ornithodoros

Summary

Summary: A genus of softbacked TICKS, in the family ARGASIDAE, serving as the vector of BORRELIA, causing RELAPSING FEVER, and of the AFRICAN SWINE FEVER VIRUS.

Top Publications

  1. Halperin T, Orr N, Cohen R, Hasin T, Davidovitch N, Klement E, et al. Detection of relapsing fever in human blood samples from Israel using PCR targeting the glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GlpQ) gene. Acta Trop. 2006;98:189-95 pubmed
    ..A second modified GlpQ PCR was able to discriminate between probable B. persica and B. recurrentis and B. crocidurae infection. This study describes the first molecular assay for the diagnosis of relapsing fever caused by B. persica...
  2. García Varas S, Manzano Román R, Fernández Soto P, Encinas Grandes A, Oleaga A, Pérez Sánchez R. Purification and characterisation of a P-selectin-binding molecule from the salivary glands of Ornithodoros moubata that induces protective anti-tick immune responses in pigs. Int J Parasitol. 2010;40:313-26 pubmed publisher
    b>Ornithodoros moubata is an argasid tick that lives in Africa in wild and synanthropic habitats. It feeds on warthogs, domestic swine and humans, and is able to transmit severe diseases such as human relapsing fever and African swine fever...
  3. Dworkin M, Schwan T, Anderson D. Tick-borne relapsing fever in North America. Med Clin North Am. 2002;86:417-33, viii-ix pubmed
    ..an infection from the Borrelia species (spirochetes) that may be acquired through the bite of an infected tick (Ornithodoros species) or contact with the hemolymph of an infected human body louse (Pediculus humanus)...
  4. McCoy B, Raffel S, Lopez J, Schwan T. Bloodmeal size and spirochete acquisition of Ornithodoros hermsi (Acari: Argasidae) during feeding. J Med Entomol. 2010;47:1164-72 pubmed
    b>Ornithodoros hermsi Wheeler (Acari: Argasidae) is the vector of Borrelia hermsii, the primary cause of tick-borne relapsing fever in North America...
  5. Nakajima Y, van der Goes van Naters Yasui A, Taylor D, Yamakawa M. Antibacterial peptide defensin is involved in midgut immunity of the soft tick, Ornithodoros moubata. Insect Mol Biol. 2002;11:611-8 pubmed
    Two defensin genes A and B were previously demonstrated to be up-regulated by blood feeding in the soft tick, Ornithodoros moubata [Nakajima et al...
  6. Lane R, Mun J, Peribáñez M, Fedorova N. Differences in prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma spp. infection among host-seeking Dermacentor occidentalis, Ixodes pacificus, and Ornithodoros coriaceus ticks in northwestern California. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2010;1:159-67 pubmed publisher
    ..burgdorferi. The relationship of the pajahuello tick (Ornithodoros coriaceus) to each of these bacterial zoonotic agents has not been reported...
  7. Bell Sakyi L, Ruzek D, Gould E. Cell lines from the soft tick Ornithodoros moubata. Exp Appl Acarol. 2009;49:209-19 pubmed publisher
    Primary cell cultures (n = 16) were initiated from tissues of embryonic and neonatal larval Ornithodoros moubata following methods developed for hard ticks...
  8. Rowlands R, Duarte M, Boinas F, Hutchings G, Dixon L. The CD2v protein enhances African swine fever virus replication in the tick vector, Ornithodoros erraticus. Virology. 2009;393:319-28 pubmed publisher
    ..replicated to titres approximately 1000-fold higher than the parental non-HAD isolate when membrane fed to Ornithodoros erraticus ticks...
  9. Matsuo T, Inoue N, Ruheta M, Taylor D, Fujisaki K. Tickcidal effect of monoclonal antibodies against hemocytes, Om21, in an adult female tick, Ornithodoros moubata (Acari: Argasidae). J Parasitol. 2004;90:715-20 pubmed
    In the present study, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against adult Ornithodoros moubata hemocytes were established. Afterward, artificial feeding was performed to assess the tickcidal effect of fetal bovine serum meal containing each mAb...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Grunclová L, Fouquier H, Hypsa V, Kopacek P. Lysozyme from the gut of the soft tick Ornithodoros moubata: the sequence, phylogeny and post-feeding regulation. Dev Comp Immunol. 2003;27:651-60 pubmed
    Sequence of a tick gut lysozyme (TGL) from the soft tick Ornithodoros moubata was determined by cloning and sequencing of overlapping polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and RACE PCR products...
  2. Charrel R, Fagbo S, Moureau G, Alqahtani M, Temmam S, de Lamballerie X. Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus in Ornithodoros savignyi ticks. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:153-5 pubmed
    ..One Ornithodoros savignyi tick from Saudi Arabia contained AHFV RNA...
  3. Dworkin M, Shoemaker P, Fritz C, Dowell M, Anderson D. The epidemiology of tick-borne relapsing fever in the United States. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2002;66:753-8 pubmed
    ..TBRF is endemic in the United States and is a disease affecting travelers, who may return home with the disease to areas where physicians are not familiar with it...
  4. Reck J, Marks F, Guimaraes J, Termignoni C, Martins J. Epidemiology of Ornithodoros brasiliensis (mouro tick) in the southern Brazilian highlands and the description of human and animal retrospective cases of tick parasitism. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2013;4:101-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Ornithodoros brasiliensis, also known as the "mouro" tick, is an argasid tick found exclusively in the southern Brazilian highlands. O...
  5. Zabalgogeazcoa I, Oleaga A, Pérez Sánchez R. Pathogenicity of endophytic entomopathogenic fungi to Ornithodoros erraticus and Ornithodoros moubata (Acari: Argasidae). Vet Parasitol. 2008;158:336-43 pubmed publisher
    ..in which some strains of entomopathogenic fungi are found to be effective against argasid ticks of the genus Ornithodoros, and its results might justify further efforts towards the application of entomopathogenic fungal strains as ..
  6. Mans B, Louw A, Neitz A. Savignygrin, a platelet aggregation inhibitor from the soft tick Ornithodoros savignyi, presents the RGD integrin recognition motif on the Kunitz-BPTI fold. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:21371-8 pubmed
    ..aggregation inhibitor that possesses the RGD integrin recognition motif, has been purified from the soft tick Ornithodoros savignyi...
  7. Nunn M, Sharma A, Paesen G, Adamson S, Lissina O, Willis A, et al. Complement inhibitor of C5 activation from the soft tick Ornithodoros moubata. J Immunol. 2005;174:2084-91 pubmed
    ..and expression of a novel, relatively small, broad-acting C inhibitory protein (termed OmCI) from the soft tick Ornithodoros moubata...
  8. Rego R, Hajdusek O, Kovár V, Kopacek P, Grubhoffer L, Hypsa V. Molecular cloning and comparative analysis of fibrinogen-related proteins from the soft tick Ornithodoros moubata and the hard tick Ixodes ricinus. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2005;35:991-1004 pubmed
    ..and having fibrinogen related domains, helped in the sequencing of cDNA encoding for OMFREP from the soft tick, Ornithodoros moubata. Also obtained were Ixoderin A and Ixoderin B cDNA sequences from the hard tick Ixodes ricinus...
  9. Schwan T, Policastro P, Miller Z, Thompson R, Damrow T, Keirans J. Tick-borne relapsing fever caused by Borrelia hermsii, Montana. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:1151-4 pubmed
    ..Borrelia hermsii was isolated from the blood of two patients, and Ornithodoros hermsi ticks were collected from the cabin, the first demonstration of this bacterium and tick in Montana...
  10. Burrage T, Lu Z, Neilan J, Rock D, Zsak L. African swine fever virus multigene family 360 genes affect virus replication and generalization of infection in Ornithodoros porcinus ticks. J Virol. 2004;78:2445-53 pubmed
    ..To examine the function of these genes in ASFV's arthropod host, Ornithodoros porcinus porcinus, an MGF360/530 gene deletion mutant (Pr4Delta35) was constructed from an ASFV isolate of tick ..
  11. Boinas F, Hutchings G, Dixon L, Wilkinson P. Characterization of pathogenic and non-pathogenic African swine fever virus isolates from Ornithodoros erraticus inhabiting pig premises in Portugal. J Gen Virol. 2004;85:2177-87 pubmed
    Ten African swine fever virus isolates from the soft tick Ornithodoros erraticus collected on three farms in the province of Alentejo in Portugal were characterized by their ability to cause haemadsorption (HAD) of red blood cells to ..
  12. Proudfoot G, Teel P, Mohr R. Ferruginous pygmy-owl (Glaucidium brasilianum) and eastern screech-owl (Megascopes asio): new hosts for Philornis mimicola (Diptera: Muscidae) and Ornithodoros concanensis (Acari: Argasidae). J Wildl Dis. 2006;42:873-6 pubmed
    ..Megascops asio) in south Texas during 2004, we recorded Philornis mimicola (Diptera: Muscidae) and Ornithodoros concanensis (Acari: Argasidae) parasitizing nestlings. Inspection of nestlings revealed 54 P...
  13. Porcella S, Raffel S, Anderson D, Gilk S, Bono J, Schrumpf M, et al. Variable tick protein in two genomic groups of the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia hermsii in western North America. Infect Immun. 2005;73:6647-58 pubmed
    Borrelia hermsii is the primary cause of tick-borne relapsing fever in North America. When its tick vector, Ornithodoros hermsi, acquires these spirochetes from the blood of an infected mammal, the bacteria switch their outer surface from ..
  14. Cutler S, Browning P, Scott J. Ornithodoros moubata, a soft tick vector for Rickettsia in east Africa?. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1078:373-7 pubmed
    ..Although no evidence of human infection was evident, these ticks feed primarily on man, thus providing opportunity for zoonotic infection...
  15. Trape J, Diatta G, Arnathau C, Bitam I, Sarih M, Belghyti D, et al. The epidemiology and geographic distribution of relapsing fever borreliosis in West and North Africa, with a review of the Ornithodoros erraticus complex (Acari: Ixodida). PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e78473 pubmed publisher
    ..recurrentis and the soft ticks Ornithodoros sonrai, O. erraticus and O. moubata acting as vectors for Borrelia crocidurae, B. hispanica and B...
  16. Sidi G, Davidovitch N, Balicer R, Anis E, Grotto I, Schwartz E. Tickborne relapsing fever in Israel. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:1784-6 pubmed
    ..In civilians, incidence declined from 0.35 to 0.11 cases per 100,000 persons annually; in military personnel it averaged 6.4 cases per 100,000 persons annually. These data imply that the pathogen and vector continue to exist in Israel...
  17. Assous M, Wilamowski A. Relapsing fever borreliosis in Eurasia--forgotten, but certainly not gone!. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009;15:407-14 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Ornithodoros tholozani is the most important tick vector, found in India and Kashmir, the southern countries of the former ..
  18. Mans B, Louw A, Neitz A. The major tick salivary gland proteins and toxins from the soft tick, Ornithodoros savignyi, are part of the tick Lipocalin family: implications for the origins of tick toxicoses. Mol Biol Evol. 2003;20:1158-67 pubmed
    ..In this study we describe the molecular structure of toxins from the soft tick, Ornithodoros savignyi...
  19. Manzano Román R, Díaz Martín V, González González M, Matarraz S, Álvarez Prado A, Labaer J, et al. Self-assembled protein arrays from an Ornithodoros moubata salivary gland expression library. J Proteome Res. 2012;11:5972-82 pubmed publisher
    ..With that aim, we have prepared a cDNA expression library from the salivary glands of Ornithodoros moubata and subsequently produced a self-assembled protein microarray using 480 randomly selected clones from ..
  20. Cutler S, Abdissa A, Trape J. New concepts for the old challenge of African relapsing fever borreliosis. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009;15:400-6 pubmed publisher
    ..looking probable that this infection is caused by a louse-adapted variant of Borrelia duttonii, transmitted by Ornithodoros moubata 'soft' ticks in East Africa...
  21. Mitani H, Talbert A, Fukunaga M. New World relapsing fever Borrelia found in Ornithodoros porcinus ticks in central Tanzania. Microbiol Immunol. 2004;48:501-5 pubmed
    ..All houses were highly infested with ticks, and all ticks collected were of the Ornithodoros porcinus species...
  22. McCall P, Hume J, Motshegwa K, Pignatelli P, Talbert A, Kisinza W. Does tick-borne relapsing fever have an animal reservoir in East Africa?. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2007;7:659-66 pubmed
    ..This widespread, endemic and pathogenic infection has only been found in humans and the Ornithodoros sp. soft tick vectors...
  23. Schwan T, Raffel S, Schrumpf M, Porcella S. Diversity and distribution of Borrelia hermsii. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:436-42 pubmed
    ..In support of this theory, all stages of the tick vector Ornithodoros hermsi fed successfully on birds in the laboratory and advanced in their life cycle. B...
  24. Mans B, Steinmann C, Venter J, Louw A, Neitz A. Pathogenic mechanisms of sand tampan toxicoses induced by the tick, Ornithodoros savignyi. Toxicon. 2002;40:1007-16 pubmed
    The tick, Ornithodoros savignyi has been implicated in inducing paralysis and tampan toxicosis. In this study, a basic toxin (TSGP4) was identified and the presence of an acidic toxin (TSGP2) was confirmed...
  25. Battsetseg B, Matsuo T, Xuan X, Boldbaatar D, Chee S, Umemiya R, et al. Babesia parasites develop and are transmitted by the non-vector soft tick Ornithodoros moubata (Acari: Argasidae). Parasitology. 2007;134:1-8 pubmed
    b>Ornithodoros moubata ticks were fed on blood infected with Babesia equi. However, the parasites were quickly cleared as evidenced by the disappearance of B. equi-specific ribosomal RNA from the ticks...
  26. Gage K, Eggleston M, Gilmore R, Dolan M, Montenieri J, Tanda D, et al. Isolation and characterization of Borrelia parkeri in Ornithodoros parkeri (Ixodida: Argasidae) collected in Colorado. J Med Entomol. 2001;38:665-74 pubmed
    ..Two isolates of B. parkeri (6230 and 6232) were recovered from Ornithodoros parkeri Cooley ticks collected at an inactive prairie dog town in Moffat County...
  27. Roger F, Ratovonjato J, Vola P, Uilenber G. Ornithodoros porcinus ticks, bushpigs, and African swine fever in Madagascar. Exp Appl Acarol. 2001;25:263-9 pubmed
    African swine fever (ASF) has recently made its appearance in Madagascar. Ticks of the Ornithodoros moubata group, considered to be O...
  28. Nakajima Y, Ogihara K, Taylor D, Yamakawa M. Antibacterial hemoglobin fragments from the midgut of the soft tick, Ornithodoros moubata (Acari: Argasidae). J Med Entomol. 2003;40:78-81 pubmed
    Midgut contents of Ornithodoros moubata showed strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus...
  29. Basto A, Nix R, Boinas F, Mendes S, Silva M, Cartaxeiro C, et al. Kinetics of African swine fever virus infection in Ornithodoros erraticus ticks. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:1863-71 pubmed
    The kinetics of African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection in Ornithodoros erraticus ticks were investigated in specimens collected in the field at different times following an outbreak of the disease in Portugal in 1999 and in ticks ..
  30. Fritz C, Bronson L, Smith C, Schriefer M, Tucker J, Schwan T. Isolation and characterization of Borrelia hermsii associated with two foci of tick-borne relapsing fever in California. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:1123-8 pubmed
    Relapsing fever, caused by the spirochete Borrelia hermsii and transmitted by the soft tick Ornithodoros hermsi, is endemic in many rural mountainous areas of California...
  31. Kadota K, Satoh E, Ochiai M, Inoue N, Tsuji N, Igarashi I, et al. Existence of phenol oxidase in the argasid tick Ornithodoros moubata. Parasitol Res. 2002;88:781-4 pubmed
    ..10.3.1) activity was detected in the hemolymph of the fourth instar nymphs of the argasid tick, Ornithodoros moubata, with peak levels corresponding to the days before the majority of the nymphs had molted, suggestive of ..
  32. Buresova V, Franta Z, Kopacek P. A comparison of Chryseobacterium indologenes pathogenicity to the soft tick Ornithodoros moubata and hard tick Ixodes ricinus. J Invertebr Pathol. 2006;93:96-104 pubmed
    ..Gram-negative bacterium, Chryseobacterium indologenes, was found in the gut contents of about 65% of soft ticks Ornithodoros moubata from a perishing laboratory colony. The isolated putative pathogen, C...
  33. Oleaga A, Escudero Población A, Camafeita E, Pérez Sánchez R. A proteomic approach to the identification of salivary proteins from the argasid ticks Ornithodoros moubata and Ornithodoros erraticus. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2007;37:1149-59 pubmed
    ..This makes the salivary molecules attractive targets to control ticks and tick-borne pathogens. Although Ornithodoros moubata and O...
  34. Reck J, Soares J, Termignoni C, Labruna M, Martins J. Tick toxicosis in a dog bitten by Ornithodoros brasiliensis. Vet Clin Pathol. 2011;40:356-60 pubmed publisher
    ..They are vectors of infectious diseases; in addition, the bite of some ticks, mainly from the Ornithodoros genus, may lead to local lesions and systemic illness, referred to as tick toxicosis...
  35. Turell M, Mores C, Lee J, Paragas J, Shermuhemedova D, Endy T, et al. Experimental transmission of Karshi and Langat (tick-borne encephalitis virus complex) viruses by Ornithodoros ticks (Acari: Argasidae). J Med Entomol. 2004;41:973-7 pubmed
    Selected species of mosquitoes and Ornithodoros ticks were evaluated for their potential to transmit Karshi and Langat (tick-borne encephalitis virus complex) viruses in the laboratory...
  36. Huang X, Tsuji N, Miyoshi T, Nakamura Tsuruta S, Hirabayashi J, Fujisaki K. Molecular characterization and oligosaccharide-binding properties of a galectin from the argasid tick Ornithodoros moubata. Glycobiology. 2007;17:313-23 pubmed
    The argasid tick Ornithodoros moubata is a vector of various viral and borrelian diseases in animals and humans. We report here molecular characterization and oligosaccharide-binding properties of a novel galectin (OmGalec) from this tick...
  37. Matsuo T, Okoda Y, Badgar B, Inoue N, Xuan X, Taylor D, et al. Fate of GFP-expressing Escherichia coli in the midgut and response to ingestion in a tick, Ornithodoros moubata (Acari: Argasidae). Exp Parasitol. 2004;108:67-73 pubmed
    ..In the present study, the fate of microbes in the midgut of Ornithodoros moubata was observed using green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing Escherichia coli...
  38. Kadota K, Walter S, Claveria F, Igarashi I, Taylor D, Fujisaki K. Morphological and populational characteristics of hemocytes of Ornithodoros moubata nymphs during the ecdysial phase. J Med Entomol. 2003;40:770-6 pubmed
    The ultrastructure and characteristics of hemocytes of argasid tick species, Ornithodoros moubata, during the ecdysdial phase are herein presented...
  39. Dupejova J, Sterba J, Vancova M, Grubhoffer L. Hemelipoglycoprotein from the ornate sheep tick, Dermacentor marginatus: structural and functional characterization. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:4 pubmed publisher
  40. Manzano Román R, Encinas Grandes A, Pérez Sánchez R. Antigens from the midgut membranes of Ornithodoros erraticus induce lethal anti-tick immune responses in pigs and mice. Vet Parasitol. 2006;135:65-79 pubmed
    b>Ornithodoros erraticus is an argasid tick that can transmit severe diseases such as human relapsing fever and African swine fever. In southern Europe O. erraticus lives in close association with swine on free-range pig farms...
  41. Horigane M, Ogihara K, Nakajima Y, Taylor D. Isolation and expression of the retinoid X receptor from last instar nymphs and adult females of the soft tick Ornithodoros moubata (Acari: Argasidae). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2008;156:298-311 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we identified RXR of the soft tick Ornithodoros moubata (OmRXR) and used real-time PCR to examine the expression of OmRXR...
  42. Stopforth E, Neitz A, Gaspar A. A proteomics approach for the analysis of hemolymph proteins involved in the immediate defense response of the soft tick, Ornithodoros savignyi, when challenged with Candida albicans. Exp Appl Acarol. 2010;51:309-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The analyzed yeast-binding proteins could also not be positively identified, suggesting that all the tick immune proteins investigated in this study are novel...
  43. Bouattour A, Garnier M, M ghirbi Y, Sarih M, Gern L, Ferquel E, et al. Borrelia crocidurae infection of Ornithodoros erraticus (Lucas, 1849) ticks in Tunisia. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2010;10:825-30 pubmed publisher
    Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is caused by Borrelia species transmitted to humans by infected Ornithodoros sp. ticks...
  44. Salát J, Paesen G, Rezácová P, Kotsyfakis M, Kovárová Z, Sanda M, et al. Crystal structure and functional characterization of an immunomodulatory salivary cystatin from the soft tick Ornithodoros moubata. Biochem J. 2010;429:103-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Using proteomic analysis, the cystatin OmC2 was demonstrated in the saliva of the soft tick Ornithodoros moubata, an important disease vector transmitting African swine fever virus and the spirochaete Borrelia ..
  45. Stutzer C, Mans B, Gaspar A, Neitz A, Maritz Olivier C. Ornithodoros savignyi: soft tick apyrase belongs to the 5'-nucleotidase family. Exp Parasitol. 2009;122:318-27 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study a 5'-nucleotidase specific degenerate primer was used to identify homologous transcripts from Ornithodoros savignyi salivary gland cDNA...
  46. Barratt Due A, Thorgersen E, Lindstad J, Pharo A, Lissina O, Lambris J, et al. Ornithodoros moubata complement inhibitor is an equally effective C5 inhibitor in pigs and humans. J Immunol. 2011;187:4913-9 pubmed publisher
    ..disease, and this study undertakes a comprehensive comparison of the inhibitory efficacy of the C5 inhibitor Ornithodoros moubata C inhibitor (OmCI) in human and porcine whole blood ex vivo models of Escherichia coli-induced sepsis...
  47. Manzano Román R, Díaz Martín V, Oleaga A, Siles Lucas M, Pérez Sánchez R. Subolesin/akirin orthologs from Ornithodoros spp. soft ticks: cloning, RNAi gene silencing and protective effect of the recombinant proteins. Vet Parasitol. 2012;185:248-59 pubmed publisher
    ..work were to clone and characterize the subolesin orthologs from two important vector species of soft ticks as Ornithodoros erraticus and O...
  48. Vial L, Durand P, Arnathau C, Halos L, Diatta G, Trape J, et al. Molecular divergences of the Ornithodoros sonrai soft tick species, a vector of human relapsing fever in West Africa. Microbes Infect. 2006;8:2605-11 pubmed
    The soft tick Ornithodoros sonrai is recognized as the only vector of Borrelia crocidurae causing human relapsing fever in West Africa...
  49. Hepburn N, Williams A, Nunn M, Chamberlain Banoub J, Hamer J, Morgan B, et al. In vivo characterization and therapeutic efficacy of a C5-specific inhibitor from the soft tick Ornithodoros moubata. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:8292-9 pubmed
    ..Recent identification of a C5-binding protein in the salivary gland of the soft tick Ornithodoros moubata has enabled development of a terminal pathway-specific reagent, OmCI, with potential to ameliorate ..
  50. Borovicková B, Hypsa V. Ontogeny of tick hemocytes: a comparative analysis of Ixodes ricinus and Ornithodoros moubata. Exp Appl Acarol. 2005;35:317-33 pubmed
    Hemocytes of two tick species, Ixodes ricinus and Ornithodoros moubata, were investigated with the aim to determine their ultrastructural characteristics and developmental relationships...
  51. Basto A, Portugal R, Nix R, Cartaxeiro C, Boinas F, Dixon L, et al. Development of a nested PCR and its internal control for the detection of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in Ornithodoros erraticus. Arch Virol. 2006;151:819-26 pubmed
    A nested PCR assay, with an internal control, was developed to detect African swine fever virus (ASFV) DNA in Ornithodoros erraticus. The assay revealed a better analytical sensitivity than virus isolation and the OIE PCR protocol...
  52. Lopez J, McCoy B, Krajacich B, Schwan T. Acquisition and subsequent transmission of Borrelia hermsii by the soft tick Ornithodoros hermsi. J Med Entomol. 2011;48:891-5 pubmed
  53. Matsuo T, Cerruto Noya C, Taylor D, Fujisaki K. Immunohistochemical examination of PDGF-AB, TGF-beta and their receptors in the hemocytes of a tick, Ornithodoros moubata (Acari: Argasidae). J Vet Med Sci. 2007;69:317-20 pubmed
    ..the presence of TGF-beta1 and PDGF-receptor-alpha in plasmatocytes and PDGF-AB in granulocytes of a soft tick, Ornithodoros moubata, was confirmed immunohistochemically...