pediculus

Summary

Summary: Lice of the genus Pediculus, family Pediculidae. Pediculus humanus corporus is the human body louse and Pediculus humanus capitis is the human head louse.

Top Publications

  1. Thomas D, McCarroll L, Roberts R, Karunaratne P, Roberts C, Casey D, et al. Surveillance of insecticide resistance in head lice using biochemical and molecular methods. Arch Dis Child. 2006;91:777-8 pubmed
  2. Heukelbach J, Sonnberg S, Becher H, Melo I, Speare R, Oliveira F. Ovicidal efficacy of high concentration dimeticone: a new era of head lice treatment. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011;64:e61-2 pubmed publisher
  3. Takano Lee M, Velten R, Edman J, Mullens B, Clark J. An automated feeding apparatus for in vitro maintenance of the human head louse, Pediculus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae). J Med Entomol. 2003;40:795-9 pubmed
    An automated feeding apparatus was developed to maintain the human head louse (Pediculus capitis DeGeer) in vitro...
  4. Houhamdi L, Raoult D. Experimentally infected human body lice (pediculus humanus humanus) as vectors of Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia conorii in a rabbit model. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;74:521-5 pubmed
    ..Although the body louse is not a known vector of spotted fevers, it was able in our study to acquire, maintain, and transmit both R. rickettsii and R. conorii...
  5. Fernandez S, Fernandez A, Armentia A, Pineda F. Allergy due to head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis). Allergy. 2006;61:1372 pubmed
  6. Boutellis A, Veracx A, Angelakis E, Diatta G, Mediannikov O, Trape J, et al. Bartonella quintana in head lice from Sénégal. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2012;12:564-7 pubmed publisher
    ..DNA from B. quintana was identified in 19 lice (6.93%) collected from 7 patients (7%) in Dakar. B. quintana-positive lice collected from three subjects were identified as clades C and A...
  7. Nash B. Treating head lice. BMJ. 2003;326:1256-7 pubmed
  8. Angelakis E, Rolain J, Raoult D, Brouqui P. Bartonella quintana in head louse nits. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2011;62:244-6 pubmed publisher
    ..quintana. The role of the head louse in the maintenance and transmission of B. quintana remains to be determined...
  9. Counahan M, Andrews R, Weld H, Helen W, Speare R. What parents in Australia know and do about head lice. Rural Remote Health. 2007;7:687 pubmed

More Information

Publications141 found, 100 shown here

  1. Reinhard K, Buikstra J. Louse infestation of the Chiribaya culture, southern Peru: variation in prevalence by age and sex. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2003;98 Suppl 1:173-9 pubmed
    ..Presented here is an analysis of the paleoepidemiology of Pediculus humanus infestation from 146 mummies from the Chiribaya culture 1000-1250 AD of Southern Peru...
  2. Sasaki T, Poudel S, Isawa H, Hayashi T, Seki N, Tomita T, et al. First molecular evidence of Bartonella quintana in Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), collected from Nepalese children. J Med Entomol. 2006;43:110-2 pubmed
    ..The recent status of louse infestation in Nepalese children is not well known. We collected head and body lice, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer and Pediculus humanus humanus L...
  3. Pollack R, Kiszewski A, Armstrong P, Hahn C, Wolfe N, Rahman H, et al. Differential permethrin susceptibility of head lice sampled in the United States and Borneo. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1999;153:969-73 pubmed
    ..Accordingly, these relatively safe over-the-counter preparations may remain the pediculicides of choice for newly recognized louse infestations. ..
  4. Williamson E, Priestley C, Burgess I. An investigation and comparison of the bioactivity of selected essential oils on human lice and house dust mites. Fitoterapia. 2007;78:521-5 pubmed
    ..The assay proved simple and effective and gave reproducible results. ..
  5. Stone P, Wilkinson Herbots H, Isham V. A stochastic model for head lice infections. J Math Biol. 2008;56:743-63 pubmed
    ..We arrive at estimates of the ratios of the "within school" and "external source" transmission rates to the recovery rate and use these to obtain estimates for various quantities of interest...
  6. Leo N, Barker S. Intragenomic variation in ITS2 rDNA in the louse of humans, Pediculus humanus: ITS2 is not a suitable marker for population studies in this species. Insect Mol Biol. 2002;11:651-7 pubmed
    ..A phylogenetic tree of 15 different ITS2 sequences showed that the sequences from individual lice were not monophyletic. We conclude that the ITS2 is not a useful marker of populations for Pediculus humanus.
  7. Koch T, Brown M, Selim P, Isam C. Towards the eradication of head lice: literature review and research agenda. J Clin Nurs. 2001;10:364-71 pubmed
    ..It is timely for health care professionals to re-examine and prioritize this public health issue. They should research and work collaboratively towards the eradication of head lice. ..
  8. Roux V, Raoult D. Body lice as tools for diagnosis and surveillance of reemerging diseases. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37:596-9 pubmed
  9. Mougabure Cueto G, Zerba E, Picollo M. Permethrin-resistant head lice (Anoplura: Pediculidae) in Argentina are susceptible to spinosad. J Med Entomol. 2006;43:634-5 pubmed
    ..In a permethrin-susceptible strain of the body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus L...
  10. Richling I, Böckeler W. Lethal effects of treatment with a special dimeticone formula on head lice and house crickets (Orthoptera, Ensifera: Acheta domestica and Anoplura, phthiraptera: Pediculus humanus). Insights into physical mechanisms. Arzneimittelforschung. 2008;58:248-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Both, lice (Pediculus humanus) and house crickets (Acheta domestica) treated with this anti-head lice product are knocked out to the ..
  11. Heukelbach J, Pilger D, Oliveira F, Khakban A, Ariza L, Feldmeier H. A highly efficacious pediculicide based on dimeticone: randomized observer blinded comparative trial. BMC Infect Dis. 2008;8:115 pubmed publisher
    Infestation with the human head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis) occurs worldwide. Existing treatment options are limited, and reports of resistance to commonly used pediculicides have been increasing...
  12. Mumcuoglu K, Miller J, Zamir C, Zentner G, Helbin V, Ingber A. The in vivo pediculicidal efficacy of a natural remedy. Isr Med Assoc J. 2002;4:790-3 pubmed
    ..2%). There were no significant side effects associated with either formulation. The natural remedy was very effective in controlling louse infestations under clinical conditions and caused no serious side effects. ..
  13. Willems S, Lapeere H, Haedens N, Pasteels I, Naeyaert J, De Maeseneer J. The importance of socio-economic status and individual characteristics on the prevalence of head lice in schoolchildren. Eur J Dermatol. 2005;15:387-92 pubmed
    ..The management of head lice should take a community-based approach equally involving families, schools, health care professionals and the government...
  14. Robinson D, Leo N, Prociv P, Barker S. Potential role of head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, as vectors of Rickettsia prowazekii. Parasitol Res. 2003;90:209-11 pubmed
    ..prowazekii in the field. Simple observations in the field would reveal whether or not head lice are natural vectors of this major human pathogen...
  15. Kaul N, Palma K, Silagy S, Goodman J, Toole J. North American efficacy and safety of a novel pediculicide rinse, isopropyl myristate 50% (Resultz). J Cutan Med Surg. 2007;11:161-7 pubmed
    ..There are growing concerns about the effectiveness of current treatments owing to increasing resistance, safety, and patient noncompliance. A safe, easy to use, effective alternative is needed...
  16. La Scola B, Raoult D. Acinetobacter baumannii in human body louse. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:1671-3 pubmed
    ..One clone was unique and the other was ampicillin susceptible. A. baumannii DNA was later detected in 21% of 622 lice collected worldwide. These findings show an A. baumannii epidemic in human body lice. ..
  17. Hansen R, O Haver J. Economic considerations associated with Pediculus humanus capitis infestation. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2004;43:523-7 pubmed
    ..More accurate diagnosis of head lice infestation may provide the most effective means of controlling the costs of care and ensuring proper use of pediculicides. ..
  18. Jadhav V, Kore A, Kadam V. In-vitro pediculicidal activity of Hedychium spicatum essential oil. Fitoterapia. 2007;78:470-3 pubmed
    ..The essential oil extracted from rhizomes of Hedychium spicatum was evaluated for in-vitro pediculicidal activity. At 5%, 2% and 1% concentration the essential oil showed more significant activity than 1% permethrin based product...
  19. Kristensen M, Knorr M, Rasmussen A, Jespersen J. Survey of permethrin and malathion resistance in human head lice populations from Denmark. J Med Entomol. 2006;43:533-8 pubmed
    ..resistance after initial establishment of a discriminating dose of topical application bioassay with body lice, Pediculus humanus L...
  20. Kurt O, Balcioglu I, Burgess I, Limoncu M, Girginkardeşler N, Tabak T, et al. Treatment of head lice with dimeticone 4% lotion: comparison of two formulations in a randomised controlled trial in rural Turkey. BMC Public Health. 2009;9:441 pubmed publisher
  21. Burgess I, Brunton E, Burgess N. Clinical trial showing superiority of a coconut and anise spray over permethrin 0.43% lotion for head louse infestation, ISRCTN96469780. Eur J Pediatr. 2010;169:55-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We concluded that, although permethrin lotion is still effective for some people, the coconut and anise spray can be a significantly more effective alternative treatment. ..
  22. Tebruegge M, Pantazidou A, Curtis N. What's bugging you? An update on the treatment of head lice infestation. Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed. 2011;96:2-8 pubmed publisher
    ..It also discusses general management principles and summarises the current data on novel treatment strategies, including wet combing, dimeticone, isopropyl myristate, benzyl alcohol, plant-based compounds and oral medication. ..
  23. Di Campli E, Di Bartolomeo S, Delli Pizzi P, Di Giulio M, Grande R, Nostro A, et al. Activity of tea tree oil and nerolidol alone or in combination against Pediculus capitis (head lice) and its eggs. Parasitol Res. 2012;111:1985-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The development of novel pediculicides containing essential oils could be, in fact, an important tool to control the parasitic infestation. ..
  24. Pollack R, Kiszewski A, Spielman A. Overdiagnosis and consequent mismanagement of head louse infestations in North America. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2000;19:689-93; discussion 694 pubmed
    Lay personnel and many health care workers in the United States believe that head louse infestations caused by Pediculus capitis are exceedingly transmissible and that infested children readily infest others...
  25. Burgess I. How to advise a patient when over the counter products have failed. BMJ. 2003;326:1257 pubmed
  26. McMeniman C, Barker S. Transmission ratio distortion in the human body louse, Pediculus humanus (Insecta: Phthiraptera). Heredity (Edinb). 2006;96:63-8 pubmed
    ..inheritance at three microsatellite loci in eight F, and two F2 families of the body (clothes) louse of humans, Pediculus humanus...
  27. Oh J, Lee I, Lee W, Seo M, Park S, Lee S, et al. Prevalence of pediculosis capitis among Korean children. Parasitol Res. 2010;107:1415-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Pediculus humanus capitis is an ectoparasite, which causes scalp pruritus particularly among children...
  28. Kokturk A, Baz K, Bugdayci R, Sasmaz T, Tursen U, Kaya T, et al. The prevalence of pediculosis capitis in schoolchildren in Mersin, Turkey. Int J Dermatol. 2003;42:694-8 pubmed
    ..A total of 5318 elementary schoolchildren, aged 8-16 years, were examined for the presence of Pediculus capitis...
  29. Cueto G, Zerba E, Picollo M. Evidence of pyrethroid resistance in eggs of Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) from Argentina. J Med Entomol. 2008;45:693-7 pubmed
    Insecticide resistance in Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer 1778 (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) from different countries has been well documented in the last years...
  30. Takano Lee M, Yoon K, Edman J, Mullens B, Clark J. In vivo and in vitro rearing of Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae). J Med Entomol. 2003;40:628-35 pubmed
    Four geographically distinct colonies of the human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Anoplura: Pediculidae) were reared on a live host and exhibited significantly different life history patterns...
  31. Yang Y, Lee H, Lee S, Clark J, Ahn Y. Ovicidal and adulticidal activities of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark essential oil compounds and related compounds against Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculicidae). Int J Parasitol. 2005;35:1595-600 pubmed
    ..Cinnamomum zeylanicum, bark essential oil compounds against eggs and adult females of human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, was examined using direct contact and vapour phase toxicity bioassays and compared with the ..
  32. Silva L, Alencar R, Madeira N. Survey assessment of parental perceptions regarding head lice. Int J Dermatol. 2008;47:249-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed that certain beliefs generated worry and confusion in parents, who blamed head lice as the cause of various health problems which were not due to this insect. ..
  33. Roberts R. Clinical practice. Head lice. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:1645-50 pubmed
  34. Mumcuoglu K, Magdassi S, Miller J, Ben Ishai F, Zentner G, Helbin V, et al. Repellency of citronella for head lice: double-blind randomized trial of efficacy and safety. Isr Med Assoc J. 2004;6:756-9 pubmed
  35. Pittendrigh B, Clark J, Johnston J, Lee S, Romero Severson J, Dasch G. Sequencing of a new target genome: the Pediculus humanus humanus (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) genome project. J Med Entomol. 2006;43:1103-11 pubmed
    The human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus (L.), and the human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, belong to the hemimetabolous order Phthiraptera...
  36. Bartels C, Peterson K, Taylor K. Head lice resistance: itching that just won't stop. Ann Pharmacother. 2001;35:109-12 pubmed
    To evaluate the reports of resistance and cross-resistance to pediculicides in the head louse (Pediculus capitis), as well as the mechanisms involved...
  37. Fournier P, Ndihokubwayo J, Guidran J, Kelly P, Raoult D. Human pathogens in body and head lice. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:1515-8 pubmed
    ..We detected R. prowazekii in body lice from Burundi in 1997 and in lice from Burundi and Rwanda in 2001; B. quintana infections of body lice were widespread. We did not detect B. recurrentis in any lice...
  38. Ciftci I, Karaca S, Dogru O, Cetinkaya Z, Kulac M. Prevalence of pediculosis and scabies in preschool nursery children of Afyon, Turkey. Korean J Parasitol. 2006;44:95-8 pubmed
    ..This indicates the necessity of an improvement in the economic and sociocultural status of the community and the promotion of hygiene concepts and practices in order to improve health of preschool age children. ..
  39. Bagavan A, Rahuman A, Kamaraj C, Elango G, Zahir A, Jayaseelan C, et al. Contact and fumigant toxicity of hexane flower bud extract of Syzygium aromaticum and its compounds against Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae). Parasitol Res. 2011;109:1329-40 pubmed publisher
    The head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer is an obligate ectoparasite of humans that causes pediculosis capitis, a nuisance for millions of people worldwide, with high prevalence in children. P...
  40. Canyon D, Speare R, Muller R. Spatial and kinetic factors for the transfer of head lice (Pediculus capitis) between hairs. J Invest Dermatol. 2002;119:629-31 pubmed
    Although the global increase in pediculosis is well known, little is known about the exact nature of head lice (Pediculus capitis) transmission...
  41. Jones K, English J. Review of common therapeutic options in the United States for the treatment of pediculosis capitis. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;36:1355-61 pubmed
    ..Alternative therapies are also discussed, in addition to indications for prophylaxis, resistance reporting, and the social impact of infestation. ..
  42. Badiaga S, Foucault C, Rogier C, Doudier B, Rovery C, Dupont H, et al. The effect of a single dose of oral ivermectin on pruritus in the homeless. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008;62:404-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Homeless people commonly present with ectoparasite-based pruritus. We evaluated the efficacy of a single dose of ivermectin to reduce the pruritus prevalence in a homeless population...
  43. Bonilla D, Kabeya H, Henn J, Kramer V, Kosoy M. Bartonella quintana in body lice and head lice from homeless persons, San Francisco, California, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:912-5 pubmed publisher
    ..quintana strain Fuller. Further work is needed to examine how homeless persons acquire lice and determine the risk for illness to persons infested with B. quintana-infected lice...
  44. Drali R, Benkouiten S, Badiaga S, Bitam I, Rolain J, Brouqui P. Detection of a knockdown resistance mutation associated with permethrin resistance in the body louse Pediculus humanus corporis by use of melting curve analysis genotyping. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:2229-33 pubmed publisher
    ..method usable in large field-based clinical studies to monitor permethrin resistance in the human body louse Pediculus humanus corporis...
  45. Balcioglu I, Kurt O, Limoncu M, Dinc G, Gümüş M, Kilimcioglu A, et al. Rural life, lower socioeconomic status and parasitic infections. Parasitol Int. 2007;56:129-33 pubmed
    ..b>Pediculus capitis infestation was diagnosed by visual inspection of the hair...
  46. Lebwohl M, Clark L, Levitt J. Therapy for head lice based on life cycle, resistance, and safety considerations. Pediatrics. 2007;119:965-74 pubmed
    ..Treatment with malathion has favorable efficacy and safety profiles and enables the immediate, safe return to school. Nit combing can be performed adjunctively. No-nit policies should be rendered obsolete. ..
  47. Shao R, Kirkness E, Barker S. The single mitochondrial chromosome typical of animals has evolved into 18 minichromosomes in the human body louse, Pediculus humanus. Genome Res. 2009;19:904-12 pubmed publisher
    ..of gel electrophoresis and Southern hybridization revealed a novel type of mt genome in the sucking louse, Pediculus humanus...
  48. Marcoux D, Palma K, Kaul N, Hodgdon H, Van Geest A, Previte D, et al. Pyrethroid pediculicide resistance of head lice in Canada evaluated by serial invasive signal amplification reaction. J Cutan Med Surg. 2010;14:115-8 pubmed
    ..Although treatment failures are frequently observed in Canada, the resistance frequency to pyrethroid pediculicide of human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) has not been determined.
  49. Speare R, Thomas G, Cahill C. Head lice are not found on floors in primary school classrooms. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2002;26:208-11 pubmed
    ..5%) had at least one child with active pediculosis. No lice were recovered from the classroom floors. Classroom floors are not a risk in the transmission of head lice and no special anti-louse measures are required. ..
  50. Burgess I, Brown C, Lee P. Treatment of head louse infestation with 4% dimeticone lotion: randomised controlled equivalence trial. BMJ. 2005;330:1423 pubmed
    ..3%). Dimeticone lotion cures head louse infestation. Dimeticone seems less irritant than existing treatments and has a physical action on lice that should not be affected by resistance to neurotoxic insecticides. ..
  51. Burgess I. Do nit removal formulations and other treatments loosen head louse eggs and nits from hair?. Med Vet Entomol. 2010;24:55-61 pubmed publisher
    Eggs of the head louse, Pediculus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), are difficult to remove because the female louse fixes them to hairs using a proteinaceous secretion that hardens within seconds...
  52. Olds B, Coates B, Steele L, Sun W, Agunbiade T, Yoon K, et al. Comparison of the transcriptional profiles of head and body lice. Insect Mol Biol. 2012;21:257-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, few differences exist, which supports the hypothesis that these two organisms are ecotypes of the same species. ..
  53. Burgess I. Human lice and their control. Annu Rev Entomol. 2004;49:457-81 pubmed
    ..Despite advances, there is a need for a better understanding of louse biology, as existing therapies fail and lice remain potential vectors of disease for millions of people. ..
  54. Roberts R, Burgess I. New head-lice treatments: hope or hype?. Lancet. 2005;365:8-10 pubmed
  55. Catalá S, Junco L, Vaporaky R. Pediculus capitis infestation according to sex and social factors in Argentina. Rev Saude Publica. 2005;39:438-43 pubmed
    To determine the intensity of Pediculus capitis infestation (abundance) among Argentinean schoolchildren. Children's sex and social stratum were analyzed as modifiers of the general prevalence and degree of parasitism...
  56. Toloza A, Zygadlo J, Cueto G, Biurrun F, Zerba E, Picollo M. Fumigant and repellent properties of essential oils and component compounds against permethrin-resistant Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae) from Argentina. J Med Entomol. 2006;43:889-95 pubmed
    The repeated use of permethrin and other insecticides for the control of head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Anoplura: Pediculidae), during past decades has resulted in the development of marked levels of resistance...
  57. Abdel Ghaffar F, Semmler M. Efficacy of neem seed extract shampoo on head lice of naturally infected humans in Egypt. Parasitol Res. 2007;100:329-32 pubmed
    ..No side effects, such as skin irritation, burning sensations, or red spots on the scalp, forehead or neck, respectively, were observed. ..
  58. Light J, Allen J, Long L, Carter T, Barrow L, Suren G, et al. Geographic distributions and origins of human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) based on mitochondrial data. J Parasitol. 2008;94:1275-81 pubmed publisher
    Human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) are subdivided into 3 deeply divergent mitochondrial clades (Clades A, B, and C), each having unique geographical distributions...
  59. Toloza A, Vassena C, Gallardo A, Gonzalez Audino P, Picollo M. Epidemiology of Pediculosis capitis in elementary schools of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Parasitol Res. 2009;104:1295-8 pubmed publisher
    The infestation with the human obligate ectoparasite Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer is a common public health problem affecting mainly schoolchildren worldwide...
  60. Roberts R, Casey D, Morgan D, Petrovic M. Comparison of wet combing with malathion for treatment of head lice in the UK: a pragmatic randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2000;356:540-4 pubmed
    ..Only about 50% of participants complied fully with treatment, so future trials should be pragmatic in design, avoid false incentives, and study representative samples of children. ..
  61. Arriaza B, Orellana N, Barbosa H, Menna Barreto R, Araujo A, Standen V. Severe head lice infestation in an Andean mummy of Arica, Chile. J Parasitol. 2012;98:433-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Pediculus humanus capitis is an ancient human parasite, probably inherited from pre-hominid times. Infestation appears as a recurrent health problem throughout history, including in pre-Columbian populations...
  62. Cutler S, Abdissa A, Adamu H, Tolosa T, Gashaw A. Bartonella quintana in Ethiopian lice. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012;35:17-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The higher numbers of infected head lice pools compared with clothing lice suggests their competence for maintaining this infection within Ethiopia...
  63. Foucault C, Ranque S, Badiaga S, Rovery C, Raoult D, Brouqui P. Oral ivermectin in the treatment of body lice. J Infect Dis. 2006;193:474-6 pubmed
    ..9% to 18.5%. Although this effect was not sustained at day 45, it establishes that ivermectin plays a novel role in the control of body-louse infestation in humans...
  64. Bauer E, Jahnke C, Feldmeier H. Seasonal fluctuations of head lice infestation in Germany. Parasitol Res. 2009;104:677-81 pubmed publisher
    ..e., from mid September to end of October. In Germany, occurrence of pediculosis capitis varies according to the season of the year with a maximum in late summer and early autumn. ..
  65. Bouvresse S, Berdjane Z, Durand R, Bouscaillou J, Izri A, Chosidow O. Permethrin and malathion resistance in head lice: results of ex vivo and molecular assays. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012;67:1143-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The high occurrence of kdr mutant allele suggests that insecticide resistance was already strongly established in the studied population. This finding must be interpreted with caution as it may not be predictive of treatment failure. ..
  66. Vassena C, Mougabure Cueto G, Gonzalez Audino P, Alzogaray R, Zerba E, Picollo M. Prevalence and levels of permethrin resistance in Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Anoplura: Pediculidae) from Buenos Aires, Argentina. J Med Entomol. 2003;40:447-50 pubmed
    Permethrin has been used extensively for control of Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Anoplura: Pediculidae) in Argentina since 1990, resulting in the development of resistance to this and other pyrethroids...
  67. Ko C, Elston D. Pediculosis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2004;50:1-12; quiz 13-4 pubmed
    The 3 major lice that infest humans are Pediculus humanus capitis (head louse), Pthirus pubis (crab louse), and Pediculus humanus humanus (body louse)...
  68. Heukelbach J, Wilcke T, Winter B, Feldmeier H. Epidemiology and morbidity of scabies and pediculosis capitis in resource-poor communities in Brazil. Br J Dermatol. 2005;153:150-6 pubmed
    ..Pediculosis capitis and scabies are common parasitic skin diseases, especially in resource-poor communities, but data on epidemiology and morbidity are scanty...
  69. Mumcuoglu K. Effective treatment of head louse with pediculicides. J Drugs Dermatol. 2006;5:451-2 pubmed
  70. Yang Y, Lee S, Clark J, Ahn Y. Ovicidal and adulticidal activities of Origanum majorana essential oil constituents against insecticide-susceptible and pyrethroid/malathion-resistant Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae). J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:2282-7 pubmed publisher
    ..females of the susceptible KR-HL and dual malathion- and permethrin-resistant BR-HL strains of human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, was examined using contact + fumigant mortality bioassay...
  71. Speare R, Canyon D, Melrose W. Quantification of blood intake of the head louse: Pediculus humanus capitis. Int J Dermatol. 2006;45:543-6 pubmed
    Although head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, are globally prevalent blood-sucking ectoparasites, the amount of blood imbibed by head lice has not been determined...
  72. Mumcuoglu K, Barker S, Burgess I, Combescot Lang C, Dalgleish R, Larsen K, et al. International guidelines for effective control of head louse infestations. J Drugs Dermatol. 2007;6:409-14 pubmed
    ..The no-nit policy, based on the persistence of empty egg cases, is not justified and does more harm than good; therefore, we recommend that it be immediately halted...
  73. Canyon D, Speare R. Do head lice spread in swimming pools?. Int J Dermatol. 2007;46:1211-3 pubmed
    ..No loss of lice or head to head transfer was observed. These results indicated that although head lice survive immersion, head lice transmission is unlikely to occur via the water of swimming pools...
  74. Balcioglu C, Burgess I, Limoncu M, Sahin M, Ozbel Y, Bilac C, et al. Plastic detection comb better than visual screening for diagnosis of head louse infestation. Epidemiol Infect. 2008;136:1425-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the detection comb is significantly (P<0.001) more effective than visual screening for diagnosis; that nits are not a good indicator of active infestation; and that treatment with 1% permethrin was 89.6% effective...
  75. Lawson D, Arensburger P, Atkinson P, Besansky N, Bruggner R, Butler R, et al. VectorBase: a data resource for invertebrate vector genomics. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:D583-7 pubmed publisher
    ..for three mosquito species: Aedes aegypti, Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus, a body louse Pediculus humanus and a tick species Ixodes scapularis...
  76. Durand R, Bouvresse S, Berdjane Z, Izri A, Chosidow O, Clark J. Insecticide resistance in head lice: clinical, parasitological and genetic aspects. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012;18:338-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The organophosphorus insecticide malathion remains effective, except in the UK, mostly in formulations that include terpineol...
  77. Burgess I, Brunton E, Burgess N. Single application of 4% dimeticone liquid gel versus two applications of 1% permethrin creme rinse for treatment of head louse infestation: a randomised controlled trial. BMC Dermatol. 2013;13:5 pubmed publisher
    ..A previous study indicated that a single application of 4% dimeticone liquid gel was effective in treating head louse infestation. This study was designed to confirm this in comparison with two applications of 1% permethrin...
  78. Linardi P, De Maria M, Botelho J, Cunha H, Ferreira J. Prevalence of nits and lice in samples of cut hair from floors of barbershops and beauty parlors in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 1988;83:471-4 pubmed
    ..Of 475 samples examined for nits, nymphs, or adults of Pediculus capitis, 140 were infested (29.5%). A total of 58 lice and 3,553 nits were found in 33,632...
  79. Pedra J, Brandt A, Li H, Westerman R, Romero Severson J, Pollack R, et al. Transcriptome identification of putative genes involved in protein catabolism and innate immune response in human body louse (Pediculicidae: Pediculus humanus). Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2003;33:1135-43 pubmed
    ..Results from this first systematic effort to discover human body louse genes should promote further studies in Phthiraptera and lice...
  80. Buczek A, Markowska Gosik D, Widomska D, Kawa I. Pediculosis capitis among schoolchildren in urban and rural areas of eastern Poland. Eur J Epidemiol. 2004;19:491-5 pubmed
    ..Hygienic controls of schoolchildren by nurses are important in the elimination of Pediculus humanus capitis...
  81. Reed D, Smith V, Hammond S, Rogers A, Clayton D. Genetic analysis of lice supports direct contact between modern and archaic humans. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:e340 pubmed
    ..Here we show that modern human head lice, Pediculus humanus, are composed of two ancient lineages, whose origin predates modern Homo sapiens by an order of ..
  82. Leung A, Fong J, Pinto Rojas A. Pediculosis capitis. J Pediatr Health Care. 2005;19:369-73 pubmed
    ..The child should be discouraged from close, direct head contact with others or from sharing items that have come in contact with the hair...
  83. Ríos S, Fernández J, Rivas F, Sáenz M, Moncada L. [Pediculosis prevalence and associated risk factors in a nursery school, Bogotá, Colombia]. Biomedica. 2008;28:245-51 pubmed
    ..Pediculosis is one of the most important chronic infestations in schoolchildren worldwide. Infestations show a high prevalence among the poorest children in developing countries, and it is associated with substandard hygienic practices...
  84. Shao R, Barker S. Chimeric mitochondrial minichromosomes of the human body louse, Pediculus humanus: evidence for homologous and non-homologous recombination. Gene. 2011;473:36-43 pubmed publisher
    The mitochondrial (mt) genome of the human body louse, Pediculus humanus, consists of 18 minichromosomes. Each minichromosome is 3 to 4 kb long and has 1 to 3 genes...
  85. Kittler R, Kayser M, Stoneking M. Molecular evolution of Pediculus humanus and the origin of clothing. Curr Biol. 2003;13:1414-7 pubmed
    The human head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis) and body louse (P. humanus corporis or P. h...
  86. Takano Lee M, Edman J, Mullens B, Clark J. Home remedies to control head lice: assessment of home remedies to control the human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae). J Pediatr Nurs. 2004;19:393-8 pubmed
    ..This suggests that when treatment failure occurs, an increased amount of time and effort should be focused on alternative chemical pediculicides and/or manual louse removal (i.e., combing) rather than using any of these products...
  87. Light J, Toups M, Reed D. What's in a name: the taxonomic status of human head and body lice. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2008;47:1203-16 pubmed publisher
    Human head lice (Anoplura: Pediculidae: Pediculus) are pandemic, parasitizing countless school children worldwide due to the evolution of insecticide resistance, and human body (clothing) lice are responsible for the deaths of millions ..
  88. Sidoti E, Bonura F, Paolini G, Tringali G. A survey on knowledge and perceptions regarding head lice on a sample of teachers and students in primary schools of north and south of Italy. J Prev Med Hyg. 2009;50:141-9; quiz 150-1 pubmed
  89. Kirkness E, Haas B, Sun W, Braig H, Perotti M, Clark J, et al. Genome sequences of the human body louse and its primary endosymbiont provide insights into the permanent parasitic lifestyle. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:12168-73 pubmed publisher
    As an obligatory parasite of humans, the body louse (Pediculus humanus humanus) is an important vector for human diseases, including epidemic typhus, relapsing fever, and trench fever...
  90. Veracx A, Boutellis A, Merhej V, Diatta G, Raoult D. Evidence for an African cluster of human head and body lice with variable colors and interbreeding of lice between continents. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37804 pubmed publisher
    ..Mitochondrial genetic analysis reclassified lice into three genotypes (A, B and C). However, no previous study has attempted to correlate both genotypic and phenotypic data...
  91. Meinking T, Clineschmidt C, Chen C, Kolber M, Tipping R, Furtek C, et al. An observer-blinded study of 1% permethrin creme rinse with and without adjunctive combing in patients with head lice. J Pediatr. 2002;141:665-70 pubmed
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