horseshoe crabs

Summary

Summary: An arthropod subclass (Xiphosura) comprising the North American (Limulus) and Asiatic (Tachypleus) genera of horseshoe crabs.

Top Publications

  1. Kawabata S, Tsuda R. Molecular basis of non-self recognition by the horseshoe crab tachylectins. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1572:414-21 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, no complement-like proteins have been found in horseshoe crabs, except for alpha(2)-macroglobulin...
  2. Fein A, Cavar S. Divergent mechanisms for phototransduction of invertebrate microvillar photoreceptors. Vis Neurosci. 2000;17:911-7 pubmed
  3. Wang Y, Deshpande M, Payne R. 2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl borate inhibits phototransduction and blocks voltage-gated potassium channels in Limulus ventral photoreceptors. Cell Calcium. 2002;32:209-16 pubmed
    ..The lack of specificity of the action of 2-APB in Limulus indicates that this blockade need not necessarily arise from inhibition of InsP(3)-induced calcium release...
  4. Zhu Y, Thangamani S, Ho B, Ding J. The ancient origin of the complement system. EMBO J. 2005;24:382-94 pubmed
    ..Our findings demonstrate an ancient origin of the critical complement components and the opsonic defense mechanism in the Precambrian ancestor of bilateral animals...
  5. Ng P, Le Saux A, Lee C, Tan N, Lu J, Thiel S, et al. C-reactive protein collaborates with plasma lectins to boost immune response against bacteria. EMBO J. 2007;26:3431-40 pubmed
    ..We propose that CRP does not act alone but collaborates with other plasma PRRs to form stable pathogen recognition complexes when targeting a wide range of bacteria for destruction...
  6. Kawabata S, Saeki K, Iwanaga S. Limulus kexin: a new type of Kex2-like endoprotease specifically expressed in hemocytes of the horseshoe crab. FEBS Lett. 1996;386:201-4 pubmed
    ..Northern blotting showed specific expression of limulus kexin in hemocytes, suggesting the involvement in proteolytic processing of the granule components of hemocytes...
  7. Black W, Roehrdanz R. Mitochondrial gene order is not conserved in arthropods: prostriate and metastriate tick mitochondrial genomes. Mol Biol Evol. 1998;15:1772-85 pubmed
    ..Correspondence analysis of amino acid and codon use in the two ticks and in nine other arthropod mitochondrial genomes indicate a strong bias in R. sanguineus towards amino acids encoded by AT-rich codons...
  8. Beisel H, Kawabata S, Iwanaga S, Huber R, Bode W. Tachylectin-2: crystal structure of a specific GlcNAc/GalNAc-binding lectin involved in the innate immunity host defense of the Japanese horseshoe crab Tachypleus tridentatus. EMBO J. 1999;18:2313-22 pubmed
    ..Thus, tachylectin-2 employs strict specificity for certain N-acetyl sugars as well as the surface ligand density for self/non-self recognition...
  9. Kanost M. Serine proteinase inhibitors in arthropod immunity. Dev Comp Immunol. 1999;23:291-301 pubmed
    ..Some may inhibit fungal or bacterial proteinases. Others probably have roles in regulating endogenous proteinases involved in coagulation, prophenol oxidase activation, or cytokine activation...

Scientific Experts

More Information

Publications62

  1. Smith C, DeLotto R. A common domain within the proenzyme regions of the Drosophila snake and easter proteins and Tachypleus proclotting enzyme defines a new subfamily of serine proteases. Protein Sci. 1992;1:1225-6 pubmed
  2. Lavrov D, Boore J, Brown W. The complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus. Mol Biol Evol. 2000;17:813-24 pubmed publisher
    ..e., the role of lagging strand origin of replication...
  3. Payne R, Demas J. Timing of Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores and the electrical response of Limulus ventral photoreceptors to dim flashes. J Gen Physiol. 2000;115:735-48 pubmed
    ..CPA also greatly diminished and slowed the receptor potential elicited by dim flashes. The results demonstrate a rapid release of Ca(2+) ions that appears necessary for a highly amplified electrical response to dim flashes...
  4. Chen F, Baumann A, Payne R, Lisman J. A cGMP-gated channel subunit in Limulus photoreceptors. Vis Neurosci. 2001;18:517-26 pubmed
    ..Preabsorption of the antiserum with antigen abolished the labeling, confirming specificity. The results lend support to the hypothesis that a cGMP-gated channel is directly involved in the phototransduction process...
  5. Matsuda Y, Koshiba T, Osaki T, Suyama H, Arisaka F, Toh Y, et al. An arthropod cuticular chitin-binding protein endows injured sites with transglutaminase-dependent mesh. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:37316-24 pubmed
    ..In arthropods, TGase-dependent protein cross-linking may be involved in the initial stage of host defense at the sub-cuticular epidermis, as in the case of mammalian skin...
  6. Lisman J, Richard E, Raghavachari S, Payne R. Simultaneous roles for Ca2+ in excitation and adaptation of Limulus ventral photoreceptors. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2002;514:507-38 pubmed
    ..The question of how a single second messenger can produce these two opposing effects is of obvious interest and is a topic dealt with throughout this review...
  7. Ariki S, Takahara S, Shibata T, Fukuoka T, Ozaki A, Endo Y, et al. Factor C acts as a lipopolysaccharide-responsive C3 convertase in horseshoe crab complement activation. J Immunol. 2008;181:7994-8001 pubmed
    ..We conclude that factor C acts as an LPS-responsive C3 convertase on the surface of invading Gram-negative bacteria in the initial phase of horseshoe crab complement activation...
  8. Jiang N, Thangamani S, Chor C, Wang S, Winarsih I, Du R, et al. A novel serine protease inhibitor acts as an immunomodulatory switch while maintaining homeostasis. J Innate Immun. 2009;1:465-79 pubmed publisher
  9. Campbell N, Barker S. The novel mitochondrial gene arrangement of the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus: fivefold tandem repetition of a coding region. Mol Biol Evol. 1999;16:732-40 pubmed
    ..microplus. Instead, slipped-strand mispairing or recombination are the most plausible explanations for the evolution of these tandem repeats...
  10. Masta S, Boore J. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the spider Habronattus oregonensis reveals rearranged and extremely truncated tRNAs. Mol Biol Evol. 2004;21:893-902 pubmed publisher
    ..Such mechanisms may have allowed for the minimization of the spider mitochondrial genome...
  11. Giri P, Tang X, Thangamani S, Shenoy R, Ding J, Swaminathan K, et al. Modifying the substrate specificity of Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda serine protease inhibitor domain 1 to target thrombin. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15258 pubmed publisher
    ..This study will lead to the significant application to modify a multi-domain inhibitor protein to target several proteases...
  12. Iijima M, Hashimoto T, Matsuda Y, Nagai T, Yamano Y, Ichi T, et al. Comprehensive sequence analysis of horseshoe crab cuticular proteins and their involvement in transglutaminase-dependent cross-linking. FEBS J. 2005;272:4774-86 pubmed
  13. Chen S, Yen C, Yeh M, Huang C, Liu T. Biochemical properties and cDNa cloning of two new lectins from the plasma of Tachypleus tridentatus: Tachypleus plasma lectin 1 and 2+. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:9631-9 pubmed
    ..The physiological function of TPL-1 and TPL-2 is most likely related to their ability to form a cluster of interlocking molecules to immobilize and entrap invading organisms...
  14. Dorlöchter M, de Vente J. Cyclic GMP in lateral eyes of the horseshoe crab Limulus. Vision Res. 2000;40:3677-84 pubmed
    ..Phosphodiesterase inhibitors caused a 2-3-fold increase in the cGMP level. Despite our failure to detect a light dependence of the cGMP concentration, these results support the proposed role of cGMP in Limulus phototransduction...
  15. Battelle B, Dabdoub A, Malone M, Andrews A, Cacciatore C, Calman B, et al. Immunocytochemical localization of opsin, visual arrestin, myosin III, and calmodulin in Limulus lateral eye retinular cells and ventral photoreceptors. J Comp Neurol. 2001;435:211-25 pubmed
  16. Faddis M, Brown J. Intracellular injection of heparin and polyamines. Effects on phototransduction in limulus ventral photoreceptors. J Gen Physiol. 1993;101:909-31 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that excitation can proceed in the absence of InsP3-induced increases in [Ca2+]i, but (a) the gain and speed of transduction are reduced and (b) adaptation is largely blocked...
  17. Kuo T, Chuang S, Chang S, Liang P. Ligand specificities and structural requirements of two Tachypleus plasma lectins for bacterial trapping. Biochem J. 2006;393:757-66 pubmed
    ..A model describing TPL-2 binding with LPS is proposed. These two plasma lectins that have different ligand specificities can be used for the detection and discrimination of bacteria and removal of endotoxins...
  18. Garger A, Richard E, Lisman J. Inhibitors of guanylate cyclase inhibit phototransduction in limulus ventral photoreceptors. Vis Neurosci. 2001;18:625-32 pubmed
    ..None of these agents had any substantial effect on phototransduction. Taken together, these results support a role for a particulate guanylate cyclase in Limulus photoreceptor excitation...
  19. Rossignol D, Lynn M, Wittek A, Rose J. Elevated plasma levels of limulus amoebocyte lysate-reactive material. J Infect Dis. 2006;194:1340; author reply 1340-1 pubmed
  20. Janner A. Form, symmetry and packing of biomacromolecules. I. Concepts and tutorial examples. Acta Crystallogr A. 2010;66:301-11 pubmed publisher
  21. Briggs D, Siveter D, Siveter D, Sutton M, Garwood R, Legg D. Silurian horseshoe crab illuminates the evolution of arthropod limbs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:15702-5 pubmed
    ..The living horseshoe crabs are remnants of a much larger diversity of aquatic chelicerates...
  22. Nolan M, Smith S, Jones D. Pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline in the American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2007;30:451-5 pubmed
    ..81 microg.h/mL, MRT = 395.89 h, Clb = 0.071 mL/min/kg, Vd(ss) = 1.688 L/kg, t(1/2) = 210.0 h, Cmax = 7.83 microg/mL, C(ave) = 2.89 microg/mL, F = 61.56%...
  23. Watson W, Bedford L, Chabot C. Rhythms of locomotion expressed by Limulus polyphemus, the American horseshoe crab: II. Relationship to circadian rhythms of visual sensitivity. Biol Bull. 2008;215:46-56 pubmed
    In the laboratory, horseshoe crabs express a circadian rhythm of visual sensitivity as well as daily and circatidal rhythms of locomotion...
  24. Gillings S, Atkinson P, Bardsley S, Clark N, Love S, Robinson R, et al. Shorebird predation of horseshoe crab eggs in Delaware Bay: species contrasts and availability constraints. J Anim Ecol. 2007;76:503-14 pubmed
    ..This may be especially true for red knot, which have higher energetic demands owing to their larger body size yet appear to have depressed intake rates because they consume smaller prey than their body size should permit...
  25. D Amato A, Cereda A, Bachi A, Pierce J, Righetti P. In depth exploration of the hemolymph of Limulus polyphemus via combinatorial peptide ligand libraries. J Proteome Res. 2010;9:3260-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This further reinforces the notion that these could be ancestral proteins, scarcely represented in present times. These data might represent the true birth of paleo-proteomics...
  26. Wang X, Liou Y, Ho B, Ding J. An evolutionarily conserved 16-kDa thioredoxin-related protein is an antioxidant which regulates the NF-kappaB signaling pathway. Free Radic Biol Med. 2007;42:247-59 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, thioredoxin-like 6, a human homologue of Cr-TRP16, could also enhance NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity, suggesting that the regulatory role of the 16-kDa thioredoxins on NF-kappaB is well conserved through evolution...
  27. Chabot C, Kent J, Watson W. Circatidal and circadian rhythms of locomotion in Limulus polyphemus. Biol Bull. 2004;207:72-5 pubmed
  28. Briggs D, Moore R, Shultz J, Schweigert G. Mineralization of soft-part anatomy and invading microbes in the horseshoe crab Mesolimulus from the Upper Jurassic Lagerstätte of Nusplingen, Germany. Proc Biol Sci. 2005;272:627-32 pubmed
    ..The musculature of Mesolimulus conforms closely to that of modern horseshoe crabs. Associated with the muscles are patches of mineralized biofilm with spiral and coccoid forms...
  29. Yang M, Chen C, Hsieh H, Chen C. Population subdivision of the tri-spine horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus, in Taiwan Strait. Zoolog Sci. 2007;24:219-24 pubmed
    ..tridentatus population can be attributed to a recent bottleneck, probably due to isolation of Tiexianwei in semi-closed Magong Bay that prevents gene flow from neighboring populations...
  30. Wang X, Tan N, Ho B, Ding J. Evidence for the ancient origin of the NF-kappaB/IkappaB cascade: its archaic role in pathogen infection and immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:4204-9 pubmed
    ..elegans, the NF-kappaB/IkappaB signaling cascade remains well conserved from horseshoe crab to humans, playing an archaic but fundamental role in regulating the expression of critical immune defense molecules...
  31. Duan G, Zhu J, Wan J, Li X, Ge X, Liu L, et al. A synthetic MD-2 mimetic peptide attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in vivo and in vitro. Int Immunopharmacol. 2010;10:1091-100 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that MDMP attenuates LPS-induced inflammatory responses in vivo and in vitro, and suggests that MDMP may be useful in the treatment of inflammation associated with LPS...
  32. Knox B, Salcedo E, Mathiesz K, Schaefer J, Chou W, Chadwell L, et al. Heterologous expression of limulus rhodopsin. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:40493-502 pubmed
    ..This may be a general property of invertebrate opsins and may underlie some of the functional differences between invertebrate and vertebrate visual pigments...
  33. Topham R, Cooper B, Tesh S, Godette G, Bonaventura C, Bonaventura J. Isolation, purification and characterization of an iron-binding protein from the horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus). Biochem J. 1988;252:151-7 pubmed
    ..The isolation of an iron-binding protein from L. polyphemus supports the proposal that such proteins are an ancient evolutionary development not necessarily linked to the appearance of iron proteins which serve as oxygen carriers...
  34. Kawabata S, Iwanaga S. Role of lectins in the innate immunity of horseshoe crab. Dev Comp Immunol. 1999;23:391-400 pubmed
  35. Burger J, Dixon C, Shukla T, Tsipoura N, Gochfeld M. Metal levels in horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) from Maine to Florida. Environ Res. 2002;90:227-36 pubmed
    There is considerable concern for the health of spawning populations of horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) along the east coast of North America because of an increase in the harvest, an apparent decrease in population levels, and the ..
  36. Lim C, Wasserman G. Categorical and prolonged potentials are evoked when brief, intermediate-intensity flashes stimulate horseshoe crab lateral eye photoreceptors during octopamine neuromodulation. Biol Signals Recept. 2001;10:399-415 pubmed
  37. Xu Q, Gao L, Rong K. [Influence of immunization dose schemes on the immune response to anti-tetrodotoxin vaccine]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2003;37:412-5 pubmed
    ..To study the relationship between the immune response of anti-tetrodotoxin vaccine, including its dose-response, and to select optimal immunization dose so as to enhance antitoxic effect of the anti-tetrodotoxin vaccine...
  38. Cartmell T, Luheshi G, Hopkins S, Rothwell N, Poole S. Role of endogenous interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in regulating fever induced by localised inflammation in the rat. J Physiol. 2001;531:171-80 pubmed
  39. Ghaskadbi S, Patwardhan V, Chakraborthy M, Agrawal S, Verma M, Chatterjee A, et al. Enhancement of vertebrate cardiogenesis by a lectin from perivitelline fluid of horseshoe crab embryo. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2008;65:3312-24 pubmed publisher
    ..This molecule may prove to be an important tool in the study of cardiomyocyte differentiation...
  40. Groome J, Lent C. Inhibitory actions of dopamine on Limulus visceral muscle involve a cyclic AMP-dependent mechanism. J Comp Physiol A. 1992;170:787-95 pubmed
    ..Zero calcium solutions gradually reduced spontaneous midgut activity and the effects of dopamine. Calcium channel blockers did not prohibit dopamine-induced relaxation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  41. Srinivasan N, White H, Emsley J, Wood S, Pepys M, Blundell T. Comparative analyses of pentraxins: implications for protomer assembly and ligand binding. Structure. 1994;2:1017-27 pubmed
    ..The recent determination of the crystal structure for a member of this family, human serum amyloid P component (SAP), provides a basis for the comparative analysis of the pentraxin family...
  42. Kellogg T, Lazaron V, Wasiluk K, Dunn D. Binding specificity of polymyxin B, BPI, LALF, and anti-deep core/lipid a monoclonal antibody to lipopolysaccharide partial structures. Shock. 2001;15:124-9 pubmed
    ..Thus our data support the contention that the contribution of these specific physicochemical factors varies among endotoxin antagonists...
  43. Sundseth K, Lucas J, Ahmed J. Development of a PC-based system for recording flash electroretinograms in experimental animals. Biomed Sci Instrum. 2002;38:139-43 pubmed
    ..was designed to be applicable to multiple animal models, and is currently being tested on both rats and horseshoe crabs. The electroretinogram is the summation of electrical responses from both neuronal and non-neuronal cells in ..
  44. Compaan D, Ellington W. Functional consequences of a gene duplication and fusion event in an arginine kinase. J Exp Biol. 2003;206:1545-56 pubmed
    ..Although lacking activity in D1, D2 appears to compensate by having a higher intrinsic catalytic throughput than typical 40-kDa monomeric AKs...
  45. Nagai T, Osaki T, Kawabata S. Functional conversion of hemocyanin to phenoloxidase by horseshoe crab antimicrobial peptides. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:27166-70 pubmed
    ..The chitin coated with antimicrobial peptides may serve as a scaffold for the binding of hemocyanin, and the resulting phenoloxidase activity appears to function as a trigger of exoskeleton wound healing...
  46. Abraham M, Venter P, Lues J, Ivanov I, De Smidt O. Influence of selected antimicrobials on the viability, endotoxicity and lipopolysaccharide composition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2009;34:419-23 pubmed publisher
  47. Braverman H, LEIBOVITZ L, Lewbart G. Green algal infection of American horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) exoskeletal structures. J Invertebr Pathol. 2012;111:90-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research may explain how green algae overcome horseshoe crab innate immunity leading to external and internal damage...
  48. Powers J, Tan A, Ramamoorthy A, Hancock R. Solution structure and interaction of the antimicrobial polyphemusins with lipid membranes. Biochemistry. 2005;44:15504-13 pubmed
  49. Coates T, Larson Prior L, Wolpert S, Prior F. Classification of simple stimuli based on detected nerve activity. IEEE Eng Med Biol Mag. 2003;22:64-76 pubmed
  50. Isakova V, Armstrong P. Imprisonment in a death-row cell: the fates of microbes entrapped in the Limulus blood clot. Biol Bull. 2003;205:203-4 pubmed
  51. Harrington J, Armstrong P. A liposome-permeating activity from the surface of the carapace of the American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus. Biol Bull. 2003;205:205-6 pubmed
  52. Holden C. A pivotal year for lab animal welfare. Science. 1986;232:147-50 pubmed
    ..It is apparent that the combination of political pressure, financial stringency, and better experimental methodologies will result in a continued reduction in laboratory animal use...
  53. Kvist P, Iburg T, Aalbaek B, Gerstenberg M, Schoier C, Kaastrup P, et al. Biocompatibility of an enzyme-based, electrochemical glucose sensor for short-term implantation in the subcutis. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2006;8:546-59 pubmed
    ..The sensor biocompatibility was assessed in vitro and in vivo...