spiders

Summary

Summary: Arthropods of the class ARACHNIDA, order Araneae. Except for mites and ticks, spiders constitute the largest order of arachnids, with approximately 37,000 species having been described. The majority of spiders are harmless, although some species can be regarded as moderately harmful since their bites can lead to quite severe local symptoms. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p508; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, pp424-430)

Top Publications

  1. Stefanini A, Duron O. Exploring the effect of the Cardinium endosymbiont on spiders. J Evol Biol. 2012;25:1521-30 pubmed publisher
    b>Spiders have recently emerged as important diversity hot spots for endosymbiotic bacteria, but the consequences of these symbiotic interactions are largely unknown...
  2. Croucher P, Brewer M, Winchell C, Oxford G, Gillespie R. De novo characterization of the gene-rich transcriptomes of two color-polymorphic spiders, Theridion grallator and T. californicum (Araneae: Theridiidae), with special reference to pigment genes. BMC Genomics. 2013;14:862 pubmed publisher
    ..Few genomic resources exist for spiders. Here, as a first necessary step towards identifying the genetic basis for this trait we present the near ..
  3. van der Meijden A, Langer F, Boistel R, Vagovič P, Heethoff M. Functional morphology and bite performance of raptorial chelicerae of camel spiders (Solifugae). J Exp Biol. 2012;215:3411-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas Rhagodes reflects this morphological asymmetry in having a higher bite force in the right chelicera, Galeodes shows no such bias...
  4. Vöcking O, Uhl G, Michalik P. Sperm dynamics in spiders (Araneae): ultrastructural analysis of the sperm activation process in the garden spider Argiope bruennichi (Scopoli, 1772). PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e72660 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we focus on sperm activation in spiders. Male spiders produce sperm whose cell components are coiled within the sperm cell and that are surrounded by a ..
  5. Croucher P, Oxford G, Lam A, Mody N, Gillespie R. Colonization history and population genetics of the color-polymorphic Hawaiian happy-face spider Theridion grallator (Araneae, Theridiidae). Evolution. 2012;66:2815-33 pubmed publisher
  6. Wignall A, Herberstein M. The influence of vibratory courtship on female mating behaviour in orb-web spiders (Argiope keyserlingi, Karsch 1878). PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53057 pubmed publisher
    Web-building spiders are important models for sexual selection...
  7. Satler J, Carstens B, Hedin M. Multilocus species delimitation in a complex of morphologically conserved trapdoor spiders (mygalomorphae, antrodiaetidae, aliatypus). Syst Biol. 2013;62:805-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigate species limits in a complex of morphologically conserved trapdoor spiders (Mygalomorphae, Antrodiaetidae, Aliatypus) from California...
  8. Hedin M, Starrett J, Hayashi C. Crossing the uncrossable: novel trans-valley biogeographic patterns revealed in the genetic history of low-dispersal mygalomorph spiders (Antrodiaetidae, Antrodiaetus) from California. Mol Ecol. 2013;22:508-26 pubmed publisher
    ..This uniqueness may reflect the low-dispersal biology of mygalomorph spiders, where 'post-event' gene exchange rarely erases historical biogeographic signal.
  9. Rogers H, Hille Ris Lambers J, Miller R, Tewksbury J. 'Natural experiment' demonstrates top-down control of spiders by birds on a landscape level. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43446 pubmed publisher
    ..We focused on spiders because experimental studies showed a consistent top-down effect of birds on spiders...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Wood H, Matzke N, Gillespie R, Griswold C. Treating fossils as terminal taxa in divergence time estimation reveals ancient vicariance patterns in the palpimanoid spiders. Syst Biol. 2013;62:264-84 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the case in archaeid spiders, where there are known fossils from the Northern Hemisphere, yet all living members are restricted to the ..
  2. Nyffeler M, Knörnschild M. Bat predation by spiders. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58120 pubmed publisher
    In this paper more than 50 incidences of bats being captured by spiders are reviewed...
  3. Blagoev G, Nikolova N, Sobel C, Hebert P, Adamowicz S. Spiders (Araneae) of Churchill, Manitoba: DNA barcodes and morphology reveal high species diversity and new Canadian records. BMC Ecol. 2013;13:44 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study represents one element of this effort; it focuses on analysis of the spider fauna at Churchill...
  4. King G, Hardy M. Spider-venom peptides: structure, pharmacology, and potential for control of insect pests. Annu Rev Entomol. 2013;58:475-96 pubmed publisher
    ..We critically review the potential of spider-venom peptides to control insect pests and highlight their advantages and disadvantages compared with conventional chemical insecticides...
  5. Guinea G, Elices M, Plaza G, Perea G, Daza R, Riekel C, et al. Minor ampullate silks from Nephila and Argiope spiders: tensile properties and microstructural characterization. Biomacromolecules. 2012;13:2087-98 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, we show that miSs of different species show similar properties, even when fibers spun by spiders that diverged over 100 million years are compared...
  6. Morales P, Rapone B, Caruso M, Flammini D. Spider-silk-based fabrication of nanogaps and wires. Nanotechnology. 2012;23:255304 pubmed publisher
    ..5 ?m in diameter and resistances ranging from 50 M? to 100 ? have been obtained and characterized...
  7. Wolff J, Gorb S. Comparative morphology of pretarsal scopulae in eleven spider families. Arthropod Struct Dev. 2012;41:419-33 pubmed publisher
    Many wandering spiders bear attachment pads (scopulae) on their tarsi, consisting of hierarchically-branching adhesive setae. Amongst spider families and even species, these show remarkable differences in morphology...
  8. Starrett J, Garb J, Kuelbs A, Azubuike U, Hayashi C. Early events in the evolution of spider silk genes. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38084 pubmed publisher
    Silk spinning is essential to spider ecology and has had a key role in the expansive diversification of spiders. Silk is composed primarily of proteins called spidroins, which are encoded by a multi-gene family...
  9. Baldissera R, Rodrigues E, Hartz S. Metacommunity composition of web-spiders in a fragmented neotropical forest: relative importance of environmental and spatial effects. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e48099 pubmed publisher
    ..spatially structured environmental, and purely spatial components was compared for a metacommunity of web spiders. The study was carried out in 16 patches of Atlantic Forest in southern Brazil...
  10. Wu C, Blamires S, Wu C, Tso I. Wind induces variations in spider web geometry and sticky spiral droplet volume. J Exp Biol. 2013;216:3342-9 pubmed publisher
    ..iv) number of radii, (v) aggregate droplet morphology and (vi) spiral thread stickiness, between webs made by spiders exposed to wind and those made by spiders not exposed to wind...
  11. Hu Z, Liu F, Xu X, Chen Z, Chen J, Li D. Spectral transmission of the principal-eye corneas of jumping spiders: implications for ultraviolet vision. J Exp Biol. 2012;215:2853-9 pubmed publisher
    ..its adaptive significance have been investigated in only approximately 1% of more than 5000 species of jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae), renowned for their unique, complex eyes that support exceptional spatial acuity and ..
  12. Adrianos S, Teulé F, Hinman M, Jones J, Weber W, Yarger J, et al. Nephila clavipes Flagelliform silk-like GGX motifs contribute to extensibility and spacer motifs contribute to strength in synthetic spider silk fibers. Biomacromolecules. 2013;14:1751-60 pubmed publisher
    Flagelliform spider silk is the most extensible silk fiber produced by orb weaver spiders, though not as strong as the dragline silk of the spider...
  13. Bodner M, Maddison W. The biogeography and age of salticid spider radiations (Araneae: Salticidae). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2012;65:213-40 pubmed publisher
    Globally distributed, jumping spiders (Salticidae) are species-rich and morphologically diverse...
  14. Palagi A, Koh J, Leblanc M, Wilson D, Dutertre S, King G, et al. Unravelling the complex venom landscapes of lethal Australian funnel-web spiders (Hexathelidae: Atracinae) using LC-MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. J Proteomics. 2013;80:292-310 pubmed publisher
    ..inter- and intra-species venom complexity in 18 samples collected from a variety of lethal Australian funnel-web spiders (Mygalomorphae: Hexathelidae: Atracinae) using C4 reversed-phase separation coupled to offline MALDI-TOF mass ..
  15. Xu L, Tremblay M, Orrell K, Leclerc J, Meng Q, Liu X, et al. Nanoparticle self-assembly by a highly stable recombinant spider wrapping silk protein subunit. FEBS Lett. 2013;587:3273-80 pubmed publisher
    ..W1 therefore represents a highly stable and structurally robust module for protein-based nanoparticle formation. ..
  16. Wolff J, Nentwig W, Gorb S. The great silk alternative: multiple co-evolution of web loss and sticky hairs in spiders. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62682 pubmed publisher
    b>Spiders are the most important terrestrial predators among arthropods. Their ecological success is reflected by a high biodiversity and the conquest of nearly every terrestrial habitat...
  17. Sahni V, Harris J, Blackledge T, Dhinojwala A. Cobweb-weaving spiders produce different attachment discs for locomotion and prey capture. Nat Commun. 2012;3:1106 pubmed publisher
    b>Spiders' cobwebs ensnare both walking and flying prey. While the scaffolding silk can entangle flying insects, gumfoot silk threads pull walking prey off the ground and into the web...
  18. Kuntner M, Arnedo M, Trontelj P, Lokovšek T, Agnarsson I. A molecular phylogeny of nephilid spiders: evolutionary history of a model lineage. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2013;69:961-79 pubmed publisher
  19. Tarakanova A, Buehler M. The role of capture spiral silk properties in the diversification of orb webs. J R Soc Interface. 2012;9:3240-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, we observe that in webs with more extensible capture silk, the effect of thread strength on web performance is reduced, indicating that thread elasticity is a dominant driving factor in web diversification...
  20. Spano L, Long S, Jakob E. Secondary eyes mediate the response to looming objects in jumping spiders (Phidippus audax, Salticidae). Biol Lett. 2012;8:949-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Jumping spiders (family Salticidae) have eight eyes...
  21. Diehl E, Mader V, Wolters V, Birkhofer K. Management intensity and vegetation complexity affect web-building spiders and their prey. Oecologia. 2013;173:579-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Web-building spiders are abundant generalist predators and important natural enemies of pests...
  22. Théry M, Casas J. The multiple disguises of spiders: web colour and decorations, body colour and movement. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2009;364:471-80 pubmed publisher
    Diverse functions have been assigned to the visual appearance of webs, spiders and web decorations, including prey attraction, predator deterrence and camouflage...
  23. Lammel A, Schwab M, Slotta U, Winter G, Scheibel T. Processing conditions for the formation of spider silk microspheres. ChemSusChem. 2008;1:413-6 pubmed publisher
    ..As a result of their material strength, biocompatibility, and the possibility of functionalization, spider silk microspheres have a high potential for the development of targeted drug-delivery systems...
  24. Gregorič M, Agnarsson I, Blackledge T, Kuntner M. How did the spider cross the river? Behavioral adaptations for river-bridging webs in Caerostris darwini (Araneae: Araneidae). PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26847 pubmed publisher
    ..In orb weaving spiders, coevolution of spider behavior with ecological and physical traits of their webs is expected...
  25. Selden P, Penney D. Fossil spiders. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 2010;85:171-206 pubmed publisher
    Over the last three decades, the fossil record of spiders has increased from being previously biased towards Tertiary ambers and a few dubious earlier records, to one which reveals a much greater diversity in the Mesozoic, with many of ..
  26. Chatterjee S, Isaia M, Venturino E. Spiders as biological controllers in the agroecosystem. J Theor Biol. 2009;258:352-62 pubmed publisher
    In this paper, we propose a general model consisting of insects, pests and spiders interacting in an agroecosystem included in a typical homogeneous rural landscape, characterized by a continuous mosaic of cultivated land and a few small ..
  27. Walter A, Elgar M. The evolution of novel animal signals: silk decorations as a model system. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 2012;87:686-700 pubmed publisher
    ..The web decorations, or stabilimenta of some orb web spiders represent an intriguing model system to investigate novel animal signals...
  28. Savage K, Gosline J. The effect of proline on the network structure of major ampullate silks as inferred from their mechanical and optical properties. J Exp Biol. 2008;211:1937-47 pubmed publisher
    The silk that orb-weaving spiders produce for use as dragline and for the frame of the web is spun from the major ampullate (MA) glands, and it is renowned for its exceptional toughness...
  29. Garb J, Gillespie R. Diversity despite dispersal: colonization history and phylogeography of Hawaiian crab spiders inferred from multilocus genetic data. Mol Ecol. 2009;18:1746-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated crab spiders (Thomisidae, Mecaphesa) that demonstrate contradictory tendencies: (i) dramatic ecological diversity within the ..
  30. Yun Y, Peng Y, Liu F, Lei C. Wolbachia screening in spiders and assessment of horizontal transmission between predator and prey. Neotrop Entomol. 2011;40:164-9 pubmed
    ..This is the first report of infection of N. albofasciata and P. fuscipes by Wolbachia. No direct evidence indicated the existence of horizontal transmission of Wolbachia between predator and prey...
  31. Askarieh G, Hedhammar M, Nordling K, Saenz A, Casals C, Rising A, et al. Self-assembly of spider silk proteins is controlled by a pH-sensitive relay. Nature. 2010;465:236-8 pubmed publisher
    ..How spiders manage to avoid premature spidroin aggregation before self-assembly is not yet established. A pH drop to 6...
  32. Schneider J, Bilde T. Benefits of cooperation with genetic kin in a subsocial spider. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:10843-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, in communally feeding spiders, nepotism favors group retention and reduces the conflict between selfish interests and the interests of the group...
  33. Leutgeb V, Schäfer A, Köchel A, Scharmüller W, Schienle A. Psychophysiology of spider phobia in 8- to 12-year-old girls. Biol Psychol. 2010;85:424-31 pubmed publisher
    ..corrugator supercilii in response to spider pictures, reflecting the negative valence and disgust relevance of spiders. Additionally, spider phobic girls relative to controls showed higher overall disgust proneness and heightened ..
  34. Hakimi O, Gheysens T, Vollrath F, Grahn M, Knight D, Vadgama P. Modulation of cell growth on exposure to silkworm and spider silk fibers. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2010;92:1366-72 pubmed publisher
    ..pernyi was negligible after thorough enzymatic treatment of the fibers with trypsin. It is, therefore, proposed that A. pernyi silk contain one or more cytotoxic components, which need to be removed prior to medical use...
  35. Miller J, Carmichael A, Ramírez M, Spagna J, Haddad C, Rezác M, et al. Phylogeny of entelegyne spiders: affinities of the family Penestomidae (NEW RANK), generic phylogeny of Eresidae, and asymmetric rates of change in spinning organ evolution (Araneae, Araneoidea, Entelegynae). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2010;55:786-804 pubmed publisher
    Penestomine spiders were first described from females only and placed in the family Eresidae...
  36. Olatunji B, Huijding J, de Jong P, Smits J. The relative contributions of fear and disgust reductions to improvements in spider phobia following exposure-based treatment. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2011;42:117-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The implications of these findings for conceptualizing the role of fear and disgust emotions in the maintenance and treatment of spider phobia are discussed...
  37. Gaines W, Sehorn M, Marcotte W. Spidroin N-terminal domain promotes a pH-dependent association of silk proteins during self-assembly. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:40745-53 pubmed publisher
    ..the N-terminal domain of spidroins from the major ampullate gland (MaSp-NTDs) for both Nephila and Latrodectus spiders associate noncovalently as homodimers...
  38. Herzig V, Wood D, Newell F, Chaumeil P, Kaas Q, Binford G, et al. ArachnoServer 2.0, an updated online resource for spider toxin sequences and structures. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:D653-7 pubmed publisher
  39. Blamires S, Chao I, Tso I. Prey type, vibrations and handling interactively influence spider silk expression. J Exp Biol. 2010;213:3906-10 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the MA silks from spiders feeding on live crickets had greater percentages of glutamine, serine, alanine and glycine than those from ..
  40. Bressendorff B, Toft S. Dome-shaped functional response induced by nutrient imbalance of the prey. Biol Lett. 2011;7:517-20 pubmed publisher
    ..e. reduced predation at highest prey densities) appeared in spiders fed nutritionally imbalanced prey, compared with steadily increasing or asymptotic functional responses with ..
  41. Scharmüller W, Leutgeb V, Schäfer A, Köchel A, Schienle A. Source localization of late electrocortical positivity during symptom provocation in spider phobia: an sLORETA study. Brain Res. 2011;1397:10-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings are in good accordance with existing brain imaging studies and underline that source localization is a useful alternative for identifying phobia-relevant cortical regions...
  42. Binford G, Callahan M, Bodner M, Rynerson M, Núñez P, Ellison C, et al. Phylogenetic relationships of Loxosceles and Sicarius spiders are consistent with Western Gondwanan vicariance. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2008;49:538-53 pubmed publisher
    ..With fossil data this pattern is consistent with colonization of North America via a land bridge predating the modern Isthmus of Panama...
  43. Hernández Campuzano B, SUAREZ R, Lina L, Hernandez V, Villegas E, Corzo G, et al. Expression of a spider venom peptide in transgenic tobacco confers insect resistance. Toxicon. 2009;53:122-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This work demonstrated that the expression of Magi 6 peptide in transgenic plants conferred resistance to insect attack and opens the possibility of employing this peptide to improve the resistance of diverse plants...
  44. Agnarsson I, Boutry C, Blackledge T. Spider silk aging: initial improvement in a high performance material followed by slow degradation. J Exp Zool A Ecol Genet Physiol. 2008;309:494-504 pubmed publisher
    ..However, our findings suggest an initial improvement in mechanical performance and that even old spider silk still retains impressive mechanical performance...
  45. Smither S, Piercy T, Eastaugh L, Steward J, Lever M. An alternative method of measuring aerosol survival using spiders' webs and its use for the filoviruses. J Virol Methods. 2011;177:123-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Microthreads in the form of spiders' webs were used to capture aerosolised filoviruses, and the decay rates of Zaire ebolavirus and Marburgvirus were ..
  46. Blackledge T, Boutry C, Wong S, Baji A, Dhinojwala A, Sahni V, et al. How super is supercontraction? Persistent versus cyclic responses to humidity in spider dragline silk. J Exp Biol. 2009;212:1981-9 pubmed publisher
    ..For example, dragline silk emerges as a model for a biomimetic muscle, the contraction of which is precisely controlled by humidity alone...
  47. Wen H, Lan X, Zhang Y, Zhao T, Wang Y, Kajiura Z, et al. Transgenic silkworms (Bombyx mori) produce recombinant spider dragline silk in cocoons. Mol Biol Rep. 2010;37:1815-21 pubmed publisher
    ..protein with a combination of tensile strength and elasticity, but the isolation of large amounts of silk from spiders is not feasible...
  48. Teulé F, Cooper A, Furin W, Bittencourt D, Rech E, Brooks A, et al. A protocol for the production of recombinant spider silk-like proteins for artificial fiber spinning. Nat Protoc. 2009;4:341-55 pubmed publisher
    ..This protocol may be completed in 40 d...
  49. Choresh O, Bayarmagnai B, Lewis R. Spider web glue: two proteins expressed from opposite strands of the same DNA sequence. Biomacromolecules. 2009;10:2852-6 pubmed publisher
    The various silks that make up the web of the orb web spiders have been studied extensively. However, success in prey capture depends as much on the web glue as on the fibers...
  50. Jensen K, Mayntz D, Wang T, Simpson S, Overgaard J. Metabolic consequences of feeding and fasting on nutritionally different diets in the wolf spider Pardosa prativaga. J Insect Physiol. 2010;56:1095-100 pubmed publisher
    We investigated whether spiders fed lipid-rich rather than protein-rich prey elevate metabolism to avoid carrying excessive lipid deposits, or whether they store ingested lipids as a buffer against possible future starvation...
  51. Zhou S, Peng H, Yu X, Zheng X, Cui W, Zhang Z, et al. Preparation and characterization of a novel electrospun spider silk fibroin/poly(D,L-lactide) composite fiber. J Phys Chem B. 2008;112:11209-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed that the hydrophilic and mechanical property of the composite fiber were improved by introducing spidroin...
  52. Virant Doberlet M, King R, Polajnar J, Symondson W. Molecular diagnostics reveal spiders that exploit prey vibrational signals used in sexual communication. Mol Ecol. 2011;20:2204-16 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Spiders were collected from sites where leafhoppers were present and screened with these primers to establish which ..
  53. Cooper S, Harvey M, Saint K, Main B. Deep phylogeographic structuring of populations of the trapdoor spider Moggridgea tingle (Migidae) from southwestern Australia: evidence for long-term refugia within refugia. Mol Ecol. 2011;20:3219-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we carried out a phylogeographic study of trapdoor spiders (Migidae: Moggridgea), a presumed Gondwanan lineage found in wet forest localities across southwestern Australia...