artemia

Summary

Summary: A genus of CRUSTACEA of the order ANOSTRACA, found in briny pools and lakes and often cultured for fish food. It has 168 chromosomes and differs from most crustaceans in that its blood contains hemoglobin.

Top Publications

  1. El Gohary N, Shaaban M. Synthesis, antimicrobial, antiquorum-sensing, antitumor and cytotoxic activities of new series of fused [1,3,4]thiadiazoles. Eur J Med Chem. 2013;63:185-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The in vitro cytotoxic activity of eighteen of the synthesized compounds was studied by brine shrimp lethality bioassay, and results indicated that compounds 6c, 13, 3h, 6d and 3d have the highest cytotoxic activity...
  2. De Vos S, Bossier P, Van Stappen G, Vercauteren I, Sorgeloos P, Vuylsteke M. A first AFLP-based genetic linkage map for brine shrimp Artemia franciscana and its application in mapping the sex locus. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e57585 pubmed publisher
    ..linkage maps, the identification of sex-linked markers and the genome size estimation for the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana...
  3. Kojima H, Inoue T, Sugita M, Itonori S, Ito M. Biochemical studies on sphingolipid of Artemia franciscana (I) isolation and characterization of sphingomyelin. Lipids. 2010;45:635-43 pubmed publisher
    Sphingomyelin was isolated from cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana using QAE-Sephadex A25, Florisil and Iatrobeads column chromatographies...
  4. Konràd C, Kiss G, Torocsik B, Lábár J, Gerencser A, Mandi M, et al. A distinct sequence in the adenine nucleotide translocase from Artemia franciscana embryos is associated with insensitivity to bongkrekate and atypical effects of adenine nucleotides on Ca2+ uptake and sequestration. FEBS J. 2011;278:822-36 pubmed publisher
    Mitochondria isolated from embryos of the crustacean Artemia franciscana lack the Ca(2+)-induced permeability transition pore...
  5. MacRae T. Gene expression, metabolic regulation and stress tolerance during diapause. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2010;67:2405-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Some of the parameters described have well-established roles in diapause, whereas the evidence for others is cursory...
  6. Fan T, Wang J, Yuan W, Zhong Q, Shi Y, Cong R. Purification and characterization of hatching enzyme from brine shrimp Artemia salina. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2010;42:165-71 pubmed
    By using Artemia chorion as a specific substrate, the hatching enzyme from Artemia salina (AHE) was purified by gel-filtration and ion-exchange chromatography, and characterized biochemically and enzymatically in this study...
  7. Ruwandeepika H, Defoirdt T, Bhowmick P, Karunasagar I, Karunasagar I, Bossier P. In vitro and in vivo expression of virulence genes in Vibrio isolates belonging to the Harveyi clade in relation to their virulence towards gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana). Environ Microbiol. 2011;13:506-17 pubmed publisher
    ..The in vivo gene expression study showed a clear difference in virulence gene expression between both virulent isolates and the non-virulent isolate...
  8. Kojima H, Shimizu T, Sugita M, Itonori S, Fujita N, Ito M. Biochemical studies on sphingolipids of Artemia franciscana: novel neutral glycosphingolipids. J Lipid Res. 2011;52:308-17 pubmed publisher
    ..containing one to six sugars in their oligosaccharide chains have been isolated from cysts of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana...
  9. Warner A, Miroshnychenko O, Kozarova A, Vacratsis P, MacRae T, Kim J, et al. Evidence for multiple group 1 late embryogenesis abundant proteins in encysted embryos of Artemia and their organelles. J Biochem. 2010;148:581-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Among animals, encysted embryos of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana are among the most stress resistant eukaryotes, and for that reason it is considered to be an ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Dai L, Chen D, Liu Y, Zhao Y, Yang F, Yang J, et al. Extracellular matrix peptides of Artemia cyst shell participate in protecting encysted embryos from extreme environments. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20187 pubmed publisher
    Many species of the brine shrimp Artemia are found in various severe environments in many parts of the world where extreme salinity, high UV radiation levels, high pH, anoxia, large temperature fluctuations, and intermittent dry ..
  2. Rajeh M, Zuraini Z, Sasidharan S, Latha L, Amutha S. Assessment of Euphorbia hirta L. leaf, flower, stem and root extracts for their antibacterial and antifungal activity and brine shrimp lethality. Molecules. 2010;15:6008-18 pubmed publisher
    ..71, 0.66, 0.41 and 0.03 mg/mL for stems, leaves, roots and flowers, respectively against Artemia salina...
  3. Khuda F, Iqbal Z, Zakiullah -, Khan A, Nasir F, Muhammad N, et al. Metal analysis, phytotoxic, insecticidal and cytotoxic activities of selected medicinal plants of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2012;25:51-8 pubmed
    ..9730 ?g/ml) at highest dose. However, the extracts from other plants were not effective against the brine shrimps tested...
  4. Ruwandeepika H, Defoirdt T, Bhowmick P, Karunasagar I, Bossier P. Expression of virulence genes in luminescent and nonluminescent isogenic vibrios and virulence towards gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana). J Appl Microbiol. 2011;110:399-406 pubmed publisher
  5. Tan D, Flematti G, Ghisalberti E, Sivasithamparam K, Barbetti M. Toxigenicity of enniatins from Western Australian Fusarium species to brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana). Toxicon. 2011;57:817-25 pubmed publisher
    ..associated with sheep feed refusal and rat deaths, and the high toxicity of their crude extracts to brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) from a previous study warranted further investigation of this class of mycotoxin...
  6. Sánchez M, Nikolov P, Georgieva D, Georgiev B, Vasileva G, Pankov P, et al. High prevalence of cestodes in Artemia spp. throughout the annual cycle: relationship with abundance of avian final hosts. Parasitol Res. 2013;112:1913-23 pubmed publisher
    Brine shrimp, Artemia spp., act as intermediate hosts for a range of cestode species that use waterbirds as their final hosts...
  7. Li X, Miao F, Li K, Ji N. Sesquiterpenes and acetogenins from the marine red alga Laurencia okamurai. Fitoterapia. 2012;83:518-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The structures of these compounds were unambiguously established by 1D, 2D NMR and mass spectroscopic techniques. The bioassay results showed that 4, 5 exhibited potent antibacterial activity, and 1, 4, 5 were toxic to brine shrimp...
  8. Clark M, Denekamp N, Thorne M, Reinhardt R, Drungowski M, Albrecht M, et al. Long-term survival of hydrated resting eggs from Brachionus plicatilis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29365 pubmed publisher
    ..Long-term survival in the dormant form is usually associated with desiccation, orthodox plant seeds and Artemia cysts being well documented examples...
  9. Zhao Y, Ding X, Ye X, Dai Z, Yang J, Yang W. Involvement of cyclin K posttranscriptional regulation in the formation of Artemia diapause cysts. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32129 pubmed publisher
    b>Artemia eggs tend to develop ovoviviparously to yield nauplius larvae in good rearing conditions; while under adverse situations, they tend to develop oviparously and encysted diapause embryos are formed instead...
  10. Cheng C, Chen G, Yeh M, Chu C, Hsu Y, Hwang P, et al. Expression and characterization of the JAK kinase and STAT protein from brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2010;28:774-82 pubmed publisher
    In this study, we isolated and characterized both JAK and STAT genes from Artemia, Artemia franciscana...
  11. Lopes V, Fernandez N, Martins R, Vasconcelos V. Primary screening of the bioactivity of brackishwater cyanobacteria: toxicity of crude extracts to Artemia salina larvae and Paracentrotus lividus embryos. Mar Drugs. 2010;8:471-82 pubmed publisher
    ..and picoplanktonic cyanobacteria isolated from estuarine environments, towards the nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina and embryos of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. The A...
  12. Hu Y, Bojikova Fournier S, King A, MacRae T. The structural stability and chaperone activity of artemin, a ferritin homologue from diapause-destined Artemia embryos, depend on different cysteine residues. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2011;16:133-41 pubmed publisher
    Diapause-destined embryos of the crustacean, Artemia franciscana, accumulate large amounts of an oligomeric, heat-stable, molecular chaperone termed artemin, a cysteine-enriched ferritin homologue...
  13. Maniatsi S, Baxevanis A, Kappas I, Deligiannidis P, Triantafyllidis A, Papakostas S, et al. Is polyploidy a persevering accident or an adaptive evolutionary pattern? The case of the brine shrimp Artemia. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2011;58:353-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Parthenogenesis itself and/or polyploidy are responsible for the maintenance and spread of clones in Artemia, a sexual-asexual genus of halophilic anostracans...
  14. Moshi M, Innocent E, Magadula J, Otieno D, Weisheit A, Mbabazi P, et al. Brine shrimp toxicity of some plants used as traditional medicines in Kagera Region, north western Tanzania. Tanzan J Health Res. 2010;12:63-7 pubmed
    ..Picralima nitida and Rubus rigidus extracts are mildly toxic, but by comparison have a remote possibility to yield active anticancer compounds...
  15. Hand S, Menze M, Borcar A, Patil Y, Covi J, Reynolds J, et al. Metabolic restructuring during energy-limited states: insights from Artemia franciscana embryos and other animals. J Insect Physiol. 2011;57:584-94 pubmed publisher
    ..In the case of the most profound metabolic arrest reported in invertebrates, i.e., anaerobic quiescence in Artemia franciscana embryos, acidification of the intracellular milieu is a major factor governing catabolic and anabolic ..
  16. Robbins H, Van Stappen G, Sorgeloos P, Sung Y, MacRae T, Bossier P. Diapause termination and development of encysted Artemia embryos: roles for nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide. J Exp Biol. 2010;213:1464-70 pubmed publisher
    Encysted embryos (cysts) of the brine shrimp Artemia undergo diapause, a state of profound dormancy and enhanced stress tolerance. Upon exposure to the appropriate physical stimulus diapause terminates and embryos resume development...
  17. Crab R, Lambert A, Defoirdt T, Bossier P, Verstraete W. The application of bioflocs technology to protect brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) from pathogenic Vibrio harveyi. J Appl Microbiol. 2010;109:1643-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To study the potential biocontrol activity of bioflocs technology...
  18. Rode N, Charmantier A, Lenormand T. Male-female coevolution in the wild: evidence from a time series in artemia franciscana. Evolution. 2011;65:2881-92 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we used dormant cysts of Artemia franciscana, collected in the same population in three different years over a 23-year period (corresponding to ?..
  19. Garaventa F, Gambardella C, Di Fino A, Pittore M, Faimali M. Swimming speed alteration of Artemia sp. and Brachionus plicatilis as a sub-lethal behavioural end-point for ecotoxicological surveys. Ecotoxicology. 2010;19:512-9 pubmed publisher
    ..g. the brine shrimp Artemia sp. and the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis...
  20. Yang F, Jia S, Yu Y, Ye X, Liu J, Qian Y, et al. Deubiquitinating enzyme BAP1 is involved in the formation and maintenance of the diapause embryos of Artemia. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2012;17:577-87 pubmed publisher
    ..study, a ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase belonging to the BAP1 family was identified and characterized from Artemia parthenogenetica, a member of a family of brine shrimp that, under certain conditions, produce and release ..
  21. Li X, Zhang Q, Zhang A, Gao J. Metabolites from Aspergillus fumigatus, an endophytic fungus associated with Melia azedarach, and their antifungal, antifeedant, and toxic activities. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:3424-31 pubmed publisher
    ..0% and 55.0%, respectively. Structure-activity relationships of the metabolites were also discussed...
  22. King A, MacRae T. The small heat shock protein p26 aids development of encysting Artemia embryos, prevents spontaneous diapause termination and protects against stress. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43723 pubmed publisher
    b>Artemia franciscana embryos enter diapause as encysted gastrulae, a physiological state of metabolic dormancy and enhanced stress resistance...
  23. Tkavc R, Ausec L, Oren A, Gunde Cimerman N. Bacteria associated with Artemia spp. along the salinity gradient of the solar salterns at Eilat (Israel). FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2011;77:310-21 pubmed publisher
    The crustacean genus Artemia naturally inhabits various saline and hypersaline environments and is the most frequently laboratory-hatched animal for live feed in mari- and aquaculture...
  24. Baruah K, Ranjan J, Sorgeloos P, MacRae T, Bossier P. Priming the prophenoloxidase system of Artemia franciscana by heat shock proteins protects against Vibrio campbellii challenge. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2011;31:134-41 pubmed publisher
    Like other invertebrates, the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana relies solely on innate immunity, which by definition lacks adaptive characteristics, to combat against invading pathogens...
  25. Manaffar R, Zare S, Agh N, Abdolahzadeh N, Soltanian S, Sorgeloos P, et al. SNP detection in Na/K ATP-ase gene ?1 subunit of bisexual and parthenogenetic Artemia strains by RFLP screening. Mol Ecol Resour. 2011;11:211-4 pubmed publisher
    In order to find a marker for differentiating between a bisexual and a parthenogenetic Artemia strain, Exon-7 of the Na/K ATPase ?(1) subunit gene was screened by RFLP technique...
  26. Thammasorn T, Somchai P, Laosutthipong C, Jitrakorn S, Wongtripop S, Thitamadee S, et al. Therapeutic effect of Artemia enriched with Escherichia coli expressing double-stranded RNA in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Antiviral Res. 2013;100:202-6 pubmed publisher
    We exploited Artemia as a double-stranded (ds)RNA-delivery system to combat viral diseases in shrimp. First, the transformed Escherichia coli (E. coli) expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) was tested in the Artemia enrichment process...
  27. Zheng L, Hou L, Yu M, Li X, Zou X. Cloning and the expression pattern of Spätzle gene during embryonic development and bacterial challenge in Artemia sinica. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:6035-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper, a full-length cDNA of Spätzle was firstly isolated from Artemia sinica which belonged to Spätzle-4 family...
  28. Fowles R, Mootoo B, Ramsewak R, Khan A. Toxicity-structure activity evaluation of limonoids from Swietenia species on Artemia salina. Pharm Biol. 2012;50:264-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Reports of toxicity studies with limonoid analogs have been sparse and have involved mainly crude extracts. In this study, individual natural limonoids have been isolated and their toxicity manipulated via semisynthesis...
  29. Maccari M, Gomez A, Hontoria F, Amat F. Functional rare males in diploid parthenogenetic Artemia. J Evol Biol. 2013;26:1934-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Diploid parthenogenetic Artemia produce rare males, which may retain the ability to mate with females of related sexual lineages...
  30. Sun X, Wang C, Shao C, Li L, Li X, Chen M, et al. Chemical constituents of the soft coral Sarcophyton infundibuliforme from the South China Sea. Nat Prod Commun. 2010;5:1171-4 pubmed
    ..All the compounds were evaluated for their brine shrimp lethality and antifouling activities...
  31. Zheng L, Hou L, Chang A, Yu M, Ma J, Li X, et al. Expression pattern of a Gram-negative bacteria-binding protein in early embryonic development of Artemia sinica and after bacterial challenge. Dev Comp Immunol. 2011;35:35-43 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper, a full-length cDNA of GNBP coding for a conserved ?-glucan-binding domain was isolated from Artemia sinica. Bioinformatic analysis showed that it belonged to a new member of the GNBP family...
  32. Muñoz J, Gómez A, Green A, Figuerola J, Amat F, Rico C. Evolutionary origin and phylogeography of the diploid obligate parthenogen Artemia parthenogenetica (Branchiopoda: Anostraca). PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11932 pubmed publisher
    ..We assessed the geographic origin, genetic diversity, and phylogeographic history of obligate parthenogen diploid Artemia parthenogenetica populations, a widespread halophilic crustacean...
  33. Baruah K, Ranjan J, Sorgeloos P, Bossier P. Efficacy of heterologous and homologous heat shock protein 70s as protective agents to Artemia franciscana challenged with Vibrio campbellii. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2010;29:733-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To verify this, we compared two evolutionary diverse Hsp70s, Artemia Hsp70 and Escherichia coli Hsp70 equivalent DnaK (each overproduced in E...
  34. Dai Z, Li R, Dai L, Yang J, Chen S, Zeng Q, et al. Determination in oocytes of the reproductive modes for the brine shrimp Artemia parthenogenetica. Biosci Rep. 2011;31:17-30 pubmed publisher
    The brine shrimp, Artemia, reproduces either oviparously, producing encysted embryos (diapause cysts), or ovoviviparously, producing free-swimming nauplii...
  35. Wu Y, MacRae T. Truncation attenuates molecular chaperoning and apoptosis inhibition by p26, a small heat shock protein from Artemia franciscana. Biochem Cell Biol. 2010;88:937-46 pubmed publisher
    ..however, to define sHSP structure-function relationships and with this in mind p26, an sHSP from the crustacean Artemia franciscana, was truncated by deletion mutagenesis...
  36. Chen S, Chen D, Yang F, Nagasawa H, Yang W. Characterization and processing of superoxide dismutase-fused vitellogenin in the diapause embryo formation: a special developmental pathway in the brine shrimp, Artemia parthenogenetica. Biol Reprod. 2011;85:31-41 pubmed publisher
    To withstand environmental stress, Artemia release diapause cysts via an oviparous pathway instead of producing swimming nauplius larvae by the ovoviviparous pathway...
  37. Hengherr S, Schill R, Clegg J. Mechanisms associated with cellular desiccation tolerance in the animal extremophile artemia. Physiol Biochem Zool. 2011;84:249-57 pubmed publisher
    ..biological glasses and measured the transition temperatures in dry encysted embryos (cysts) of the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana...
  38. Ali N, Shah S, Shah I, Ahmed G, Ghias M, Khan I. Cytotoxic and anthelmintic potential of crude saponins isolated from Achillea Wilhelmsii C. Koch and Teucrium Stocksianum boiss. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2011;11:106 pubmed publisher
    ..The current work describes the anthelmintic and cytotoxic activities of crude saponins of Achillea Wilhelmsii and Teucrium Stocksianum as these plants are rich with saponins...
  39. Ates M, DANIELS J, Arslan Z, Farah I. Effects of aqueous suspensions of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on Artemia salina: assessment of nanoparticle aggregation, accumulation, and toxicity. Environ Monit Assess. 2013;185:3339-48 pubmed publisher
    Aquatic stability and impact of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs, 10-30 nm) were investigated using Artemia salina...
  40. Chen W, Ge X, Wang W, Yu J, Hu S. A gene catalogue for post-diapause development of an anhydrobiotic arthropod Artemia franciscana. BMC Genomics. 2009;10:52 pubmed publisher
    ..Although previous work has accumulated ample data, the molecular mechanism underlying diapause and reactivation from it remain elusive...
  41. Warner A, Pullumbi E, Amons R, Liu L. Characterization of a cathepsin L-associated protein in Artemia and its relationship to the FAS-I family of cell adhesion proteins. Eur J Biochem. 2004;271:4014-25 pubmed
    We reported previously that the major cysteine protease in embryos and larvae of the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, is a heterodimeric protein consisting of a catalytic subunit (28...
  42. Kontarakis Z, Copf T, Averof M. Expression of hunchback during trunk segmentation in the branchiopod crustacean Artemia franciscana. Dev Genes Evol. 2006;216:89-93 pubmed
    ..Here, we report the cloning of a hunchback orthologue from the crustacean Artemia franciscana and its expression during the formation of trunk segments...
  43. Clegg J, Campagna V. Comparisons of stress proteins and soluble carbohydrate in encysted embryos of Artemia franciscana and two species of Parartemia. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2006;145:119-25 pubmed
    We compared stress proteins (p26, artemin, hsp70) and alcohol-soluble carbohydrates (ASC) in cysts of Artemia franciscana and two as yet un-named species populations of Parartemia, the brine shrimp endemic to Australia...
  44. Menze M, Hand S. Caspase activity during cell stasis: avoidance of apoptosis in an invertebrate extremophile, Artemia franciscana. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;292:R2039-47 pubmed
    ..the mitochondrion reveals caspase-9- and low levels of caspase-3-like activities in partly purified extracts of Artemia franciscana embryos...
  45. Dai J, Zhu X, Liu F, Xiang J, Nagasawa H, Yang W. Involvement of p90 ribosomal S6 kinase in termination of cell cycle arrest during development of Artemia-encysted embryos. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:1705-12 pubmed
    b>Artemia has evolved a unique developmental pattern of encysted embryos to cope with various environmental threats. Cell divisions totally cease during the preemergence developmental stage from gastrula to prenauplius...
  46. Halet D, Defoirdt T, Van Damme P, Vervaeren H, Forrez I, Van de Wiele T, et al. Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate-accumulating bacteria protect gnotobiotic Artemia franciscana from pathogenic Vibrio campbellii. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2007;60:363-9 pubmed
    ..PHB accumulated by the enrichment culture significantly enhanced the survival of Artemia nauplii, infected with the virulent pathogen Vibrio campbellii LMG 21363...
  47. Brackman G, Defoirdt T, Miyamoto C, Bossier P, Van Calenbergh S, Nelis H, et al. Cinnamaldehyde and cinnamaldehyde derivatives reduce virulence in Vibrio spp. by decreasing the DNA-binding activity of the quorum sensing response regulator LuxR. BMC Microbiol. 2008;8:149 pubmed publisher
    ..The compounds were also evaluated in an in vivo assay measuring the reduction of Vibrio harveyi virulence towards Artemia shrimp.
  48. Parraguez M, Gajardo G, Beardmore J. The New World Artemia species A. franciscana and A. persimilis are highly differentiated for chromosome size and heterochromatin content. Hereditas. 2009;146:93-103 pubmed publisher
    Chromosomal rearrangements have played a key role in the speciation of the New World sexual Artemia species (Crustacea, Anostraca) A. franciscana and A. persimilis. The species differ by a chromosome duplication (2n+2=44 in A...
  49. Gohari A, Saeidnia S, Gohari M, Moradi Afrapoli F, Malmir M, Hadjiakhoondi A. Bioactive flavonoids from Satureja atropatana Bonge. Nat Prod Res. 2009;23:1609-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Berberine hydrochloride (LC(50) = 26 microg mL(-1)) was used as a positive control. Among them, compounds 2 (199 microg mL(-1)) and 3 (157 microg mL(-1)) were effective against Artemia salina larva.
  50. Santos Pimenta L, Pinto G, Takahashi J, e Silva L, Boaventura M. Biological screening of Annonaceous Brazilian Medicinal Plants using Artemia salina (brine shrimp test). Phytomedicine. 2003;10:209-12 pubmed
    ..All of the Annonaceous species tested showed good larvicidal activity as compared to a reference compounds and literature data...
  51. Acey R, Bailey S, Healy P, Jo C, Unger T, Hudson R. A butyrylcholinesterase in the early development of the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae: a target for phthalate ester embryotoxicity?. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;299:659-62 pubmed
    ..Synechococcus lividus) were used as a food source to extend the survival of synchronously hatched brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae allowing measurement of a reduced toxic response to phthalate esters at late post-hatching stages ..
  52. Ramos M, Mota D, Teixeira C, Cavada B, Moreira R. Isolation and partial characterisation of highly toxic lectins from Abrus pulchellus seeds. Toxicon. 1998;36:477-84 pubmed
    ..The antibodies anti-A. pulchellus toxins did not recognize ricin preparation and only partial identity was observed to A. precatorius toxic lectins prepared in a similar way to ricin and A. pulchellus toxins...
  53. Liu Y, Zhao Y, Dai Z, Chen H, Yang W. Formation of diapause cyst shell in brine shrimp, Artemia parthenogenetica, and its resistance role in environmental stresses. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:16931-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Artemia has attracted much attention for its ability to produce encysted embryos wrapped in a protective shell when subject to extremely harsh environmental conditions...