isoptera

Summary

Summary: An order of insects, restricted mostly to the tropics, containing at least eight families. A few species occur in temperate regions of North America.

Top Publications

  1. Li H, Fujisaki I, Su N. Predicting habitat suitability of Coptotermes gestroi (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) with species distribution models. J Econ Entomol. 2013;106:311-21 pubmed
    ..gestroi is high. We speculate that continuous urbanization and increasing human population will increase its introduction frequency and cause further extension in fast developing tropical and subtropical countries. ..
  2. Yanagawa A, Yokohari F, Shimizu S. The role of antennae in removing entomopathogenic fungi from cuticle of the termite, Coptotermes formosanus. J Insect Sci. 2009;9:6 pubmed publisher
    Our previous research has shown that the termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), protects itself from entomopathogenic fungi by mutual grooming behavior...
  3. Chouvenc T, Efstathion C, Elliott M, Su N. Resource competition between two fungal parasites in subterranean termites. Naturwissenschaften. 2012;99:949-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results also suggest that the occurrence of opportunistic parasites such as A. nomius in collapsing termite laboratory colonies is the consequence of a previous stress, not the cause of the stress. ..
  4. Nimchua T, Thongaram T, Uengwetwanit T, Pongpattanakitshote S, Eurwilaichitr L. Metagenomic analysis of novel lignocellulose-degrading enzymes from higher termite guts inhabiting microbes. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;22:462-9 pubmed
  5. Hochmair H, Scheffrahn R. Spatial association of marine dockage with land-borne infestations of invasive termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae: Coptotermes) in urban south Florida. J Econ Entomol. 2010;103:1338-46 pubmed
    ..termites, the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, and Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), were introduced to and dispersed throughout South Florida by sailboats and yachts...
  6. Avulova S, Rosengaus R. Losing the battle against fungal infection: suppression of termite immune defenses during mycosis. J Insect Physiol. 2011;57:966-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Hemocyte counts of infected males and females were affected to the same extent. Hence, M. anisopliae overtakes the cellular immune responses of Z. angusticollis mainly by destroying the host's most abundant hemocyte types. ..
  7. Gile G, James E, Scheffrahn R, Carpenter K, Harper J, Keeling P. Molecular and morphological analysis of the family Calonymphidae with a description of Calonympha chia sp. nov., Snyderella kirbyi sp. nov., Snyderella swezyae sp. nov. and Snyderella yamini sp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2011;61:2547-58 pubmed publisher
  8. Nuss A, Forschler B, Crim J, TeBrugge V, Pohl J, Brown M. Molecular characterization of neuropeptide F from the eastern subterranean termite Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Peptides. 2010;31:419-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analysis of invertebrate NPF sequences reveals two separate groupings, with Ref NPF occurring within a clade composed exclusively of arthropods. ..
  9. Korb J, Hoffmann K, Hartfelder K. Molting dynamics and juvenile hormone titer profiles in the nymphal stages of a lower termite, Cryptotermes secundus (Kalotermitidae)--signatures of developmental plasticity. J Insect Physiol. 2012;58:376-83 pubmed publisher

More Information

Publications89

  1. Luchetti A, Mantovani B. Talua SINE biology in the genome of the Reticulitermes subterranean termites (Isoptera, Rhinotermitidae). J Mol Evol. 2009;69:589-600 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present survey, Talua has been found widespread in the Isoptera order...
  2. Martins C, Fontes L, Bueno O, Martins V. Coptotermes gestroi (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in Brazil: possible origins inferred by mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II gene sequences. Genome. 2010;53:651-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Three new localities are reported here, considerably enlarging the distribution of C. gestroi in Brazil: Campo Grande (state of Mato Grosso do Sul), Itajaí (state of Santa Catarina), and Porto Alegre (state of Rio Grande do Sul). ..
  3. Carpenter K, Chow L, Keeling P. Morphology, phylogeny, and diversity of Trichonympha (Parabasalia: Hypermastigida) of the wood-feeding cockroach Cryptocercus punctulatus. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2009;56:305-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The monophyly of symbiotic bacteria of Trichonympha raises the intriguing possibility of three-way co-speciation among bacteria, Trichonympha, and insect hosts. ..
  4. Yanagawa A, Fujiwara Tsujii N, Akino T, Yoshimura T, Yanagawa T, Shimizu S. Musty odor of entomopathogens enhances disease-prevention behaviors in the termite Coptotermes formosanus. J Invertebr Pathol. 2011;108:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This indicated that the fungal odor triggered these behavioral responses. While some components of the fungal odor were found in all of the entomopathogenic fungi tested, the odor profiles differed among the isolates. ..
  5. Husseneder C, McGregor C, Lang R, Collier R, Delatte J. Transcriptome profiling of female alates and egg-laying queens of the Formosan subterranean termite. Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics. 2012;7:14-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Vice versa, virgins had higher expression than queens of genes related to respiration, probably due to recent flight activity, and several genes of unknown function. ..
  6. Tarver M, Zhou X, Scharf M. Socio-environmental and endocrine influences on developmental and caste-regulatory gene expression in the eusocial termite Reticulitermes flavipes. BMC Mol Biol. 2010;11:28 pubmed publisher
  7. Desai M, Brune A. Bacteroidales ectosymbionts of gut flagellates shape the nitrogen-fixing community in dry-wood termites. ISME J. 2012;6:1302-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that the diazotrophic nature of 'Armantifilum devescovinae' has an important role in the nitrogen metabolism of dry-wood termites and is the driving force of co-evolution with its flagellate host. ..
  8. Meepagala K, Osbrink W, Burandt C, Lax A, Duke S. Natural-product-based chromenes as a novel class of potential termiticides. Pest Manag Sci. 2011;67:1446-50 pubmed publisher
    ..the termite infestations in the United States, the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), is considered to be the most devastating termite pest...
  9. Matson E, Zhang X, Leadbetter J. Selenium controls transcription of paralogous formate dehydrogenase genes in the termite gut acetogen, Treponema primitia. Environ Microbiol. 2010;12:2245-58 pubmed publisher
    ..The features and regulation of these FDH genes are an indication that T. primitia may experience dynamic selenium availability in its H(2)-rich gut environment. ..
  10. Ballor N, Paulsen I, Leadbetter J. Genomic analysis reveals multiple [FeFe] hydrogenases and hydrogen sensors encoded by treponemes from the H(2)-rich termite gut. Microb Ecol. 2012;63:282-94 pubmed publisher
  11. Liu N, Yan X, Zhang M, Xie L, Wang Q, Huang Y, et al. Microbiome of fungus-growing termites: a new reservoir for lignocellulase genes. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:48-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Xyl6E7 was a highly active, substrate-specific, and endo-acting alkaline xylanase with considerably wide pH tolerance and stability but extremely low thermostability. ..
  12. Ballor N, Leadbetter J. Analysis of extensive [FeFe] hydrogenase gene diversity within the gut microbiota of insects representing five families of Dictyoptera. Microb Ecol. 2012;63:586-95 pubmed publisher
  13. Engelbrektson A, Kunin V, Wrighton K, Zvenigorodsky N, Chen F, Ochman H, et al. Experimental factors affecting PCR-based estimates of microbial species richness and evenness. ISME J. 2010;4:642-7 pubmed publisher
    ..However, estimates of species evenness are consistent among different primer pairs targeting the same region. These results highlight the importance of experimental methodology when comparing diversity estimates across communities. ..
  14. Ballor N, Leadbetter J. Patterns of [FeFe] hydrogenase diversity in the gut microbial communities of lignocellulose-feeding higher termites. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:5368-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These results accentuate the physiological importance of hydrogen to termite gut ecosystems. ..
  15. Toga K, Hojo M, Miura T, Maekawa K. Presoldier induction by a juvenile hormone analog in the nasute termite Nasutitermes takasagoensis (Isoptera: Termitidae). Zoolog Sci. 2009;26:382-8 pubmed publisher
    ..to induce presoldier differentiation was tested in a highly derived termite, Nasutitermes takasagoensis (Isoptera: Nasutitermitinae), and induced presoldiers were examined morphologically and histologically...
  16. Neoh K, Yeap B, Tsunoda K, Yoshimura T, Lee C. Do termites avoid carcasses? Behavioral responses depend on the nature of the carcasses. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36375 pubmed publisher
    ..Such behavioral responses likely are associated with the threat posed to the colony by the carcasses and the feeding habits and nesting ecology of a given species. ..
  17. Boucias D, Cai Y, Sun Y, Lietze V, Sen R, Raychoudhury R, et al. The hindgut lumen prokaryotic microbiota of the termite Reticulitermes flavipes and its responses to dietary lignocellulose composition. Mol Ecol. 2013;22:1836-53 pubmed publisher
    Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) is a highly eusocial insect that thrives on recalcitrant lignocellulosic diets through nutritional symbioses with gut-dwelling prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In the R...
  18. Thong On A, Suzuki K, Noda S, Inoue J, Kajiwara S, Ohkuma M. Isolation and characterization of anaerobic bacteria for symbiotic recycling of uric acid nitrogen in the gut of various termites. Microbes Environ. 2012;27:186-92 pubmed
    ..The bacterial species involved the recycling of UA nitrogen in the gut microbial community of termites are more diverse in terms of both taxonomy and nutritional physiology than previously recognized. ..
  19. Gao Q, Tancredi S, Thompson G. Identification of mycosis-related genes in the eastern subterranean termite by suppression subtractive hybridization. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2012;80:63-76 pubmed publisher
    The Eastern subterranean termite Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera, Rhinotermitidae) is a cosmopolitan, structural pest that is the target of research into termite innate immunity...
  20. Hussain A, Tian M, He Y, Lei Y. Differential fluctuation in virulence and VOC profiles among different cultures of entomopathogenic fungi. J Invertebr Pathol. 2010;104:166-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report to characterize volatiles from FS(0), FS(1) and FS(2) cultures of entomopathogenic fungi; its utility in different aspects opens an interesting area for further investigations...
  21. Sethi A, Slack J, Kovaleva E, Buchman G, Scharf M. Lignin-associated metagene expression in a lignocellulose-digesting termite. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2013;43:91-101 pubmed publisher
  22. Mathew G, Ju Y, Lai C, Mathew D, Huang C. Microbial community analysis in the termite gut and fungus comb of Odontotermes formosanus: the implication of Bacillus as mutualists. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2012;79:504-17 pubmed publisher
    ..The in vitro studies suggested that the Bacillus sp. may function as mutualists in the termite-gut-fungus-comb microbial ecosystem...
  23. Steller M, Kambhampati S, Caragea D. Comparative analysis of expressed sequence tags from three castes and two life stages of the termite Reticulitermes flavipes. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:463 pubmed publisher
    Termites (Isoptera) are eusocial insects whose colonies consist of morphologically and behaviorally specialized castes of sterile workers and soldiers, and reproductive alates...
  24. Mattéotti C, Haubruge E, Thonart P, Francis F, De Pauw E, Portetelle D, et al. Characterization of a new ?-glucosidase/?-xylosidase from the gut microbiota of the termite (Reticulitermes santonensis). FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2011;314:147-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The new ?-glucosidase was expressed in E. coli and purified by affinity chromatography. The purified enzyme shows maximal activity at pH 6.0 and 40?°C. It also displays ?-xylosidase activity...
  25. Sillam Dussès D, Hanus R, Abd El Latif A, Jiros P, Krasulová J, Kalinová B, et al. Sex pheromone and trail pheromone of the sand termite Psammotermes hybostoma. J Chem Ecol. 2011;37:179-88 pubmed publisher
  26. Visser A, Nobre T, Currie C, Aanen D, Poulsen M. Exploring the potential for actinobacteria as defensive symbionts in fungus-growing termites. Microb Ecol. 2012;63:975-85 pubmed publisher
  27. Rosenthal A, Zhang X, Lucey K, Ottesen E, Trivedi V, Choi H, et al. Localizing transcripts to single cells suggests an important role of uncultured deltaproteobacteria in the termite gut hydrogen economy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:16163-8 pubmed publisher
  28. Watanabe H, Tokuda G. Cellulolytic systems in insects. Annu Rev Entomol. 2010;55:609-32 pubmed publisher
  29. Matsuura K, Himuro C, Yokoi T, Yamamoto Y, Vargo E, Keller L. Identification of a pheromone regulating caste differentiation in termites. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:12963-8 pubmed publisher
  30. Tokuda G, Miyagi M, Makiya H, Watanabe H, Arakawa G. Digestive beta-glucosidases from the wood-feeding higher termite, Nasutitermes takasagoensis: intestinal distribution, molecular characterization, and alteration in sites of expression. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2009;39:931-7 pubmed publisher
  31. Xu P, Shi M, Lai R, Chen X. Differences in numbers of termicins expressed in two termite species affected by fungal contamination of their environments. Genet Mol Res. 2012;11:2247-57 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that differences in microenvironmental pressure can affect the number of termicin genes expressed in termite species...
  32. Toga K, Hojo M, Miura T, Maekawa K. Expression and function of a limb-patterning gene Distal-less in the soldier-specific morphogenesis in the nasute termite Nasutitermes takasagoensis. Evol Dev. 2012;14:286-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the co-option of Dll is suggested to contribute to the acquisition of a novel defensive structure in a termite lineage, coupled with the acquisition of adaptive defensive behaviors...
  33. Chouvenc T, Su N. Apparent synergy among defense mechanisms in subterranean termites (Rhinotermitidae) against epizootic events: limits and potential for biological control. J Econ Entomol. 2010;103:1327-37 pubmed
  34. Bourguignon T, Sobotnik J, Hanus R, Roisin Y. Developmental pathways of Glossotermes oculatus (Isoptera, Serritermitidae): at the cross-roads of worker caste evolution in termites. Evol Dev. 2009;11:659-68 pubmed publisher
    ..oculatus are close to a point where the species could easily shift toward the differentiation of a true worker caste, and that G. oculatus pinpoints a new possible route for the evolution of true workers from pseudergates...
  35. Neoh K, Lee C. Behavioral and morphological changes in soldiers of Macrotermes gilvus (Termitidae: Macrotermitinae) parasitized by Misotermes mindeni (Diptera: Phoridae). Environ Entomol. 2010;39:835-40 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that parasitization may first start in fourth or even earlier larval termite instars. The fly larva develops in the termite soldier's head capsule and pupates inside the host's body...
  36. Bulmer M, Bachelet I, Raman R, Rosengaus R, Sasisekharan R. Targeting an antimicrobial effector function in insect immunity as a pest control strategy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:12652-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Such a molecule, introduced into building materials and agricultural methods, could protect valuable assets from insect pests...
  37. Ulyshen M, Shelton T. Evidence of cue synergism in termite corpse response behavior. Naturwissenschaften. 2012;99:89-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Oleic acid also significantly reduced the amount of wood consumed by R. virginicus and may possess useful repellent properties...
  38. Cornelius M, Osbrink W. Effect of soil type and moisture availability on the foraging behavior of the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). J Econ Entomol. 2010;103:799-807 pubmed
    ..The interaction of soil type and moisture availability influences the distribution of foraging termites in microhabitats...
  39. Ghesini S, Luchetti A, Marini M, Mantovani B. The non-LTR retrotransposon R2 in termites (Insecta, Isoptera): characterization and dynamics. J Mol Evol. 2011;72:296-305 pubmed publisher
    ..The study of the number and the frequency of R2 insertion variants in four R. urbis colonies suggests a greatly reduced, or completely absent, recent element activity...
  40. Leonardo F, da Cunha A, da Silva M, Carazzolle M, Costa Leonardo A, Costa F, et al. Analysis of the workers head transcriptome of the Asian subterranean termite, Coptotermes gestroi. Bull Entomol Res. 2011;101:383-91 pubmed publisher
    The lower termite, Coptotermes gestroi (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), is originally from Southeast Asia and has become a pest in Brazil. The main goal of this study was to survey C. gestroi transcriptome composition...
  41. Coy M, Salem T, Denton J, Kovaleva E, Liu Z, Barber D, et al. Phenol-oxidizing laccases from the termite gut. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2010;40:723-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings contribute to a better understanding of termite digestion and gut physiology, and will assist future translational studies that examine the contributions of individual termite enzymes in lignocellulose digestion...
  42. Jeon W, Kang S, Su N, Lee S. A constraint condition for foraging strategy in subterranean termites. J Insect Sci. 2010;10:146 pubmed publisher
    ..efficiency, ?, for two termite species, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), was investigated in response to two variables, the probability of tunnel branching (P(branch)) ..
  43. Zhang D, Lax A, Henrissat B, Coutinho P, Katiya N, Nierman W, et al. Carbohydrate-active enzymes revealed in Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) transcriptome. Insect Mol Biol. 2012;21:235-45 pubmed publisher
    ..formosanus and will serve a diverse range of research areas. The CAZymes represent one of the repositories of enzymes useful for physiological studies and applications in sugar-based biofuel production...
  44. Hojo M, Maekawa K, Saitoh S, Shigenobu S, Miura T, Hayashi Y, et al. Exploration and characterization of genes involved in the synthesis of diterpene defence secretion in nasute termite soldiers. Insect Mol Biol. 2012;21:545-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the results suggested that the mevalonate pathway for diterpene synthesis occurs in class 1 cells around the frontal gland reservoir...
  45. Watson G, Cribb B, Watson J. How micro/nanoarchitecture facilitates anti-wetting: an elegant hierarchical design on the termite wing. ACS Nano. 2010;4:129-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Elucidating the function of such structures has implications for understanding insect biology and the evolution of wings...
  46. Ottesen E, Leadbetter J. Formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase gene diversity in the guts of higher termites with different diets and lifestyles. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:3461-7 pubmed publisher
  47. Pringle R, Doak D, Brody A, Jocqué R, Palmer T. Spatial pattern enhances ecosystem functioning in an African savanna. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000377 pubmed publisher
  48. Wright M, Cornelius M. Mortality and repellent effects of microbial pathogens on Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). BMC Microbiol. 2012;12:291 pubmed publisher
  49. Rosenthal A, Matson E, Eldar A, Leadbetter J. RNA-seq reveals cooperative metabolic interactions between two termite-gut spirochete species in co-culture. ISME J. 2011;5:1133-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that staggeringly intricate networks of metabolic and gene interactions drive lignocellulose degradation and co-evolution of termite gut microbiota...
  50. Zhang X, Matson E, Leadbetter J. Genes for selenium dependent and independent formate dehydrogenase in the gut microbial communities of three lower, wood-feeding termites and a wood-feeding roach. Environ Microbiol. 2011;13:307-23 pubmed publisher
  51. Huang Q, Sun P, Zhou X, Lei C. Characterization of head transcriptome and analysis of gene expression involved in caste differentiation and aggression in Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki). PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50383 pubmed publisher
    ..formosanus. Hence, studies on transcriptome and gene expression profiling are helpful to better understand molecular basis underlying caste differentiation and aggressive behavior in O. formosanus...
  52. Tarver M, Coy M, Scharf M. Cyp15F1: a novel cytochrome P450 gene linked to juvenile hormone-dependent caste differention in the termite Reticulitermes flavipes. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2012;80:92-108 pubmed publisher
    ..These results also reinforce the concept of environmental caste determination in termites by revealing how primer pheromones, as socioenvironmental factors, can directly influence Cyp15 expression and caste differentiation...
  53. Köhler T, Dietrich C, Scheffrahn R, Brune A. High-resolution analysis of gut environment and bacterial microbiota reveals functional compartmentation of the gut in wood-feeding higher termites (Nasutitermes spp.). Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:4691-701 pubmed publisher
  54. Hongoh Y. Toward the functional analysis of uncultivable, symbiotic microorganisms in the termite gut. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2011;68:1311-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, the symbiotic system organized by wood-feeding termites and their gut microorganisms is outlined, focusing on the recent achievement in omics studies of this multilayered symbiotic system...
  55. Leniaud L, Darrouzet E, Dedeine F, Ahn K, Huang Z, Bagnères A. Ontogenic potentialities of the worker caste in two sympatric subterranean termites in France. Evol Dev. 2011;13:138-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Possible origins and mechanisms of such interspecific variations are discussed, as well as their evolutionary and ecological consequences...
  56. Yanagawa A, Fujiwara Tsujii N, Akino T, Yoshimura T, Yanagawa T, Shimizu S. Behavioral changes in the termite, Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera), inoculated with six fungal isolates. J Invertebr Pathol. 2011;107:100-6 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the fungal isolates and genera affected not only the frequency of the behaviors but also the horizontal transmission pattern, the number of dead individuals and the survival period before the first death following infection...
  57. Ware J, Grimaldi D, Engel M. The effects of fossil placement and calibration on divergence times and rates: an example from the termites (Insecta: Isoptera). Arthropod Struct Dev. 2010;39:204-19 pubmed publisher
    Among insects, eusocial behavior occurs in termites, ants, some bees and wasps. Isoptera and Hymenoptera convergently share social behavior, and for both taxa its evolution remains poorly understood...
  58. Aanen D, De Fine Licht H, Debets A, Kerstes N, Hoekstra R, Boomsma J. High symbiont relatedness stabilizes mutualistic cooperation in fungus-growing termites. Science. 2009;326:1103-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings explain why vertical symbiont transmission in fungus-growing termites is rare and evolutionarily derived...
  59. Fox Dobbs K, Doak D, Brody A, Palmer T. Termites create spatial structure and govern ecosystem function by affecting N2 fixation in an East African savanna. Ecology. 2010;91:1296-307 pubmed
  60. Saldarriaga J, Gile G, James E, Horak A, Scheffrahn R, Keeling P. Morphology and molecular phylogeny of Pseudotrichonympha hertwigi and Pseudotrichonympha paulistana (Trichonymphea, parabasalia) from neotropical rhinotermitids. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2011;58:487-96 pubmed publisher
  61. Brody A, Palmer T, Fox Dobbs K, Doak D. Termites, vertebrate herbivores, and the fruiting success of Acacia drepanolobium. Ecology. 2010;91:399-407 pubmed
    ..Our results underscore the importance of simultaneously examining top-down and bottom-up effects to understand those factors most important to plant reproductive success...
  62. Hamilton C, Bulmer M. Molecular antifungal defenses in subterranean termites: RNA interference reveals in vivo roles of termicins and GNBPs against a naturally encountered pathogen. Dev Comp Immunol. 2012;36:372-7 pubmed publisher
  63. Glastad K, Hunt B, Goodisman M. Evidence of a conserved functional role for DNA methylation in termites. Insect Mol Biol. 2013;22:143-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our findings strongly suggest DNA methylation is present at particularly high levels in termites and may play similar roles to those found in other insects...
  64. Matsuura K. Multifunctional queen pheromone and maintenance of reproductive harmony in termite colonies. J Chem Ecol. 2012;38:746-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The proximate origin and evolutionary parsimony of the termite queen pheromone also are discussed...
  65. Ishikawa Y, Okada Y, Ishikawa A, Miyakawa H, Koshikawa S, Miura T. Gene expression changes during caste-specific neuronal development in the damp-wood termite Hodotermopsis sjostedti. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:314 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we predicted that some genes linked to defensive behavior and/or those required for neuronal changes are differentially expressed between workers and soldiers, or during the soldier differentiation, respectively...
  66. Hamilton C, Lay F, Bulmer M. Subterranean termite prophylactic secretions and external antifungal defenses. J Insect Physiol. 2011;57:1259-66 pubmed publisher
    ..anisopliae. Secreted ?-1,3-glucanases appear to be essential in preventing infection by breaking down fungi externally...
  67. Zhang D, Lax A, Bland J, Allen A. Characterization of a new endogenous endo-?-1,4-glucanase of Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus). Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2011;41:211-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The recombinant cellulase should also be useful for designing and screening of inhibitors for the development of target-specific and environment-friendly bio-termicides...
  68. Raychoudhury R, Sen R, Cai Y, Sun Y, Lietze V, Boucias D, et al. Comparative metatranscriptomic signatures of wood and paper feeding in the gut of the termite Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Insect Mol Biol. 2013;22:155-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this study illuminates the dynamics of termite nutritional symbiosis and reveals a pool of genes as potential targets for termite control and functional studies of termite-symbiont interactions...
  69. Tarver M, Schmelz E, Scharf M. Soldier caste influences on candidate primer pheromone levels and juvenile hormone-dependent caste differentiation in workers of the termite Reticulitermes flavipes. J Insect Physiol. 2011;57:771-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide novel evidence supporting that CAD and ALD are authentic caste-regulatory primer pheromones in Reticulitermes...
  70. Quarcoo F, Hu X, Appel A. Effects of non-repellent termiticides on the tunneling and walking ability of the eastern subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Pest Manag Sci. 2012;68:1352-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects of these insecticides on termite walking and tunneling behavior could significantly reduce their efficacy against colonies...
  71. Chouvenc T, Su N. When subterranean termites challenge the rules of fungal epizootics. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34484 pubmed publisher
    ..The inability of the fungal pathogen M. anisopliae to complete its life cycle within a Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) group was mainly the result of cannibalism and the burial behavior of the nest mates, even when ..
  72. Bulmer M, Lay F, Hamilton C. Adaptive evolution in subterranean termite antifungal peptides. Insect Mol Biol. 2010;19:669-74 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, the pattern of polymorphism and divergence in GNBP2 corresponds to the standard neutral model of evolution...
  73. Scharf M, Kovaleva E, Jadhao S, Campbell J, Buchman G, Boucias D. Functional and translational analyses of a beta-glucosidase gene (glycosyl hydrolase family 1) isolated from the gut of the lower termite Reticulitermes flavipes. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2010;40:611-20 pubmed publisher
  74. Sobotnik J, Sillam Dussès D, Weyda F, Dejean A, Roisin Y, Hanus R, et al. The frontal gland in workers of Neotropical soldierless termites. Naturwissenschaften. 2010;97:495-503 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the defensive role of the frontal gland in workers remains to be confirmed...
  75. Harper J, Gile G, James E, Carpenter K, Keeling P. The inadequacy of morphology for species and genus delineation in microbial eukaryotes: an example from the parabasalian termite symbiont coronympha. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6577 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we have used molecular markers to assess the species delineations in two related but morphologically distinct genera of uncultivated symbionts found in the hindgut of termites...
  76. Li H, Sun J, Zhao J, Deng T, Lu J, Dong Y, et al. Physicochemical conditions and metal ion profiles in the gut of the fungus-growing termite Odontotermes formosanus. J Insect Physiol. 2012;58:1368-75 pubmed publisher
    ..formosanus, highlighted the most important distinctiveness of the fungus-growing termites in its gut microenvironments, suggesting that the unique structure and functions of the intestinal ecosystem may present within its gut...
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    ..Sealing individual tunnels in response to encounters with other species acts to prevent further agonism and mortality, and on a broad scale, the aggregate of such blocked tunnels may come to define the borders between adjacent colonies...
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    ..A combination of single-species-targeting metagenomics, conventional metagenomics, and metatranscriptomics should be a powerful tool to dissect this complex, multi-layered symbiotic system...
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    ..1 and online supplementary material) along with related biological aspects, such as the anatomy of defensive glands and their functional mechanisms, alarm communication, and the evolutionary significance of these defensive elements...
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    ..This finding highlights the implication of fungus-growing termites in the regulation of fungi occurring within the combs and also suggests that they might not have any particular evolutionary-based association with Xylaria species...