dermacentor

Summary

Summary: A widely distributed genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, including a number that infest humans and other mammals. Several are vectors of diseases such as TULAREMIA; ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; COLORADO TICK FEVER; and ANAPLASMOSIS.

Top Publications

  1. Dautel H, Dippel C, Oehme R, Hartelt K, Schettler E. Evidence for an increased geographical distribution of Dermacentor reticulatus in Germany and detection of Rickettsia sp. RpA4. Int J Med Microbiol. 2006;296 Suppl 40:149-56 pubmed
    Two studies were performed to elucidate the current distribution of the tick Dermacentor reticulatus in Germany...
  2. Siroký P, Kubelová M, Bednar M, Modry D, Hubalek Z, Tkadlec E. The distribution and spreading pattern of Dermacentor reticulatus over its threshold area in the Czech Republic--how much is range of this vector expanding?. Vet Parasitol. 2011;183:130-5 pubmed publisher
    Host-seeking Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were detected by flagging method at 46 localities at south-east part of the Czech Republic, in the basins of rivers Morava and Dyje. Exact north-west distribution limits of D...
  3. Dupejova J, Sterba J, Vancova M, Grubhoffer L. Hemelipoglycoprotein from the ornate sheep tick, Dermacentor marginatus: structural and functional characterization. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:4 pubmed publisher
    ..The main aim of this study is the biochemical characterization of a carrier protein from the ornate sheep tick Dermacentor marginatus, hemelipoglycoprotein, with emphasis on its size in native conditions, its glycosylation and ..
  4. Ceraul S, Dreher Lesnick S, Mulenga A, Rahman M, Azad A. Functional characterization and novel rickettsiostatic effects of a Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor from the tick Dermacentor variabilis. Infect Immun. 2008;76:5429-35 pubmed publisher
    ..the novel bacteriostatic function of a five-domain Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor (KPI) from the tick Dermacentor variabilis...
  5. Bogdaszewska Z. [Range and ecology of Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794) in Mazuria focus. IV. Host specificity]. Wiad Parazytol. 2005;51:39-42 pubmed
    ..9%, with mean intensity at the level of 10.2. In wild boars the indices were 22.2% and 12.8, respectively. Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were not found in any of the examined 14 roe deer. Three adult ticks were found on the elk...
  6. Mulenga A, Macaluso K, Simser J, Azad A. The American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, encodes a functional histamine release factor homolog. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2003;33:911-9 pubmed
    We have identified a functional Dermacentor variabilis histamine release factor (DVHRF) homolog and shown that it is a secreted tick saliva protein...
  7. Dumont P, Blair J, Fourie J, Chester T, Larsen D. Evaluation of the efficacy of afoxolaner against two European dog tick species: Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus. Vet Parasitol. 2014;201:216-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Merial) against two European tick species was assessed in dogs experimentally infested with Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus...
  8. Khalil S, Donohue K, Thompson D, Jeffers L, Ananthapadmanaban U, Sonenshine D, et al. Full-length sequence, regulation and developmental studies of a second vitellogenin gene from the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis. J Insect Physiol. 2011;57:400-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In a previous report, we isolated and characterized the first Vg message from the American dog tick Dermacentor variabilis. In the current study, we describe a second Vg gene from the same tick...
  9. Bullova E, Lukan M, Stanko M, Petko B. Spatial distribution of Dermacentor reticulatus tick in Slovakia in the beginning of the 21st century. Vet Parasitol. 2009;165:357-60 pubmed publisher
    A new field survey monitoring the spatial distribution of Dermacentor (D.) reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794) tick in Slovakia was carried out in 2005-2008 in order to record changes in its distribution when compared to former studies...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Selmi M, Bertolotti L, Tomassone L, Mannelli A. Rickettsia slovaca in Dermacentor marginatus and tick-borne lymphadenopathy, Tuscany, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:817-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Of the ticks, 17 were Dermacentor marginatus; 6 (35.3%) of these were identified by sequence analysis as containing Rickettsia slovaca...
  2. Lin T, Gao L, Seyfang A, Oliver J. 'Candidatus Borrelia texasensis', from the American dog tick Dermacentor variabilis. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2005;55:685-93 pubmed
    TXW-1, a Borrelia strain isolated in March 1998 from an adult male Dermacentor variabilis tick feeding on a coyote from Webb county, Texas, USA, was characterized by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis, RFLP and ..
  3. Macaluso K, Mulenga A, Simser J, Azad A. Interactions between rickettsiae and Dermacentor variabilis ticks: analysis of gene expression. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003;990:568-72 pubmed
    ..In the tick, Dermacentor variabilis, the infection of, and persistence within, the ovaries are critical steps in the transmission cycle ..
  4. Bior A, Essenberg R, Sauer J. Comparison of differentially expressed genes in the salivary glands of male ticks, Amblyomma americanum and Dermacentor andersoni. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2002;32:645-55 pubmed
    ..were identified, cloned and sequenced, and some were compared with those expressed in the salivary glands of Dermacentor andersoni. Total protein and RNA increased sixfold in the salivary glands of fed male A...
  5. Reese S, Dietrich G, Dolan M, Sheldon S, Piesman J, Petersen J, et al. Transmission dynamics of Francisella tularensis subspecies and clades by nymphal Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae). Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;83:645-52 pubmed publisher
    In the United States, the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Say) is considered an important biological vector of Francisella tularensis, the etiologic agent of tularemia...
  6. Lysyk T, Scoles G. Reproductive compatibility of prairie and montane populations of Dermacentor andersoni. J Med Entomol. 2008;45:1064-70 pubmed
    Genetic analysis of prairie and montane populations of Dermacentor andersoni (Stiles) originating from Alberta (AB) and British Columbia (BC), Canada, respectively, indicated limited gene flow (Nm <1) and a large amount of genetic ..
  7. Ammerman N, Swanson K, Anderson J, Schwartz T, Seaberg E, Glass G, et al. Spotted-fever group Rickettsia in Dermacentor variabilis, Maryland. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:1478-81 pubmed
    Three-hundred ninety-two adult Dermacentor variabilis were collected from six Maryland counties during the spring, summer, and fall of 2002. Infection prevalence for spotted fever group Rickettsia was 3...
  8. Hynes W, Stokes M, Hensley S, Todd S, Sonenshine D. Using RNA interference to determine the role of varisin in the innate immune system of the hard tick Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae). Exp Appl Acarol. 2008;46:7-15 pubmed publisher
    ..to silence the expression of the defensin varisin produced by the hemocytes of the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis. Ticks were injected with double stranded varisin RNA prior to being placed on a rabbit...
  9. Zivkovic Z, Nijhof A, De La Fuente J, Kocan K, Jongejan F. Experimental transmission of Anaplasma marginale by male Dermacentor reticulatus. BMC Vet Res. 2007;3:32 pubmed
    ..Because of the wide distributional range of Dermacentor reticulatus within Europe and the major role of Dermacentor spp. as a vector of A...
  10. De La Fuente J, Almazan C, Naranjo V, Blouin E, Meyer J, Kocan K. Autocidal control of ticks by silencing of a single gene by RNA interference. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;344:332-8 pubmed
    ..Conservation of subolesin among tick species suggests that SAT may be useful for control of many medically and economically important tick species...
  11. Scoles G, Broce A, Lysyk T, Palmer G. Relative efficiency of biological transmission of Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) by Dermacentor andersoni (Acari: Ixodidae) compared with mechanical transmission by Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae). J Med Entomol. 2005;42:668-75 pubmed
    ..borne mechanical transmission during acute infection with Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni Stiles-borne biological transmission in the persistent phase of infection to demonstrate ..
  12. Mulenga A, Macaluso K, Simser J, Azad A. Dynamics of Rickettsia-tick interactions: identification and characterization of differentially expressed mRNAs in uninfected and infected Dermacentor variabilis. Insect Mol Biol. 2003;12:185-93 pubmed
    ..subtractive hybridization was used to screen mRNAs in Rickettsia montanensis-infected and uninfected Dermacentor variabilis...
  13. Richter D, Kohn C, Matuschka F. Absence of Borrelia spp., Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing adult Dermacentor reticulatus ticks. Parasitol Res. 2013;112:107-11 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether Dermacentor reticulatus ticks are infected by Borrelia spp...
  14. Yu Z, Zheng H, Chen Z, Zheng B, Ma H, Liu J. The life cycle and biological characteristics of Dermacentor silvarum Olenev (Acari: Ixodidae) under field conditions. Vet Parasitol. 2010;168:323-8 pubmed publisher
    In this study, we investigated the life cycle and biological characteristics of all developmental stages of Dermacentor silvarum under field conditions in Hebei province in North China...
  15. Landau S, Provenza F, Gardner D, Pfister J, Knoppel E, Peterson C, et al. Neem-tree (Azadirachta indica Juss.) extract as a feed additive against the American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis) in sheep (Ovis aries). Vet Parasitol. 2009;165:311-7 pubmed publisher
    ..an extract containing 43% AZA, given as a feed additive to lambs artificially infested with engorging adult Dermacentor vairiabilis ticks...
  16. Burg J. Seasonal activity and spatial distribution of host-seeking adults of the tick Dermacentor variabilis. Med Vet Entomol. 2001;15:413-21 pubmed
    ..and spatial distribution and emergence of overwintering and summer cohorts of host-seeking American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Say) (Acari: Ixodidae), adults were examined for 5 years in the Bluegrass region of Kentucky...
  17. Stanczak J. Detection of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae in Dermacentor reticulatus (Acari: Ixodidae) in Poland. Int J Med Microbiol. 2006;296 Suppl 40:144-8 pubmed
    b>Dermacentor reticulatus ticks from Poland were investigated by molecular methods for the presence of rickettsiae. During 2003/2004, a total of 285 adult ticks was assayed using primers RpCS.877 and RpCS...
  18. Oteo J, Ibarra V, Blanco J, Martinez de Artola V, Marquez F, Portillo A, et al. Dermacentor-borne necrosis erythema and lymphadenopathy: clinical and epidemiological features of a new tick-borne disease. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2004;10:327-31 pubmed
    ..All patients were bitten by Dermacentor marginatus or a large tick...
  19. Ceraul S, Chung A, Sears K, Popov V, Beier Sexton M, Rahman M, et al. A Kunitz protease inhibitor from Dermacentor variabilis, a vector for spotted fever group rickettsiae, limits Rickettsia montanensis invasion. Infect Immun. 2011;79:321-9 pubmed publisher
    ..midgut increases once the expression of a Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor from the American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis) (DvKPI) is suppressed by small interfering RNA (siRNA)...
  20. Sixl W, Petrovec M, Marth E, Wüst G, Stünzner D, Schweiger R, et al. Investigation of Anaplasma phagocytophila infections in Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks in Austria. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003;990:94-7 pubmed
  21. Baldridge G, Scoles G, Burkhardt N, Schloeder B, Kurtti T, Munderloh U. Transovarial transmission of Francisella-like endosymbionts and Anaplasma phagocytophilum variants in Dermacentor albipictus (Acari: Ixodidae). J Med Entomol. 2009;46:625-32 pubmed
    b>Dermacentor albipictus (Packard) is a North American tick that feeds on cervids and livestock. It is a suspected vector of anaplasmosis in cattle, but its microbial flora and vector potential remain underevaluated. We screened D...
  22. Scoles G. Phylogenetic analysis of the Francisella-like endosymbionts of Dermacentor ticks. J Med Entomol. 2004;41:277-86 pubmed
    ..have been described from at least five species of ticks in three different genera, including two North American Dermacentor species [D. andersoni Stiles and D. variabilis (Say)]...
  23. Raoult D, Lakos A, Fenollar F, Beytout J, Brouqui P, Fournier P. Spotless rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia slovaca and associated with Dermacentor ticks. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34:1331-6 pubmed
    ..with a single inoculation lesion of the scalp and enlarged cervical lymph nodes after receiving a bite from a Dermacentor tick. Subsequently, we evaluated the occurrence of R...
  24. Ortuño A, Quesada M, López Claessens S, Castella J, Sanfeliu I, Anton E, et al. The role of wild boar (Sus scrofa) in the eco-epidemiology of R. slovaca in Northeastern Spain. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2007;7:59-64 pubmed
    ..b>Dermacentor marginatus constitutes the most important vector and wild boar (Sus scrofa) is the main wild host in our area...
  25. Cuber P, Solarz K, Mosiałek A, Jakubiec Spanier M, Spanier A. The first record and occurrence of the ornate cow tick Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794) in south-western Poland. Ann Parasitol. 2013;59:49-51 pubmed
    The following report concerns the first record and occurrence of an ornate cow tick (Dermacentor reticulatus) in the Silesian province...
  26. Baldridge G, Burkhardt N, Simser J, Kurtti T, Munderloh U. Sequence and expression analysis of the ompA gene of Rickettsia peacockii, an endosymbiont of the Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70:6628-36 pubmed publisher
    ..rickettsii. We show that R. peacockii, originally described as East Side agent in Dermacentor andersoni ticks from the east side of the Bitterroot Valley in Montana, is still present in that tick ..
  27. Li X, Dunley J. Optimal sampling and spatial distribution of Ixodes pacificus, Dermacentor occidentalis and Dermacentor variabilis ticks (Acari: Ixodidae). Exp Appl Acarol. 1998;22:233-48 pubmed
    ..This study also showed that the density and distribution of I. pacificus and Dermacentor occidentalis varied greatly over time in the populations sampled, while the Dermacentor variabilis densities ..
  28. Prullage J, Hair J, Everett W, Yoon S, Cramer L, Franke S, et al. The prevention of attachment and the detachment effects of a novel combination of fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene for Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor variabilis on dogs. Vet Parasitol. 2011;179:311-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Each dog was exposed to 50 adult Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor variabilis weekly starting 24h after treatment. In study 1 infestations with R...
  29. Battsetseg B, Xuan X, Ikadai H, Bautista J, Byambaa B, Boldbaatar D, et al. Detection of Babesia caballi and Babesia equi in Dermacentor nuttalli adult ticks. Int J Parasitol. 2001;31:384-6 pubmed
    ..PCR) and nested PCR methods enabled detection of Babesia caballi and Babesia equi in field isolates of Dermacentor nuttalli adult ticks from Mongolia. Primers specific for 218 bp fragment merozoite antigen 1 (EMA-1) gene of B...
  30. Vor T, Kiffner C, Hagedorn P, Niedrig M, Rühe F. Tick burden on European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Exp Appl Acarol. 2010;51:405-17 pubmed publisher
    ..We collected more than 8,600 ticks from roe deer heads and necks, 92.6% of which were Ixodes spp., 7.4% Dermacentor spp. Among Ixodes, 3.3% were larvae, 50.5% nymphs, 34.8% females and 11...
  31. Kocan K, De La Fuente J, Manzano Román R, Naranjo V, Hynes W, Sonenshine D. Silencing expression of the defensin, varisin, in male Dermacentor variabilis by RNA interference results in reduced Anaplasma marginale infections. Exp Appl Acarol. 2008;46:17-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Varisin, one of the defensins identified in Dermacentor variabilis, was shown to be produced primarily in hemocytes but transcript levels were also expressed in ..
  32. Zhang L, Jin J, Fu X, Raoult D, Fournier P. Genetic differentiation of Chinese isolates of Rickettsia sibirica by partial ompA gene sequencing and multispacer typing. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:2465-7 pubmed
    ..All isolates were found to belong to Rickettsia sibirica subsp. sibirica. Four isolates from Dermacentor sinicus collected in Beijing, China, were fully identical to strain BJ-90, previously demonstrated to belong to ..
  33. Rieg S, Schmoldt S, Theilacker C, de With K, Wölfel S, Kern W, et al. Tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA) acquired in Southwestern Germany. BMC Infect Dis. 2011;11:167 pubmed publisher
    Tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA) was first described in 1997 in a patient in France. The causative agent, Rickettsia slovaca, is transmitted by Dermacentor ticks.
  34. Sonenshine D, Ceraul S, Hynes W, Macaluso K, Azad A. Expression of defensin-like peptides in tick hemolymph and midgut in response to challenge with Borrelia burgdorferi, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Exp Appl Acarol. 2002;28:127-34 pubmed
    Challenge of Dermacentor variabilis by hemocoel injection with Borrelia burgdorferi but not Bacillus subtilis or Escherichia coli provoked secretion of two low molecular weight peptides into the hemolymph plasma; the lower band co-..
  35. Donohue K, Khalil S, Ross E, Grozinger C, Sonenshine D, Michael Roe R. Neuropeptide signaling sequences identified by pyrosequencing of the American dog tick synganglion transcriptome during blood feeding and reproduction. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2010;40:79-90 pubmed publisher
    ..from cDNA synthesized from the synganglion of unfed, partially fed and replete female American dog ticks, Dermacentor variabilis. Their homology to the same neuropeptides in other taxa is discussed...
  36. de Carvalho I, Santos N, Soares T, Zé Zé L, Núncio M. Francisella-like endosymbiont in Dermacentor reticulatus collected in Portugal. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011;11:185-8 pubmed publisher
    In Portugal, recent studies have confirmed the presence of Francisella tularensis in Dermacentor reticulatus. Bacterial endosymbionts with significant homology to F. tularensis have been described in several species of ticks...
  37. Simser J, Palmer A, Munderloh U, Kurtti T. Isolation of a spotted fever group Rickettsia, Rickettsia peacockii, in a Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni, cell line. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2001;67:546-52 pubmed publisher
    An embryonic cell line (DAE100) of the Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni, was observed by microscopy to be chronically infected with a rickettsialike organism...
  38. Rudolf I, Hubalek Z. Effect of the salivary gland and midgut extracts from Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus (Acari: Ixodidae) on the growth of Borrelia garinii in vitro. Folia Parasitol (Praha). 2003;50:159-60 pubmed
  39. Cao W, Zhan L, de Vlas S, Wen B, Yang H, Richardus J, et al. Molecular detection of spotted fever group Rickettsia in Dermacentor silvarum from a forest area of northeastern China. J Med Entomol. 2008;45:741-4 pubmed
    In total, 676 Dermacentor silvarum Olenev (Acari: Ixodidae) from a forest area of Jilin Province in northeastern China were examined by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia...
  40. Fourie J, Beugnet F, Ollagnier C, Pollmeier M. Study of the sustained speed of kill of the combination of fipronil/amitraz/(S)-methoprene and the combination of imidacloprid/permethrin against Dermacentor reticulatus, the European dog tick. Parasite. 2011;18:319-23 pubmed
    The sustained speed of kill against Dermacentor reticulatus of two topical combinations, one containing fipronil/amitraz/(S)-methoprene and the other, imidacloprid/permethrin, was evaluated in dogs...
  41. Beelitz P, Schumacher S, Marholdt F, Pfister K, Silaghi C. [The prevalence of Babesia canis canis in marsh ticks (Dermacentor reticulatus) in the Saarland]. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2012;125:168-71 pubmed
    ..The collected ticks were identified morphologically. In eight of ten collecting sites a total of 397 adult Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were collected from March to December with the highest frequencies during the months of May, ..
  42. Simser J, Mulenga A, Macaluso K, Azad A. An immune responsive factor D-like serine proteinase homologue identified from the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis. Insect Mol Biol. 2004;13:25-35 pubmed
    A Dermacentor variabilis cDNA encoding a clip-domain serine proteinase homologue with glycine replacing the catalytic serine was identified from tick haemocytes. The D...
  43. Sting R, Breitling N, Oehme R, Kimmig P. [The occurrence of Coxiella burnetii in sheep and ticks of the genus Dermacentor in Baden-Wuerttemberg]. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2004;111:390-4 pubmed
    ..Using PCR, we examined a total of 1066 Dermacentor ticks from 23 herds and 49 samples of tick excrement from 18 herds for C. burnetii...
  44. Lysyk T. Movement of male Dermacentor andersoni (Acari: Ixodidae) among cattle. J Med Entomol. 2013;50:977-85 pubmed
    Movement of male Dermacentor andersoni (Stiles) was examined among 54 pairs of artificially infested donor and recipient cattle during a 3-yr period...
  45. Thompson D, Khalil S, Jeffers L, Ananthapadmanaban U, Sonenshine D, Mitchell R, et al. In vivo role of 20-hydroxyecdysone in the regulation of the vitellogenin mRNA and egg development in the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Say). J Insect Physiol. 2005;51:1105-16 pubmed
    ..of the hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E) into partially fed (virgin) female adults of the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, while they are attached and feeding on the rabbit host, initiated the expression of the ..
  46. Buczek A, Bartosik K, Wiśniowski Ł, Tomasiewicz K. Changes in population abundance of adult Dermacentor reticulatus (Acari: Amblyommidae) in long-term investigations in eastern Poland. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2013;20:269-72 pubmed
    ..reticulatus population implies a higher risk of transmission of tick-borne diseases in the study area, and the necessity to develop and implement effective prevention methods and tick control programmes...
  47. De La Fuente J, Blouin E, Manzano Román R, Naranjo V, Almazan C, Pérez de la Lastra J, et al. Functional genomic studies of tick cells in response to infection with the cattle pathogen, Anaplasma marginale. Genomics. 2007;90:712-22 pubmed
    ..The results of these studies demonstrated that a molecular mechanism occurs by which tick cell gene expression mediates the A. marginale developmental cycle and trafficking through ticks...
  48. Krakowetz C, Dergousoff S, Chilton N. Genetic variation in the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene of the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae). J Vector Ecol. 2010;35:163-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic variation in the mitochondrial (mt) 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene was examined for the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Say, 1821). Nine different haplotypes were detected among 369 adult D...
  49. Dryden M, Payne P, Smith V, Hostetler J. Evaluation of an imidacloprid (8.8% w/w)--permethrin (44.0% w/w) topical spot-on and a fipronil (9.8% w/w)--(S)-methoprene (8.8% w/w) topical spot-on to repel, prevent attachment, and kill adult Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor variabilis tic. Vet Ther. 2006;7:187-98 pubmed
    ..8% w/w), to repel, prevent the attachment of, and kill adult Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor variabilis on dogs...
  50. Azad A, Beard C. Rickettsial pathogens and their arthropod vectors. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4:179-86 pubmed
    ..This article examines the common features of the host-pathogen relationship and of the arthropod vectors of the typhus and spotted fever group rickettsiae...
  51. Ruzek D, Yakimenko V, Karan L, Tkachev S. Omsk haemorrhagic fever. Lancet. 2010;376:2104-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The virus is transmitted mainly by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks, but people are mainly infected after contact with infected muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus)...
  52. Zhu X, Oliver J. Cockroach allatostatin-like immunoreactivity in the synganglion of the American dog tick Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae). Exp Appl Acarol. 2001;25:1005-13 pubmed
    ..reaction, the presence of allatostatin-like immunoreactivity is demonstrated in the synganglion of Dermacentor variabilis females...
  53. Lakos A. Tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA). Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2002;114:648-54 pubmed
    ..From 1996 through 2000, we collected data on 86 patients with similar symptoms following a tick bite. The inclusion criteria were: enlarged regional lymph nodes and/or vesicular-ulcerative local reaction at the site of the tick bite...