhikov D, Dunaevsky Y, et al. Diversity of digestive proteinases in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2006;145:126-37 pubmed
    The spectrum of Tenebrio molitor larval digestive proteinases was studied in the context of the spatial organization of protein digestion in the midgut. The pH of midgut contents increased from 5.2-5.6 to 7.8-8...
  4. Barnes A, Siva Jothy M. Density-dependent prophylaxis in the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): cuticular melanization is an indicator of investment in immunity. Proc Biol Sci. 2000;267:177-82 pubmed
    ..of a study of density-dependent polyphenism in pathogen resistance and immune function in the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor...
  5. Roh K, Kim C, Lee H, Kwon H, Park J, Ryu J, et al. Proteolytic cascade for the activation of the insect toll pathway induced by the fungal cell wall component. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:19474-81 pubmed publisher
    ..three serine proteases that are required for Toll activation by beta-1,3-glucan in the larvae of a large beetle, Tenebrio molitor...
  6. Zhu J, Yang P, Zhang Z, Wu G, Yang B. Transcriptomic immune response of Tenebrio molitor pupae to parasitization by Scleroderma guani. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54411 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to gain insight into the immune response of Tenebrio molitor to parasitization by Scleroderma guani, the transcriptome of T...
  7. Jiang R, Kim E, Gong J, Kwon H, Kim C, Ryu K, et al. Three pairs of protease-serpin complexes cooperatively regulate the insect innate immune responses. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:35652-8 pubmed publisher
    ..activation mechanisms of three serine protease-mediated Toll and melanin synthesis cascades in a large beetle, Tenebrio molitor. Here, we purified three novel serpins (SPN40, SPN55, and SPN48) from the hemolymph of T. molitor...
  8. Armitage S, Siva Jothy M. Immune function responds to selection for cuticular colour in Tenebrio molitor. Heredity (Edinb). 2005;94:650-6 pubmed
    Cuticular colour in the mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor) is a quantitative trait, varying from tan to black...
  9. Chae J, Kurokawa K, So Y, Hwang H, Kim M, Park J, et al. Purification and characterization of tenecin 4, a new anti-Gram-negative bacterial peptide, from the beetle Tenebrio molitor. Dev Comp Immunol. 2012;36:540-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we purified a new 14-kDa AMP, named tenecin 4, from the larval hemolymph of the beetle Tenebrio molitor...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Yu Y, Park J, Kwon H, Hwang H, Jang I, Masuda A, et al. Diversity of innate immune recognition mechanism for bacterial polymeric meso-diaminopimelic acid-type peptidoglycan in insects. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:32937-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently we determined the activation mechanism of a Toll signaling pathway biochemically using a large beetle, Tenebrio molitor...
  2. Valigurová A, Hofmannová L, Koudela B, Vavra J. An ultrastructural comparison of the attachment sites between Gregarina steini and Cryptosporidium muris. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2007;54:495-510 pubmed
    Early developmental stages of Gregarina steini Berndt, 1902 from the intestine of Tenebrio molitor larvae were studied by transmission electron microscopy...
  3. Czarniewska E, Mrówczyńska L, Kuczer M, Rosinski G. The pro-apoptotic action of the peptide hormone Neb-colloostatin on insect haemocytes. J Exp Biol. 2012;215:4308-13 pubmed publisher
    ..that upon injection of picomolar and nanomolar doses, this peptide exerts a pro-apoptotic action on haemocytes of Tenebrio molitor adults, as visualized by changes in morphology and viability...
  4. Armitage S, Thompson J, Rolff J, Siva Jothy M. Examining costs of induced and constitutive immune investment in Tenebrio molitor. J Evol Biol. 2003;16:1038-44 pubmed
    ..Using the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, as a model we investigated two aspects of the costs of innate immunity...
  5. Ferreira A, Terra W, Ferreira C. Characterization of a beta-glycosidase highly active on disaccharides and of a beta-galactosidase from Tenebrio molitor midgut lumen. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2003;33:253-65 pubmed
    The midgut of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae has four beta-glycosidases. The properties of two of these enzymes (betaGly1 and betaGly2) have been described elsewhere...
  6. Marshall C, Daley M, Graham L, Sykes B, Davies P. Identification of the ice-binding face of antifreeze protein from Tenebrio molitor. FEBS Lett. 2002;529:261-7 pubmed
    The beetle Tenebrio molitor produces several isoforms of a highly disulfide-bonded beta-helical antifreeze protein with one surface comprised of an array of Thr residues that putatively interacts with ice...
  7. Ferreira A, Cristofoletti P, Lorenzini D, Guerra L, Paiva P, Briones M, et al. Identification of midgut microvillar proteins from Tenebrio molitor and Spodoptera frugiperda by cDNA library screenings with antibodies. J Insect Physiol. 2007;53:1112-24 pubmed
    ..For this, cytoskeleton-free midgut microvillar membrane from Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera) and Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera) were used to raise antibodies...
  8. Vinokurov K, Elpidina E, Oppert B, Prabhakar S, Zhuzhikov D, Dunaevsky Y, et al. Fractionation of digestive proteinases from Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae and role in protein digestion. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2006;145:138-46 pubmed
    b>Tenebrio molitor larval digestive proteinases were purified and characterized by gel filtration chromatography combined with activity electrophoresis...
  9. Sadd B, Holman L, Armitage H, Lock F, Marland R, Siva Jothy M. Modulation of sexual signalling by immune challenged male mealworm beetles (Tenebrio molitor, L.): evidence for terminal investment and dishonesty. J Evol Biol. 2006;19:321-5 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that immune challenged males of the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, increased their investment in epigamic pheromone signals: these males became significantly more ..
  10. Elpidina E, Tsybina T, Dunaevsky Y, Belozersky M, Zhuzhikov D, Oppert B. A chymotrypsin-like proteinase from the midgut of Tenebrio molitor larvae. Biochimie. 2005;87:771-9 pubmed
    A chymotrypsin-like proteinase was isolated from the posterior midgut of larvae of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, by ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography...
  11. Wiehart U, Klein G, Steels P, Nicolson S, Van Kerkhove E. K(+) transport in Malpighian tubules of Tenebrio molitor L: is a K(ATP) channel involved?. J Exp Biol. 2003;206:959-65 pubmed
    The presence of ATP-regulated K(+) (K(ATP)) channels in Tenebrio molitor Malpighian tubules was investigated by examining the effect of glibenclamide on both fluid secretion and basolateral membrane potentials (V(bl))...
  12. Noh J, Patnaik B, Tindwa H, Seo G, Kim D, Patnaik H, et al. Genomic organization, sequence characterization and expression analysis of Tenebrio molitor apolipophorin-III in response to an intracellular pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes. Gene. 2014;534:204-17 pubmed publisher
    ..We cloned full-length cDNA encoding putative apoLp-III from larvae of the coleopteran beetle, Tenebrio molitor (TmapoLp-III), by identification of clones corresponding to the partial sequence of TmapoLp-III, ..
  13. Pölkki M, Krams I, Kangassalo K, Rantala M. Inbreeding affects sexual signalling in males but not females of Tenebrio molitor. Biol Lett. 2012;8:423-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we tested whether inbreeding reduces the attractiveness of sexual signalling in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, by testing the preferences for odours of inbred and outbred (control) individuals of the opposite sex...
  14. Morales Ramos J, Rojas M, Shapiro Ilan D, Tedders W. Self-selection of two diet components by Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae and its impact on fitness. Environ Entomol. 2011;40:1285-94 pubmed publisher
    We studied the ability of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to self-select optimal ratios of two dietary components to approach nutritional balance and maximum fitness...
  15. Oppert B, Dowd S, Bouffard P, Li L, Conesa A, Lorenzen M, et al. Transcriptome profiling of the intoxication response of Tenebrio molitor larvae to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa protoxin. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34624 pubmed publisher
    ..insight into the Bt intoxication process in Coleoptera, we performed RNA-Seq on cDNA generated from the guts of Tenebrio molitor larvae that consumed either a control diet or a diet containing Cry3Aa protoxin...
  16. Zúñiga Navarrete F, Gomez I, Peña G, Bravo A, Soberon M. A Tenebrio molitor GPI-anchored alkaline phosphatase is involved in binding of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa to brush border membrane vesicles. Peptides. 2013;41:81-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment of Tenebrio molitor brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) with phospholipase C that cleaves out GPI-anchored proteins from ..
  17. Bogolyubov D, Parfenov V. Immunogold localization of RNA polymerase II and pre-mRNA splicing factors in Tenebrio molitor oocyte nuclei with special emphasis on karyosphere development. Tissue Cell. 2001;33:549-61 pubmed
    ..immunomorphological characteristics of the developing karyosphere and extrachromosomal nuclear bodies (NBs) in Tenebrio molitor oocytes are presented...
  18. Lee K, Hong S, Oh J. Synthesis and structure-function study about tenecin 1, an antibacterial protein from larvae of Tenebrio molitor. FEBS Lett. 1998;439:41-5 pubmed
    Tenecin 1, an inducible antibacterial protein secreted in the larvae of Tenebrio molitor, has a long N-terminal loop and common structural feature of insect defensin family corresponding to cysteine stabilized alpha/beta motif...
  19. Qin W, Walker V. Tenebrio molitor antifreeze protein gene identification and regulation. Gene. 2006;367:142-9 pubmed
    The yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, is a freeze susceptible, stored product pest. Its winter survival is facilitated by the accumulation of antifreeze proteins (AFPs), encoded by a small gene family...
  20. Genta F, Bragatto I, Terra W, Ferreira C. Purification, characterization and sequencing of the major beta-1,3-glucanase from the midgut of Tenebrio molitor larvae. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2009;39:861-74 pubmed publisher
    The major beta-1,3-glucanase from Tenebrio molitor (TLam) was purified to homogeneity (yield, 6%; enrichment, 113 fold; specific activity, 4.4 U/mg). TLam has a molecular weight of 50 kDa and a pH optimum of 6...
  21. Graham L, Tang W, Baust J, Liou Y, Reid T, Davies P. Characterization and cloning of a Tenebrio molitor hemolymph protein with sequence similarity to insect odorant-binding proteins. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2001;31:691-702 pubmed
    The yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, produces a number of moderately abundant low molecular weight hemolymph proteins ( approximately 12 kDa) which behave in a similar manner during purification and share antigenic epitopes...
  22. Lemoine A, Mathelin J, Braquart Varnier C, Everaerts C, Delachambre J. A functional analysis of ACP-20, an adult-specific cuticular protein gene from the beetle Tenebrio: role of an intronic sequence in transcriptional activation during the late metamorphic period. Insect Mol Biol. 2004;13:481-93 pubmed
    A gene encoding the adult cuticular protein ACP-20 was isolated in Tenebrio. It consists of three exons interspersed by two introns, intron 1 interrupting the signal peptide...
  23. Haine E, Pollitt L, Moret Y, Siva Jothy M, Rolff J. Temporal patterns in immune responses to a range of microbial insults (Tenebrio molitor). J Insect Physiol. 2008;54:1090-7 pubmed publisher
    ..the magnitude and temporal variation in phenoloxidase and antimicrobial activity in the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor in response to a number of different synthetic and real immune elicitors...
  24. Wasielewski O, Skonieczna M. Pleiotropic effects of the neuropeptides CCAP and myosuppressin in the beetle, Tenebrio molitor L. J Comp Physiol B. 2008;178:877-85 pubmed publisher
    ..and leucomyosuppressin (Lem-MS; pQDVDHVFLRFa) were studied in heterologous bioassays in the larvae and adults of Tenebrio molitor...
  25. Valigurová A, Michalková V, Koudela B. Eugregarine trophozoite detachment from the host epithelium via epimerite retraction: fiction or fact?. Int J Parasitol. 2009;39:1235-42 pubmed publisher
    ..detachment from the host epithelium were studied in Gregarina polymorpha parasitising the intestine of Tenebrio molitor larvae...
  26. Kan H, Kim C, Kwon H, Park J, Roh K, Lee H, et al. Molecular control of phenoloxidase-induced melanin synthesis in an insect. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:25316-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we provide biochemical evidence that the Tenebrio molitor Spätzle-processing enzyme converts both the 79-kDa Tenebrio prophenoloxidase and Tenebrio clip-domain ..
  27. Cristofoletti P, Ribeiro A, Terra W. The cathepsin L-like proteinases from the midgut of Tenebrio molitor larvae: sequence, properties, immunocytochemical localization and function. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2005;35:883-901 pubmed
    ..for five procathepsin L-like proteinases (pCALs) were cloned and sequenced from a cDNA library prepared from Tenebrio molitor larval midguts: pCAL1a (with the isoforms pCAL1b and pCAL1c), pCAL2, and pCAL3...
  28. Marciniak P, Grodecki S, Konopińska D, Rosinski G. Structure-activity relationships for the cardiotropic action of the Led-NPF-I peptide in the beetles Tenebrio molitor and Zophobas atratus. J Pept Sci. 2008;14:329-34 pubmed
    ..and a series of ten analogues on the heart contractile activity of Tenebrio molitor and Zophobas atratus, and the structure-activity relationships for cardioactive action of Led-NPF-I were ..
  29. Allen J, Clusella Trullas S, Chown S. The effects of acclimation and rates of temperature change on critical thermal limits in Tenebrio molitor (Tenebrionidae) and Cyrtobagous salviniae (Curculionidae). J Insect Physiol. 2012;58:669-78 pubmed publisher
    ..minima (CT(min)), as well as the time course of the acclimation response and its reversal in two beetle species, Tenebrio molitor and Cyrtobagous salviniae. Increasing rates of temperature change had opposite effects on T...
  30. Kostaropoulos I, Papadopoulos A, Metaxakis A, Boukouvala E, Papadopoulou Mourkidou E. The role of glutathione S-transferases in the detoxification of some organophosphorus insecticides in larvae and pupae of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Pest Manag Sci. 2001;57:501-8 pubmed
    ..The studies were carried out on the larvae and pupae of the coleopteran Tenebrio molitor L, which exhibit varying natural levels of GST activity...
  31. Graham L, Walker V, Davies P. Developmental and environmental regulation of antifreeze proteins in the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor. Eur J Biochem. 2000;267:6452-8 pubmed
    The yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, contains a family of small Cys-rich and Thr-rich thermal hysteresis proteins that depress the hemolymph freezing point below the melting point by as much as 5...
  32. Wegerhoff R. GABA and serotonin immunoreactivity during postembryonic brain development in the beetle Tenebrio molitor. Microsc Res Tech. 1999;45:154-64 pubmed
    Analysis of the serotonin immunoreactive neurons in the central brain of the beetle Tenebrio molitor during postembryonic development shows that the basic structural characteristics of larval brain resemble those of the adult...
  33. Genta F, Dillon R, Terra W, Ferreira C. Potential role for gut microbiota in cell wall digestion and glucoside detoxification in Tenebrio molitor larvae. J Insect Physiol. 2006;52:593-601 pubmed
    b>Tenebrio molitor larvae were successfully reared free of cultivatable gut lumen bacteria, yeasts and fungi using two approaches; aseptic rearing from surface sterilized eggs and by feeding larvae with antibiotic-containing food...
  34. Papaefthimiou C, Zafeiridou G, Topoglidi A, Chaleplis G, Zografou S, Theophilidis G. Triazines facilitate neurotransmitter release of synaptic terminals located in hearts of frog (Rana ridibunda) and honeybee (Apis mellifera) and in the ventral nerve cord of a beetle (Tenebrio molitor). Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2003;135C:315-30 pubmed
    ..Rana ridibunda, the heart of the honeybee, Apis mellifera macedonica, and the ventral nerve cord of the beetle, Tenebrio molitor...
  35. Wiehart U, Nicolson S, Eigenheer R, Schooley D. Antagonistic control of fluid secretion by the Malpighian tubules of Tenebrio molitor: effects of diuretic and antidiuretic peptides and their second messengers. J Exp Biol. 2002;205:493-501 pubmed
    Fluid secretion by insect Malpighian tubules is controlled by haemolymph-borne factors. The mealworm Tenebrio molitor provides the first known example of antagonistic interactions between endogenous neuropeptides acting on Malpighian ..
  36. Fabrick J, Oppert C, Lorenzen M, Morris K, Oppert B, Jurat Fuentes J. A novel Tenebrio molitor cadherin is a functional receptor for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa toxin. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:18401-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The Cry3Aa receptor cadherin was cloned from Tenebrio molitor larval midgut mRNA, and the predicted protein, TmCad1, has domain structure and a putative toxin binding ..
  37. Gao Y, Jurat Fuentes J, Oppert B, Fabrick J, Liu C, Gao J, et al. Increased toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa against Crioceris quatuordecimpunctata, Phaedon brassicae and Colaphellus bowringi by a Tenebrio molitor cadherin fragment. Pest Manag Sci. 2011;67:1076-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the reported increase in Bt toxin oligomerization by a polypeptide from the Cry3Aa receptor cadherin in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), it was hypothesized that this cadherin peptide, rTmCad1p, would enhance ..
  38. Mouillet J, Bousquet F, Sedano N, Alabouvette J, Nicolai M, Zelus D, et al. Cloning and characterization of new orphan nuclear receptors and their developmental profiles during Tenebrio metamorphosis. Eur J Biochem. 1999;265:972-81 pubmed
    ..corresponding to a part of the DNA-binding domain of different hormone nuclear receptors were isolated from Tenebrio molitor mRNAs...
  39. Celik Y, Graham L, Mok Y, Bar M, Davies P, Braslavsky I. Superheating of ice crystals in antifreeze protein solutions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:5423-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The present findings clearly show that AFPs adsorb to ice surfaces as part of their mechanism of action, and this absorption leads to protection of ice against melting as well as freezing...
  40. Furuya K, Schegg K, Wang H, King D, Schooley D. Isolation and identification of a diuretic hormone from the mealworm Tenebrio molitor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:12323-7 pubmed
    A diuretic hormone of unusual structure was isolated from extracts of whole heads of the mealworm Tenebrio molitor. The hormone is a 37-aa peptide of 4371 Da, with the sequence SPTISITAPIDVLRKTWEQERARKQMVKNREFLNSLN...
  41. Yaginuma T, Mizuno T, Mizuno C, Ikeda M, Wada T, Hattori K, et al. Trehalase in the spermatophore from the bean-shaped accessory gland of the male mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor: purification, kinetic properties and localization of the enzyme. J Comp Physiol B. 1996;166:1-10 pubmed
    Trehalase from the bean-shaped accessory glands of the male mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, was purified by acid treatment, with subsequent chromatography on columns of DEAE-cellulofine and Sephacryl S-300...
  42. Prokkola J, Roff D, Karkkainen T, Krams I, Rantala M. Genetic and phenotypic relationships between immune defense, melanism and life-history traits at different temperatures and sexes in Tenebrio molitor. Heredity (Edinb). 2013;111:89-96 pubmed publisher
    ..innate immune defense, individual development time and body size were studied in the mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor) using three different temperatures with a half-sib breeding design...
  43. Meireles E, Carneiro C, DaMatta R, Samuels R, Silva C. Digestion of starch granules from maize, potato and wheat by larvae of the the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor and the Mexican bean weevil, Zabrotes subfasciatus. J Insect Sci. 2009;9:43 pubmed publisher
    ..granules from different sources following exposure in vivo and in vitro to gut alpha-amylases isolated from Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Zabrotes subfasciatus Boheman (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)...
  44. Wasielewski O, Rosinski G. Gonadoinhibitory effects of Neb-colloostatin and Neb-TMOF on ovarian development in the mealworm, Tenebrio molitor L. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2007;64:131-41 pubmed
    ..SIVPLGLPVPIGPIVVGPR) and Neb-TMOF (NPTNLH) from Neobellieria bullata was studied in female mealworm Tenebrio molitor...
  45. Zhao M, Söderhäll I, Park J, Ma Y, Osaki T, Ha N, et al. A novel 43-kDa protein as a negative regulatory component of phenoloxidase-induced melanin synthesis. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:24744-51 pubmed
    ..Here, we report the purification and cloning of a cDNA of a novel 43-kDa protein, from the meal-worm Tenebrio molitor, which functions as a melanization-inhibiting protein (MIP)...
  46. Vacha M, Soukopová H. Magnetic orientation in the mealworm beetle Tenebrio and the effect of light. J Exp Biol. 2004;207:1241-8 pubmed
    ..One example of a light-independent mechanism frequently cited is the magnetic compass of the mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor)...
  47. George D, Sparagano O, Port G, Okello E, Shiel R, Guy J. Repellence of plant essential oils to Dermanyssus gallinae and toxicity to the non-target invertebrate Tenebrio molitor. Vet Parasitol. 2009;162:129-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Experiments were also undertaken to assess the toxicity of these products to mealworm beetles (Tenebrio molitor L.), a non-target invertebrate typical of poultry production systems...
  48. Andersen S, Roepstorff P. Aspects of cuticular sclerotization in the locust, Scistocerca gregaria, and the beetle, Tenebrio molitor. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2007;37:223-34 pubmed
    ..during the first 24h of sclerotization in adult locusts, Schistocerca gregaria, and in larval and adult beetles, Tenebrio molitor, as well as the increase in beta-alanine amino groups in Tenebrio cuticle...
  49. Genta F, Blanes L, Cristofoletti P, do Lago C, Terra W, Ferreira C. Purification, characterization and molecular cloning of the major chitinase from Tenebrio molitor larval midgut. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2006;36:789-800 pubmed
    ..The special features of TmChi probably result from its adaptation to digest chitin-rich food without damaging the peritrophic membrane...
  50. Ferreira A, Marana S, Terra W, Ferreira C. Purification, molecular cloning, and properties of a beta-glycosidase isolated from midgut lumen of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera) larvae. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2001;31:1065-76 pubmed
    Two beta-glycosidases (M(r) 59k) were purified from midgut contents of larvae of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)...
  51. Carazo P, Font E, Forteza Behrendt E, Desfilis E. Quantity discrimination in Tenebrio molitor: evidence of numerosity discrimination in an invertebrate?. Anim Cogn. 2009;12:463-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the existence of quantity discrimination in an insect species (Tenebrio molitor) by using a spontaneous two-choice procedure in which males were exposed to substrates bearing odours ..
  52. Kim C, Kim S, Kan H, Kwon H, Roh K, Jiang R, et al. A three-step proteolytic cascade mediates the activation of the peptidoglycan-induced toll pathway in an insect. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:7599-607 pubmed publisher
    ..upstream serine protease of SPE that we named SAE, SPE-activating enzyme, from the hemolymph of a large beetle, Tenebrio molitor larvae...
  53. Lee K, Zhang R, Kim M, Park J, Park H, Kawabata S, et al. A zymogen form of masquerade-like serine proteinase homologue is cleaved during pro-phenoloxidase activation by Ca2+ in coleopteran and Tenebrio molitor larvae. Eur J Biochem. 2002;269:4375-83 pubmed
    ..the insect pro-phenoloxidase (pro-PO) system, we purified a 45-kDa protein to homogeneity from the hemolymph of Tenebrio molitor (mealworm) larvae, and cloned its cDNA...