scorpions

Summary

Summary: Arthropods of the order Scorpiones, of which 1500 to 2000 species have been described. The most common live in tropical or subtropical areas. They are nocturnal and feed principally on insects and other arthropods. They are large arachnids but do not attack man spontaneously. They have a venomous sting. Their medical significance varies considerably and is dependent on their habits and venom potency rather than on their size. At most, the sting is equivalent to that of a hornet but certain species possess a highly toxic venom potentially fatal to humans. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, p417; Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p503)

Top Publications

  1. Boyer L, Theodorou A, Berg R, Mallie J, Chávez Méndez A, García Ubbelohde W, et al. Antivenom for critically ill children with neurotoxicity from scorpion stings. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:2090-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that a scorpion-specific F(ab')(2) antivenom would promptly resolve clinical symptoms in children with this syndrome...
  2. Gao R, Zhang Y, Gopalakrishnakone P. Purification and N-terminal sequence of a serine proteinase-like protein (BMK-CBP) from the venom of the Chinese scorpion (Buthus martensii Karsch). Toxicon. 2008;52:348-53 pubmed publisher
    ..When tested with commonly used substrates of proteinase, no significant hydrolytic activity was observed for BMK-CBP. The purified BMK-CBP was found to bind to the cancer cell line MCF-7 and the cell binding ability was dose-dependent...
  3. Remijsen Q, Verdonck F, Willems J. Parabutoporin, a cationic amphipathic peptide from scorpion venom: much more than an antibiotic. Toxicon. 2010;55:180-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, parabutoporin is a well documented scorpion venom peptide with immuno-regulatory properties beyond its antibiotic effects...
  4. Petricevich V. Scorpion venom and the inflammatory response. Mediators Inflamm. 2010;2010:903295 pubmed publisher
    ..The cytokines initiate a cascade of events that lead to illness behaviors such as fever, anorexia, and also physiological events in the host such as activation of vasodilatation, hypotension, and increased of vessel permeability...
  5. Ma Y, Zhao R, Li S, Fan S, Wu Y, Liu H, et al. Characterization of LmTxLP11 and LmVP1.1 transcripts and genomic organizations: alternative splicing contributing to the diversity of scorpion venom peptides. Toxicon. 2009;53:129-34 pubmed publisher
    ..1 is the first one harboring three introns ever reported from scorpion venoms. This work demonstrates for the first time that alternative splicing is involved in regulating the diversity of scorpion venom peptides...
  6. Zhu S, Gao B, Aumelas A, del Carmen Rodríguez M, Lanz Mendoza H, Peigneur S, et al. MeuTXKbeta1, a scorpion venom-derived two-domain potassium channel toxin-like peptide with cytolytic activity. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1804:872-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Our structural and functional data clearly indicate an evolutionary link between TsTXKbeta-related peptides and antiparasitic scorpines which both comprise the betaSPN (beta-KTxs and scorpines) family...
  7. Ozkan O, Carhan A. The neutralizing capacity of Androctonus crassicauda antivenom against Mesobuthus eupeus scorpion venom. Toxicon. 2008;52:375-9 pubmed publisher
    ..There are approximately 1,500 species of scorpions worldwide...
  8. Ma Y, He Y, Zhao R, Wu Y, Li W, Cao Z. Extreme diversity of scorpion venom peptides and proteins revealed by transcriptomic analysis: implication for proteome evolution of scorpion venom arsenal. J Proteomics. 2012;75:1563-76 pubmed publisher
    Venom is an important genetic development crucial to the survival of scorpions for over 400 million years...
  9. Schiavon E, Pedraza Escalona M, Gurrola G, Olamendi Portugal T, Corzo G, Wanke E, et al. Negative-shift activation, current reduction and resurgent currents induced by ?-toxins from Centruroides scorpions in sodium channels. Toxicon. 2012;59:283-93 pubmed publisher
    ..reports the results obtained with four different peptides purified from three species of Centruroides scorpions and assayed on seven distinct isoforms of VGSC (Na(v)1.1-Na(v)1...
  10. Celis A, Gaxiola Robles R, Sevilla Godínez E, Orozco Valerio M, Armas J. [Trends in mortality from scorpion stings in Mexico, 1979-2003]. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2007;21:373-80 pubmed
    ..To describe the trends in mortality from scorpion stings in Mexico as a whole and in each of its states for the period of 1979 to 2003...

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Boyer L, Theodorou A, Berg R, Mallie J, Chávez Méndez A, García Ubbelohde W, et al. Antivenom for critically ill children with neurotoxicity from scorpion stings. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:2090-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that a scorpion-specific F(ab')(2) antivenom would promptly resolve clinical symptoms in children with this syndrome...
  2. Gao R, Zhang Y, Gopalakrishnakone P. Purification and N-terminal sequence of a serine proteinase-like protein (BMK-CBP) from the venom of the Chinese scorpion (Buthus martensii Karsch). Toxicon. 2008;52:348-53 pubmed publisher
    ..When tested with commonly used substrates of proteinase, no significant hydrolytic activity was observed for BMK-CBP. The purified BMK-CBP was found to bind to the cancer cell line MCF-7 and the cell binding ability was dose-dependent...
  3. Remijsen Q, Verdonck F, Willems J. Parabutoporin, a cationic amphipathic peptide from scorpion venom: much more than an antibiotic. Toxicon. 2010;55:180-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, parabutoporin is a well documented scorpion venom peptide with immuno-regulatory properties beyond its antibiotic effects...
  4. Petricevich V. Scorpion venom and the inflammatory response. Mediators Inflamm. 2010;2010:903295 pubmed publisher
    ..The cytokines initiate a cascade of events that lead to illness behaviors such as fever, anorexia, and also physiological events in the host such as activation of vasodilatation, hypotension, and increased of vessel permeability...
  5. Ma Y, Zhao R, Li S, Fan S, Wu Y, Liu H, et al. Characterization of LmTxLP11 and LmVP1.1 transcripts and genomic organizations: alternative splicing contributing to the diversity of scorpion venom peptides. Toxicon. 2009;53:129-34 pubmed publisher
    ..1 is the first one harboring three introns ever reported from scorpion venoms. This work demonstrates for the first time that alternative splicing is involved in regulating the diversity of scorpion venom peptides...
  6. Zhu S, Gao B, Aumelas A, del Carmen Rodríguez M, Lanz Mendoza H, Peigneur S, et al. MeuTXKbeta1, a scorpion venom-derived two-domain potassium channel toxin-like peptide with cytolytic activity. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1804:872-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Our structural and functional data clearly indicate an evolutionary link between TsTXKbeta-related peptides and antiparasitic scorpines which both comprise the betaSPN (beta-KTxs and scorpines) family...
  7. Ozkan O, Carhan A. The neutralizing capacity of Androctonus crassicauda antivenom against Mesobuthus eupeus scorpion venom. Toxicon. 2008;52:375-9 pubmed publisher
    ..There are approximately 1,500 species of scorpions worldwide...
  8. Ma Y, He Y, Zhao R, Wu Y, Li W, Cao Z. Extreme diversity of scorpion venom peptides and proteins revealed by transcriptomic analysis: implication for proteome evolution of scorpion venom arsenal. J Proteomics. 2012;75:1563-76 pubmed publisher
    Venom is an important genetic development crucial to the survival of scorpions for over 400 million years...
  9. Schiavon E, Pedraza Escalona M, Gurrola G, Olamendi Portugal T, Corzo G, Wanke E, et al. Negative-shift activation, current reduction and resurgent currents induced by ?-toxins from Centruroides scorpions in sodium channels. Toxicon. 2012;59:283-93 pubmed publisher
    ..reports the results obtained with four different peptides purified from three species of Centruroides scorpions and assayed on seven distinct isoforms of VGSC (Na(v)1.1-Na(v)1...
  10. Celis A, Gaxiola Robles R, Sevilla Godínez E, Orozco Valerio M, Armas J. [Trends in mortality from scorpion stings in Mexico, 1979-2003]. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2007;21:373-80 pubmed
    ..To describe the trends in mortality from scorpion stings in Mexico as a whole and in each of its states for the period of 1979 to 2003...
  11. Matsushita N, Miyashita M, Sakai A, Nakagawa Y, Miyagawa H. Purification and characterization of a novel short-chain insecticidal toxin with two disulfide bridges from the venom of the scorpion Liocheles australasiae. Toxicon. 2007;50:861-7 pubmed
    ..Most of the scorpion toxins have been isolated from the venoms of scorpions in the family Buthidae, but little interest has been paid to non-Buthidae scorpions...
  12. Severino D, Pereira R, Knysak I, Cândido D, Kwasniewski F. Edematogenic activity of scorpion venoms from the Buthidae family and the role of platelet-activating factor and nitric oxide in paw edema induced by Tityus venoms. Inflammation. 2009;32:57-64 pubmed publisher
    We compared the edematogenic activity of venoms of scorpions from the Buthidae family, Tityus bahiensis (Tbv), Tityus serrulatus (Tsv) and Rhopalurus rochai (Rrv)...
  13. Gao B, Peigneur S, Tytgat J, Zhu S. A potent potassium channel blocker from Mesobuthus eupeus scorpion venom. Biochimie. 2010;92:1847-53 pubmed publisher
    ..3, an attractive target for T-cell mediated autoimmune diseases...
  14. Cherniack E. Bugs as drugs, part two: worms, leeches, scorpions, snails, ticks, centipedes, and spiders. Altern Med Rev. 2011;16:50-8 pubmed
    ..Predatory arthropods, such as certain species of snails, spiders, scorpions, centipedes, and ticks provide a trove of potential analgesic peptides in their venom...
  15. Corzo G, Papp F, Varga Z, Barraza O, Espino Solis P, Rodriguez de la Vega R, et al. A selective blocker of Kv1.2 and Kv1.3 potassium channels from the venom of the scorpion Centruroides suffusus suffusus. Biochem Pharmacol. 2008;76:1142-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the primary structure of Css20, the systematic nomenclature proposed for this toxin is alpha-KTx 2.13...
  16. Diego Garcia E, Peigneur S, Clynen E, Marien T, Czech L, Schoofs L, et al. Molecular diversity of the telson and venom components from Pandinus cavimanus (Scorpionidae Latreille 1802): transcriptome, venomics and function. Proteomics. 2012;12:313-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Expressed sequence tags from venom glands provide complementary information to MS and reveal undescribed components related to the biological activity of the venom...
  17. Dehghani R, Djadid N, Shahbazzadeh D, Bigdelli S. Introducing Compsobuthus matthiesseni (Birula, 1905) scorpion as one of the major stinging scorpions in Khuzestan, Iran. Toxicon. 2009;54:272-5 pubmed publisher
    Khuzestan province has the highest rate of scorpion sting in Iran. This is a study to identify these scorpions in Khuzestan...
  18. D Suze G, Schwartz E, García Gómez B, Sevcik C, Possani L. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence analysis of genes from a cDNA library of the scorpion Tityus discrepans. Biochimie. 2009;91:1010-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The N-terminal amino acid sequence of several peptides is reported here for the first time. A phylogenetic tree analysis is also reported, as well as three three-dimensional models of representative toxins...
  19. Zhiwu H, Junqiu Z, Chao G, Li W, Ren L. Erosion resistance of bionic functional surfaces inspired from desert scorpions. Langmuir. 2012;28:2914-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Results showed that the desert scorpions used special microtextures such as bumps and grooves to construct the functional surfaces to achieve the erosion ..
  20. Baird S, Kelly S, Price N, Jaenicke E, Meesters C, Nillius D, et al. Hemocyanin conformational changes associated with SDS-induced phenol oxidase activation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1774:1380-94 pubmed
  21. Schwartz E, Diego Garcia E, Rodriguez de la Vega R, Possani L. Transcriptome analysis of the venom gland of the Mexican scorpion Hadrurus gertschi (Arachnida: Scorpiones). BMC Genomics. 2007;8:119 pubmed
    b>Scorpions like other venomous animals possess a highly specialized organ that produces, secretes and disposes the venom components...
  22. Holderied M, Korine C, Moritz T. Hemprich's long-eared bat (Otonycteris hemprichii) as a predator of scorpions: whispering echolocation, passive gleaning and prey selection. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2011;197:425-33 pubmed publisher
    Over 70% of the droppings of the gleaning bat Otonycteris hemprichii can contain scorpion fragments. Yet, some scorpions found in its desert habitat possess venom of the highest known toxicity, rendering them a very dangerous prey...
  23. Bosnak M, Levent Yilmaz H, Ece A, Yildizdas D, Yolbas I, Kocamaz H, et al. Severe scorpion envenomation in children: Management in pediatric intensive care unit. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2009;28:721-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of antivenin and/or prazosin use on prognosis of scorpion-envenomed children admitted to pediatric intensive care unit (PICU)...
  24. Weinberger H, Moran Y, Gordon D, Turkov M, Kahn R, Gurevitz M. Positions under positive selection--key for selectivity and potency of scorpion alpha-toxins. Mol Biol Evol. 2010;27:1025-34 pubmed publisher
    ..target voltage-gated sodium channels (Na(v)s) and constitute an important component in the venom of Buthidae scorpions. These toxins are short polypeptides highly conserved in sequence and three-dimensional structure, and yet they ..
  25. Ma Y, Zhao Y, Zhao R, Zhang W, He Y, Wu Y, et al. Molecular diversity of toxic components from the scorpion Heterometrus petersii venom revealed by proteomic and transcriptome analysis. Proteomics. 2010;10:2471-85 pubmed publisher
    ..From the data presented here, the extreme diversity and convergence of toxic components in scorpion venom was uncovered. Our work demonstrates the power of combining transcriptomic and proteomic approaches in the study of animal venoms...
  26. Smith J, Hill J, Little M, Nicholson G, King G, Alewood P. Unique scorpion toxin with a putative ancestral fold provides insight into evolution of the inhibitor cystine knot motif. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:10478-83 pubmed publisher
    The three-disulfide inhibitor cystine knot (ICK) motif is a fold common to venom peptides from spiders, scorpions, and aquatic cone snails...
  27. Camargos T, Restano Cassulini R, Possani L, Peigneur S, Tytgat J, Schwartz C, et al. The new kappa-KTx 2.5 from the scorpion Opisthacanthus cayaporum. Peptides. 2011;32:1509-17 pubmed publisher
    ..The kappa-KTx family of peptides, which is the newest K?-channel blocker family from scorpion venom, is present in scorpions from the families Scorpionidae and Liochelidae...
  28. Nillius D, Jaenicke E, Decker H. Switch between tyrosinase and catecholoxidase activity of scorpion hemocyanin by allosteric effectors. FEBS Lett. 2008;582:749-54 pubmed publisher
    ..This demonstrates that substrate specificity is not caused by a chemical modification of the active site...
  29. Wu W, Yin S, Ma Y, Wu Y, Zhao R, Gan G, et al. Molecular cloning and electrophysiological studies on the first K(+) channel toxin (LmKTx8) derived from scorpion Lychas mucronatus. Peptides. 2007;28:2306-12 pubmed
    ..3 channels with an IC(50)=26.40+/-1.62nM, but 100nM rLmKTx8 did not block the BK currents. LmKTx8 or its analogs might serve as a potential candidate for the development of new drugs for autoimmune diseases...
  30. Rendón Anaya M, Delaye L, Possani L, Herrera Estrella A. Global transcriptome analysis of the scorpion Centruroides noxius: new toxin families and evolutionary insights from an ancestral scorpion species. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43331 pubmed publisher
  31. Bawaskar H, Bawaskar P. Efficacy and safety of scorpion antivenom plus prazosin compared with prazosin alone for venomous scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus) sting: randomised open label clinical trial. BMJ. 2011;342:c7136 pubmed publisher
    ..We assessed the efficacy of prazosin combined with scorpion antivenom, compared with prazosin alone, in individuals with autonomic storm caused by scorpion sting...
  32. Shijin Y, Hong Y, Yibao M, Zongyun C, Han S, Yingliang W, et al. Characterization of a new Kv1.3 channel-specific blocker, J123, from the scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch. Peptides. 2008;29:1514-20 pubmed publisher
    ..All these data not only enrich the knowledge of the structure-function relationship of the new Kv1.3-speicific peptide but also present a potential drug candidate for selectively targeting Kv1.3 channels...
  33. Fan S, Sun Z, Jiang D, Dai C, Ma Y, Zhao Z, et al. BmKCT toxin inhibits glioma proliferation and tumor metastasis. Cancer Lett. 2010;291:158-66 pubmed publisher
    ..5-conjugated BmKCT revealed that BmKCT selectively targeted the glioma in situ. Our data suggest that BmKCT could be exploited as a potential therapeutic for glioma diagnosis and therapy...
  34. Rodriguez de la Vega R, Schwartz E, Possani L. Mining on scorpion venom biodiversity. Toxicon. 2010;56:1155-61 pubmed publisher
  35. Fletcher P, Fletcher M, Weninger K, Anderson T, Martin B. Vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) cleavage by a new metalloprotease from the Brazilian scorpion Tityus serrulatus. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:7405-16 pubmed publisher
    ..We have isolated antarease, a metalloprotease from fraction nu that cleaves VAMP2, and report its amino acid sequence. ..
  36. Ramírez Carreto S, Quintero Hernández V, Jiménez Vargas J, Corzo G, Possani L, Becerril B, et al. Gene cloning and functional characterization of four novel antimicrobial-like peptides from scorpions of the family Vaejovidae. Peptides. 2012;34:290-5 pubmed publisher
    From the cDNA libraries made from the venom glands of two scorpions belonging to the Vaejovidae family, four different putative non disulfide-bridged antimicrobial peptides were identified: VmCT1 and VmCT2 from Vaejovis mexicanus smithi ..
  37. Borges A, Rojas Runjaic F, Diez N, Faks J, Op den Camp H, De Sousa L. Envenomation by the scorpion Tityus breweri in the Guayana Shield, Venezuela: report of a case, efficacy and reactivity of antivenom, and proposal for a toxinological partitioning of the Venezuelan scorpion fauna. Wilderness Environ Med. 2010;21:282-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Toxin composition and antigenic reactivity of T breweri venom were also explored. T breweri distribution range was re-evaluated...
  38. Baldo L, Prendini L, Corthals A, Werren J. Wolbachia are present in southern african scorpions and cluster with supergroup F. Curr Microbiol. 2007;55:367-73 pubmed
    ..Here we report the discovery of Wolbachia in scorpions. Five strains found in host species of the genus Opistophthalmus (Southern African burrowing scorpions) have ..
  39. Miyashita M, Otsuki J, Hanai Y, Nakagawa Y, Miyagawa H. Characterization of peptide components in the venom of the scorpion Liocheles australasiae (Hemiscorpiidae). Toxicon. 2007;50:428-37 pubmed
    ..A variety of toxins have been isolated from the venoms of scorpions of the family Buthidae, however, little interest has been paid to non-Buthidae scorpions...
  40. Venancio E, Portaro F, Kuniyoshi A, Carvalho D, Pidde Queiroz G, Tambourgi D. Enzymatic properties of venoms from Brazilian scorpions of Tityus genus and the neutralisation potential of therapeutical antivenoms. Toxicon. 2013;69:180-90 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we have analysed specific enzymatic activities of the venom from the Brazilian scorpions of Tityus genus, i.e., Tityus serrulatus, Tityus bahiensis and Tityus stigmurus...
  41. Amaro I, Riaño Umbarila L, Becerril B, Possani L. Isolation and characterization of a human antibody fragment specific for Ts1 toxin from Tityus serrulatus scorpion. Immunol Lett. 2011;139:73-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This scFv also recognizes toxins from the scorpions Tityus packyurus and Tityus cambridgei from the Amazonian region...
  42. Kozminsky Atias A, Somech E, Zilberberg N. Isolation of the first toxin from the scorpion Buthus occitanus israelis showing preference for Shaker potassium channels. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:2478-84 pubmed
    ..5+/-0.5nM, yet had much lesser effect on its mammalian orthologs. Thus, BoiTx1 is the first member of the alpha-KTx3 family that preferentially affects insect potassium channels...
  43. Gao B, Xu J, Rodriguez M, Lanz Mendoza H, Hernandez Rivas R, Du W, et al. Characterization of two linear cationic antimalarial peptides in the scorpion Mesobuthus eupeus. Biochimie. 2010;92:350-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Killing of intraerythrocytic P. falciparum without harming mammalian cells (erythrocytes and GC-2 cell) make them attractive candidates for antimalarial drug design...
  44. Cologna C, Marcussi S, Giglio J, Soares A, Arantes E. Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom and toxins: an overview. Protein Pept Lett. 2009;16:920-32 pubmed
  45. Ma Y, Zhao R, He Y, Li S, Liu J, Wu Y, et al. Transcriptome analysis of the venom gland of the scorpion Scorpiops jendeki: implication for the evolution of the scorpion venom arsenal. BMC Genomics. 2009;10:290 pubmed publisher
    ..However, no studies have been conducted on the venom of a Euscorpiidae species yet. In this work, we performed a transcriptomic approach for characterizing the venom components from a Euscorpiidae scorpion, Scorpiops jendeki...
  46. Bringans S, Eriksen S, Kendrick T, Gopalakrishnakone P, Livk A, Lock R, et al. Proteomic analysis of the venom of Heterometrus longimanus (Asian black scorpion). Proteomics. 2008;8:1081-96 pubmed publisher
    ..As a validation of this approach, the functional composition of the experimentally derived proteome is similar to that of other scorpions, and contains a potent mix of toxins, antimicrobials and ionic channel inhibitors.
  47. Kozminsky Atias A, Bar Shalom A, Mishmar D, Zilberberg N. Assembling an arsenal, the scorpion way. BMC Evol Biol. 2008;8:333 pubmed publisher
    For survival, scorpions depend on a wide array of short neurotoxic polypeptides...
  48. Dai C, Ma Y, Zhao Z, Zhao R, Wang Q, Wu Y, et al. Mucroporin, the first cationic host defense peptide from the venom of Lychas mucronatus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008;52:3967-72 pubmed publisher
    ..These results showed that mucroporin could be considered a potential anti-infective drug, especially for treating antibiotic-resistant pathogens...
  49. Natu V, Kamerkar S, Geeta K, Vidya K, Natu V, Sane S, et al. Efficacy of anti-scorpion venom serum over prazosin in the management of severe scorpion envenomation. J Postgrad Med. 2010;56:275-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Scorpion venoms cause a massive release of neurotransmitters. Either anti-scorpion venom serum (AScVS) or prazosin has been used in the management of severe scorpion envenomation...
  50. Schwartz E, Camargos T, Zamudio F, Silva L, Bloch C, Caixeta F, et al. Mass spectrometry analysis, amino acid sequence and biological activity of venom components from the Brazilian scorpion Opisthacanthus cayaporum. Toxicon. 2008;51:1499-508 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparative analysis of venom from male and female O. cayaporum was performed by HPLC and MALDI-TOF-MS showing no qualitative variations, but rather quantitative differences among both samples...
  51. Rodriguez A, Zerpa H, Ruiz A, Bermudez V, Garcia F, Silva A, et al. Effect of clonidine in mice injected with Tityus discrepans scorpion venom. Toxicon. 2013;63:70-7 pubmed publisher
  52. Chen Z, Hu Y, Yang W, He Y, Feng J, Wang B, et al. Hg1, novel peptide inhibitor specific for Kv1.3 channels from first scorpion Kunitz-type potassium channel toxin family. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:13813-21 pubmed publisher
    ..3 channels. Their structural and functional diversity strongly suggest that Kunitz-type toxins are a new source to screen and design potential peptides for diagnosing and treating Kv1.3-mediated autoimmune diseases...
  53. Zhao Z, Ma Y, Dai C, Zhao R, Li S, Wu Y, et al. Imcroporin, a new cationic antimicrobial peptide from the venom of the scorpion Isometrus maculates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:3472-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results revealed that imcroporin could be considered a potential anti-infective drug or lead compound, especially for treating antibiotic-resistant pathogens...
  54. Jalali A, Pipelzadeh M, Sayedian R, Rowan E. A review of epidemiological, clinical and in vitro physiological studies of envenomation by the scorpion Hemiscorpius lepturus (Hemiscorpiidae) in Iran. Toxicon. 2010;55:173-9 pubmed publisher
    ..lepturus using both in vivo and in vitro data and where appropriate, details of methods and ethics statements will be reported...
  55. King G, Gentz M, Escoubas P, Nicholson G. A rational nomenclature for naming peptide toxins from spiders and other venomous animals. Toxicon. 2008;52:264-76 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, we introduce a rational nomenclature that can be applied to the naming of peptide toxins from spiders and other venomous animals...
  56. Khattabi A, Soulaymani Bencheikh R, Achour S, Salmi L. Classification of clinical consequences of scorpion stings: consensus development. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2011;105:364-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These consensus-based tools should facilitate development of international clinical studies...
  57. Shi C, Ji Y, Liu L, Wang L, Zhang D. Impact of climate changes from Middle Miocene onwards on evolutionary diversification in Eurasia: insights from the mesobuthid scorpions. Mol Ecol. 2013;22:1700-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we tested this perspective by a phylogeographic study of the mesobuthid scorpions across temperate Asia using one mitochondrial and three nuclear genes...
  58. YAMASHITA T, Rhoads D. Species delimitation and morphological divergence in the scorpion Centruroides vittatus (Say, 1821): insights from phylogeography. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e68282 pubmed publisher
    ..the western hemisphere is a prime example of the difficulty in untangling the taxonomic complexity within buthid scorpions. In this paper, we present phylogeographic, Ecological Niche Modeling, and morphometric analyses to further ..
  59. Borges A, Rojas Runjaic F. Tityus perijanensis González-Sponga (Scorpiones, Buthidae): molecular assessment of its geographical distribution and venom lethality of Venezuelan populations. Toxicon. 2007;50:1005-10 pubmed
    ..serrulatus and ranks highest among toxic Venezuelan Tityus studied so far. The data indicate that the Perijá range should be included amongst the endemic areas of scorpionism of Venezuela and Colombia...
  60. Shao J, Wang Y, Wu X, Jiang R, Zhang R, Wu C, et al. Cloning, expression, and pharmacological activity of BmK AS, an active peptide from scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch. Biotechnol Lett. 2008;30:23-9 pubmed
    ..BmK AS is the first long-chain scorpion peptide reported to have antimicrobial activity, and is a valuable molecular scaffold for pharmacological research...
  61. Lourenço W. Humiculous scorpions: on the genera Ananteris Thorell, 1891 and Microananteris Lourenço, 2004 (Scorpiones: Buthidae), with the description of a new species from French Guiana. C R Biol. 2012;335:555-61 pubmed publisher
    ..New considerations about the ecology and biogeography of micro-scorpions of the 'Ananteris group' (sensu subfamily Ananterinae Pocock, 1900), are proposed in relation to their possible ..
  62. Bawaskar H, Bawaskar P. Utility of scorpion antivenin vs prazosin in the management of severe Mesobuthus tamulus (Indian red scorpion) envenoming at rural setting. J Assoc Physicians India. 2007;55:14-21 pubmed
    ..We compared the effects of SAV Vs Prazosin (PRA) in the management of severe scorpion stung cases at rural setting in a non-randomised open label manner...