ixodes

Summary

Summary: The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.

Top Publications

  1. Gern L, Douet V, López Z, Rais O, Cadenas F. Diversity of Borrelia genospecies in Ixodes ricinus ticks in a Lyme borreliosis endemic area in Switzerland identified by using new probes for reverse line blotting. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2010;1:23-9 pubmed publisher
    In Europe, 7 Borrelia species belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex have been reported in Ixodes ricinus ticks. In addition, another Borrelia, related to the relapsing fever spirochaetes, has also been described...
  2. Lovrich S, Jobe D, Kowalski T, Policepatil S, Callister S. Expansion of the Midwestern focus for human granulocytic anaplasmosis into the region surrounding La Crosse, Wisconsin. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:3855-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Although La Crosse, WI, is a well-recognized Lyme disease focus with an abundance of Ixodes scapularis vector ticks and the first documentation of HGA occurred in patients from northwestern Wisconsin, local ..
  3. Ruiz Fons F, Fernandez de Mera I, Acevedo P, Gortazar C, De La Fuente J. Factors driving the abundance of ixodes ricinus ticks and the prevalence of zoonotic I. ricinus-borne pathogens in natural foci. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:2669-76 pubmed publisher
    ..the aim of this study was to analyze the influence of environmental factors on the abundance of immature-stage Ixodes ricinus ticks and on the prevalence of two zoonotic I. ricinus-borne pathogens in natural foci of endemicity. I...
  4. Pichu S, Yalcin E, Ribeiro J, King R, Mather T. Molecular characterization of novel sulfotransferases from the tick, Ixodes scapularis. BMC Biochem. 2011;12:32 pubmed publisher
    b>Ixodes scapularis, commonly known as the blacklegged or deer tick, is the main vector of Lyme disease in the United States...
  5. Mariconti M, Epis S, Gaibani P, Dalla Valle C, Sassera D, Tomao P, et al. Humans parasitized by the hard tick Ixodes ricinus are seropositive to Midichloria mitochondrii: is Midichloria a novel pathogen, or just a marker of tick bite?. Pathog Glob Health. 2012;106:391-6 pubmed publisher
    Midichloria mitochondrii is an intracellular bacterium found in the hard tick Ixodes ricinus. In this arthropod, M...
  6. Liu L, Narasimhan S, Dai J, Zhang L, Cheng G, Fikrig E. Ixodes scapularis salivary gland protein P11 facilitates migration of Anaplasma phagocytophilum from the tick gut to salivary glands. EMBO Rep. 2011;12:1196-203 pubmed publisher
    b>Ixodes ticks harbour several human pathogens belonging to the order Rickettsiales, including Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the agent of human anaplasmosis. When ticks feed on A...
  7. Konnai S, Yamada S, Imamura S, Nishikado H, Githaka N, Ito T, et al. Identification of TROSPA homologue in Ixodes persulcatus Schulze, the specific vector for human Lyme borreliosis in Japan. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2012;3:75-7 pubmed publisher
    The tick receptor for outer surface protein A (TROSPA) is an Ixodes scapularis (I. scapularis) receptor for Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi), the causative agent of Lyme disease in North America...
  8. Dubska L, Literak I, Kverek P, Roubalova E, Kocianova E, Taragelova V. Tick-borne zoonotic pathogens in ticks feeding on the common nightingale including a novel strain of Rickettsia sp. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2012;3:265-8 pubmed publisher
    We examined 77 Ixodes ricinus ticks found on 33 out of 120 common nightingales (Luscinia megarhynchos) sampled in the Czech Republic in 2008 for the presence of Borrelia spirochetes, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp...
  9. Sprong H, Hofhuis A, Gassner F, Takken W, Jacobs F, van Vliet A, et al. Circumstantial evidence for an increase in the total number and activity of Borrelia-infected Ixodes ricinus in the Netherlands. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:294 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to determine whether an increase in the number of questing ticks infected with B. burgdorferi sensu lato is a potential cause of the rise in Lyme disease incidence...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Herrmann C, Voordouw M, Gern L. Ixodes ricinus ticks infected with the causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, have higher energy reserves. Int J Parasitol. 2013;43:477-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The relationship between Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) infection status and fat content in questing Ixodes ricinus nymphs was examined. Nymphs were sampled from the field...
  2. Naranjo V, Ayllón N, Pérez de la Lastra J, Galindo R, Kocan K, Blouin E, et al. Reciprocal regulation of NF-kB (Relish) and Subolesin in the tick vector, Ixodes scapularis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e65915 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to characterize the structure and regulation of subolesin in Ixodes scapularis. I...
  3. Busby A, Ayllón N, Kocan K, Blouin E, de la Fuente G, Galindo R, et al. Expression of heat shock proteins and subolesin affects stress responses, Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection and questing behaviour in the tick, Ixodes scapularis. Med Vet Entomol. 2012;26:92-102 pubmed publisher
    We characterized the effects of subolesin and heat shock protein (HSP) expression on Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae) stress responses to heat shock and feeding, questing behaviour and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Rickettsiales: ..
  4. Michalik J, Stanczak J, Cieniuch S, Racewicz M, Sikora B, Dabert M. Wild boars as hosts of human-pathogenic Anaplasma phagocytophilum variants. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:998-1001 pubmed publisher
    ..phagocytophilum variants, including a predominance of strains known to cause human disease. Boars are thus hosts for A. phagocytophilum, notably, strains associated with human granulocytic anaplasmosis...
  5. Reis C, Cote M, Le Rhun D, Lecuelle B, Levin M, Vayssier Taussat M, et al. Vector competence of the tick Ixodes ricinus for transmission of Bartonella birtlesii. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1186 pubmed publisher
    ..We used a murine model to assess the vector competence of Ixodes ricinus for Bartonella birtlesii. Larval and nymphal I. ricinus were fed on a B. birtlesii-infected mouse...
  6. Mihalca A, Sándor A. The role of rodents in the ecology of Ixodes ricinus and associated pathogens in Central and Eastern Europe. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2013;3:56 pubmed publisher
    ..In Eastern Europe, several adult hard-tick species use rodents as their principal hosts: Ixodes apronophorus, I. crenulatus, I. laguri, I. redikorzevi, I. trianguliceps...
  7. Padgett K, Bonilla D. Novel exposure sites for nymphal Ixodes pacificus within picnic areas. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2011;2:191-5 pubmed publisher
    Risk of exposure to nymphal Ixodes pacificus Cooley and Kohls ticks was investigated at 7 picnic areas in Tilden Regional Park, a heavily used recreation area of over 2000 acres in northwestern California, east of San Francisco Bay...
  8. Dunham Ems S, Caimano M, Eggers C, Radolf J. Borrelia burgdorferi requires the alternative sigma factor RpoS for dissemination within the vector during tick-to-mammal transmission. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002532 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that spirochetes default to an RpoS-independent program for round body formation upon sensing that the energetics for transmission are unfavorable...
  9. Capelli G, Ravagnan S, Montarsi F, Ciocchetta S, Cazzin S, Porcellato E, et al. Occurrence and identification of risk areas of Ixodes ricinus-borne pathogens: a cost-effectiveness analysis in north-eastern Italy. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:61 pubmed publisher
    b>Ixodes ricinus, a competent vector of several pathogens, is the tick species most frequently reported to bite humans in Europe...
  10. Wallménius K, Pettersson J, Jaenson T, Nilsson K. Prevalence of Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Coxiella burnetii in adult Ixodes ricinus ticks from 29 study areas in central and southern Sweden. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2012;3:100-6 pubmed publisher
    A total of 887 adult Ixodes ricinus ticks (469 females and 418 males) from 29 different localities in Sweden were screened for Rickettsia, Anaplasma, and Coxiella DNA using PCR and then subjected to gene sequencing...
  11. Silaghi C, Skuballa J, Thiel C, Pfister K, Petney T, Pfäffle M, et al. The European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus)--a suitable reservoir for variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum?. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2012;3:49-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Erinaceus europaeus) is a common insectivore in most parts of Europe and is frequently infested by the ticks Ixodes ricinus and I. hexagonus. I...
  12. Subramanian G, Sekeyova Z, Raoult D, Mediannikov O. Multiple tick-associated bacteria in Ixodes ricinus from Slovakia. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2012;3:406-10 pubmed publisher
    Eighty Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in the Rovinka forest in Slovakia were tested by real-time and routine single-step PCR for the presence of different pathogenic and endosymbiotic bacteria...
  13. Skuballa J, Petney T, Pfäffle M, Oehme R, Hartelt K, Fingerle V, et al. Occurrence of different Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies including B. afzelii, B. bavariensis, and B. spielmanii in hedgehogs (Erinaceus spp.) in Europe. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2012;3:8-13 pubmed publisher
    ..burgdorferi s.l. genospecies in various habitats. We hypothesise that juvenile or individuals with low immune competence in particular, have a high reservoir potential for the 3 genospecies identified here...
  14. Lommano E, Burri C, Maeder G, Guerne M, Bastic V, Patalas E, et al. Prevalence and genotyping of tick-borne encephalitis virus in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in a new endemic area in western Switzerland. J Med Entomol. 2012;49:156-64 pubmed
    ..TBEV is transmitted by ticks of the genus Ixodes. Currently 10,000-12,000 clinical cases are reported annually in approximately 30 TBE endemic countries...
  15. Jaenson T, Jaenson D, Eisen L, Petersson E, Lindgren E. Changes in the geographical distribution and abundance of the tick Ixodes ricinus during the past 30 years in Sweden. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:8 pubmed publisher
    b>Ixodes ricinus is the main vector in Europe of human-pathogenic Lyme borreliosis (LB) spirochaetes, the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and other pathogens of humans and domesticated mammals...
  16. Schicht S, Junge S, Schnieder T, Strube C. Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and coinfection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in the hard tick Ixodes ricinus in the city of Hanover (Germany). Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011;11:1595-7 pubmed publisher
    The castor bean tick Ixodes ricinus has been found to be the main vector for Lyme borreliosis spirochetes and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Central Europe. 1646 I...
  17. JOHNSON R, Kodner C, Jarnefeld J, Eck D, Xu Y. Agents of human anaplasmosis and Lyme disease at Camp Ripley, Minnesota. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011;11:1529-34 pubmed publisher
    The transmission dynamics of Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Ap) and Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) among Ixodes scapularis (Is) and mammalian hosts was investigated at Camp Ripley, an area representative of central Minnesota...
  18. Herrmann C, Gern L, Voordouw M. Species co-occurrence patterns among Lyme borreliosis pathogens in the tick vector Ixodes ricinus. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2013;79:7273-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Spirochete bacteria belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies complex are transmitted by Ixodes ticks and cause Lyme borreliosis in humans...
  19. Rosen M, Hamer S, Gerhardt R, Jones C, Muller L, Scott M, et al. Borrelia burgdorferi not detected in widespread Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from white-tailed deer in Tennessee. J Med Entomol. 2012;49:1473-80 pubmed
    ..caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted in the eastern United States by blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say, is classified as nonendemic in Tennessee and surrounding states in the Southeast...
  20. Karelis G, Bormane A, Logina I, Lucenko I, Suna N, Krumina A, et al. Tick-borne encephalitis in Latvia 1973-2009: epidemiology, clinical features and sequelae. Eur J Neurol. 2012;19:62-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To report a 37-year observational experience in Latvia relating the incidence of human tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and its clinical manifestations, to the field abundance of ticks...
  21. Ayllón N, Villar M, Busby A, Kocan K, Blouin E, Bonzon Kulichenko E, et al. Anaplasma phagocytophilum inhibits apoptosis and promotes cytoskeleton rearrangement for infection of tick cells. Infect Immun. 2013;81:2415-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Infection with this zoonotic pathogen affects gene expression in both the vertebrate host and the tick vector, Ixodes scapularis...
  22. Dunn J, Davis S, Stacey A, Diuk Wasser M. A simple model for the establishment of tick-borne pathogens of Ixodes scapularis: a global sensitivity analysis of R0. J Theor Biol. 2013;335:213-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the transmission efficiency from the vertebrate host to Ixodes scapularis ticks, the survival rate of Ixodes scapularis from fed larva to feeding nymph, and the fraction of ..
  23. Coipan E, Jahfari S, Fonville M, Maassen C, van der Giessen J, Takken W, et al. Spatiotemporal dynamics of emerging pathogens in questing Ixodes ricinus. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2013;3:36 pubmed publisher
    b>Ixodes ricinus transmits Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the etiological agent of Lyme disease...
  24. Bensaci M, Bhattacharya D, Clark R, Hu L. Oral vaccination with vaccinia virus expressing the tick antigen subolesin inhibits tick feeding and transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi. Vaccine. 2012;30:6040-6 pubmed publisher
    Immunization with the Ixodes scapularis protein, subolesin, has previously been shown to protect hosts against tick infestation and to decrease acquisition of Anaplsma marginale and Babesia bigemina...
  25. Lieskovska J, Kopecky J. Effect of tick saliva on signalling pathways activated by TLR-2 ligand and Borrelia afzelii in dendritic cells. Parasite Immunol. 2012;34:421-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To elucidate the mechanism of this inhibition, we tested the impact of Ixodes ricinus tick saliva on signalling pathways activated by Toll-like receptor (TLR-2) ligand and Borrelia afzelii in ..
  26. Wright S, Tucker J, Donohue A, Castro M, Kelley K, Novak M, et al. Avian hosts of Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) and the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in larvae feeding on the Oregon junco. J Med Entomol. 2011;48:852-9 pubmed
    Larval and nymphal western blacklegged tick, Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls (Acari: Ixodidae), were collected from birds, rodents, and lizards at Quail Ridge Reserve located in Napa County in northwestern California...
  27. De Sousa R, Lopes de Carvalho I, Santos A, Bernardes C, Milhano N, Jesus J, et al. Role of the lizard Teira dugesii as a potential host for Ixodes ricinus tick-borne pathogens. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:3767-9 pubmed publisher
    ..seems to indicate a potential role of this lizard species in the maintenance and transmission cycle of some Ixodes ricinus tick-borne agents, such as Rickettsia monacensis, Rickettsia helvetica, and Borrelia lusitaniae, that are ..
  28. Eggers C, Caimano M, Malizia R, Kariu T, Cusack B, Desrosiers D, et al. The coenzyme A disulphide reductase of Borrelia burgdorferi is important for rapid growth throughout the enzootic cycle and essential for infection of the mammalian host. Mol Microbiol. 2011;82:679-97 pubmed publisher
    ..burgdorferi...
  29. Roellig D, Fang Q. Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ixodid ticks from equine-inhabited sites in the Southeastern United States. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2012;12:330-2 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to determine A. phagocytophilum prevalence in Ixodes scapularis ticks at southeastern U.S...
  30. Radolf J, Caimano M, Stevenson B, Hu L. Of ticks, mice and men: understanding the dual-host lifestyle of Lyme disease spirochaetes. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2012;10:87-99 pubmed publisher
  31. Hamer S, Hickling G, Sidge J, Walker E, Tsao J. Synchronous phenology of juvenile Ixodes scapularis, vertebrate host relationships, and associated patterns of Borrelia burgdorferi ribotypes in the midwestern United States. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2012;3:65-74 pubmed publisher
    ..that affect human risk of infection, we conducted a longitudinal study of the phenology of the vector tick, Ixodes scapularis, at a newly invaded site in the north-central United States...
  32. Mechai S, Feil E, Gariepy T, Gregory T, Lindsay L, Millien V, et al. Investigation of the population structure of the tick vector of Lyme disease Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in Canada using mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I gene sequences. J Med Entomol. 2013;50:560-70 pubmed
    Genotyping of Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks could enhance understanding of the occurrence and genotypes of I. scapularis-borne pathogens...
  33. Medlock J, Hansford K, Bormane A, Derdakova M, Estrada Pena A, George J, et al. Driving forces for changes in geographical distribution of Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe. Parasit Vectors. 2013;6:1 pubmed publisher
    Many factors are involved in determining the latitudinal and altitudinal spread of the important tick vector Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Europe, as well as in changes in the distribution within its prior endemic zones...
  34. Dobson A, Taylor J, Randolph S. Tick (Ixodes ricinus) abundance and seasonality at recreational sites in the UK: hazards in relation to fine-scale habitat types revealed by complementary sampling methods. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2011;2:67-74 pubmed publisher
    The seasonal risk to humans of picking up Ixodes ricinus ticks in different habitats at 3 recreational sites in the UK was assessed...
  35. McNally K, Mitzel D, Anderson J, Ribeiro J, Valenzuela J, Myers T, et al. Differential salivary gland transcript expression profile in Ixodes scapularis nymphs upon feeding or flavivirus infection. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2012;3:18-26 pubmed publisher
    ..profile in ticks, a first-generation microarray was developed using ESTs from a cDNA library derived from Ixodes scapularis salivary glands...
  36. Rymaszewska A, Piotrowski M. Use of DNA sequences for Rickettsia identification in Ixodes ricinus ticks: the first detection of Rickettsia monacensis in Poland. Microbes Infect. 2013;15:140-6 pubmed publisher
    The cosmopolitan tick Ixodes ricinus inhabiting Europe, including Poland, is a vector for many pathogens, such as various Rickettsia species, which spread to new territories...
  37. Schwarz A, Honig V, Vavrušková Z, Grubhoffer L, Balczun C, Albring A, et al. Abundance of Ixodes ricinus and prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in the nature reserve Siebengebirge, Germany, in comparison to three former studies from 1978 onwards. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:268 pubmed publisher
    During the last decades, population densities of Ixodes ricinus and prevalences of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. have increased in different regions in Europe...
  38. Dyachenko V, Geiger C, Pantchev N, Majzoub M, Bell Sakyi L, Krupka I, et al. Isolation of canine Anaplasma phagocytophilum strains from clinical blood samples using the Ixodes ricinus cell line IRE/CTVM20. Vet Microbiol. 2013;162:980-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously A. phagocytophilum has been isolated and propagated in cell lines derived from the tick Ixodes scapularis and in the human promyelocytic cell line HL60...
  39. Menten Dedoyart C, Faccinetto C, Golovchenko M, Dupiereux I, Van Lerberghe P, Dubois S, et al. Neutrophil extracellular traps entrap and kill Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto spirochetes and are not affected by Ixodes ricinus tick saliva. J Immunol. 2012;189:5393-401 pubmed publisher
    ..Lyme disease is caused by spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. They are transmitted mainly by Ixodes ricinus ticks. After a few hours of infestation, neutrophils massively infiltrate the bite site...
  40. Richter D, Matuschka F, Spielman A, Mahadevan L. How ticks get under your skin: insertion mechanics of the feeding apparatus of Ixodes ricinus ticks. Proc Biol Sci. 2013;280:20131758 pubmed publisher
    The tick Ixodes ricinus uses its mouthparts to penetrate the skin of its host and to remain attached for about a week, during which time Lyme disease spirochaetes may pass from the tick to the host...
  41. Najm N, Silaghi C, Bell Sakyi L, Pfister K, Passos L. Detection of bacteria related to Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii in tick cell lines. Parasitol Res. 2012;110:437-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, eight cell lines derived from the ticks Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes scapularis, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus were ..
  42. Spitalska E, Literak I, Kocianova E, Taragel ová V. The importance of Ixodes arboricola in transmission of Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in the Czech Republic, Central Europe. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011;11:1235-41 pubmed publisher
    ..A total of 549 subadult ticks of three species Ixodes arboricola (75.0%), Ixodes ricinus (23.1%), and Haemaphysalis concinna (1...
  43. Geller J, Nazarova L, Katargina O, Golovljova I. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato prevalence in tick populations in Estonia. Parasit Vectors. 2013;6:202 pubmed publisher
    Estonia is located in a unique area of co-distribution of Ixodes ricinus and I. persulcatus, which are the main tick vectors of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato...
  44. Dumont P, Blair J, Fourie J, Chester T, Larsen D. Evaluation of the efficacy of afoxolaner against two European dog tick species: Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus. Vet Parasitol. 2014;201:216-9 pubmed publisher
    ..NEXGARD(®), Merial) against two European tick species was assessed in dogs experimentally infested with Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus...
  45. Bettridge J, Renard M, Zhao F, Bown K, Birtles R. Distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus populations across central Britain. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2013;13:139-46 pubmed publisher
    ..l.) group of spirochetes, which are transmitted by ixodid ticks. In the United Kingdom, Ixodes ricinus is recognized as the principal vector of the spirochetes, and this tick species is widely distributed ..
  46. Overzier E, Pfister K, Thiel C, Herb I, Mahling M, Silaghi C. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks: comparison of prevalences and partial 16S rRNA gene variants in urban, pasture, and natural habitats. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2013;79:1730-4 pubmed publisher
    ..areas were investigated for prevalences and 16S rRNA gene variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks...
  47. Rudenko N, Golovchenko M, Grubhoffer L, Oliver J. The rare ospC allele L of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, commonly found among samples collected in a coastal plain area of the southeastern United States, is associated with ixodes affinis ticks and local rodent hosts Peromyscus gossypinus and S. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2013;79:1403-6 pubmed publisher
    ..rare ospC allele L was detected in 30% of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strains cultured from a tick species, Ixodes affinis, and two rodent host species, Peromyscus gossypinus and Sigmodon hispidus, collected in a coastal plain ..
  48. Silaghi C, Woll D, Hamel D, Pfister K, Mahling M, Pfeffer M. Babesia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing ticks, ticks parasitizing rodents and the parasitized rodents--analyzing the host-pathogen-vector interface in a metropolitan area. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:191 pubmed publisher
    ..and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in restored areas in both questing and host-attached Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus and their small mammalian hosts.
  49. Pepin K, Eisen R, Mead P, Piesman J, Fish D, Hoen A, et al. Geographic variation in the relationship between human Lyme disease incidence and density of infected host-seeking Ixodes scapularis nymphs in the Eastern United States. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012;86:1062-71 pubmed publisher
    ..of Lyme disease is difficult because of the complex biology of the pathogen's (Borrelia burgdorferi) vector (Ixodes scapularis) and multiple reservoir hosts with varying degrees of competence...
  50. Liu L, Dai J, Zhao Y, Narasimhan S, Yang Y, Zhang L, et al. Ixodes scapularis JAK-STAT pathway regulates tick antimicrobial peptides, thereby controlling the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis. J Infect Dis. 2012;206:1233-41 pubmed
    b>Ixodes scapularis transmits the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, among other pathogens. The mechanisms used by the tick to control Anaplasma phagocytophilum are not known. We demonstrate that the I...
  51. Sprong H, Tijsse Klasen E, Langelaar M, de Bruin A, Fonville M, Gassner F, et al. Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in ticks after a large outbreak of Q fever. Zoonoses Public Health. 2012;59:69-75 pubmed publisher
    ..A total of 1891 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks and 1086 ticks feeding on pets, wildlife and livestock were tested by a recently developed multiplex ..
  52. Asman M, Nowak M, Cuber P, Strzelczyk J, Szilman E, Szilman P, et al. The risk of exposure to Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Babesia sp. and co-infections in Ixodes ricinus ticks on the territory of Niepo?omice forest (southern Poland). Ann Parasitol. 2013;59:13-9 pubmed
    ..values, as well as wide range of hosts occurring within indicate this to be an area of high risk of exposure to Ixodes ricinus and tick-borne diseases it transfers. I. ricinus is a common species in Poland and Europe...
  53. Rejmanek D, Nieto N, Barash N, Foley J. Temporal patterns of tick-borne granulocytic anaplasmosis in California. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2011;2:81-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The abundance of different life stages of questing Ixodes pacificus ticks fluctuated seasonally with the number of adults peaking December to February, nymphs peaking May ..