tetranychidae

Summary

Summary: Family of spider MITES, in the superfamily Tetranychoidea, suborder Trombidiformes.

Top Publications

  1. Veenstra J, Rombauts S, Grbic M. In silico cloning of genes encoding neuropeptides, neurohormones and their putative G-protein coupled receptors in a spider mite. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2012;42:277-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas some of the latter have orthologs in hemimetabolous insect species, crustaceans or ticks, for others such arthropod homologs are currently unknown...
  2. de Vasconcelos G, de Moraes G, Júnior I, Knapp M. Life history of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus fragariae on Tetranychus evansi and Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Phytoseiidae, Tetranychidae) at five temperatures. Exp Appl Acarol. 2008;44:27-36 pubmed
    Tetranychus evansi Baker and Pritchard and Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) are important pests of Solanaceae in many countries. Several studies have demonstrated that T...
  3. Osakabe M, Kotsubo Y, Tajima R, Hinomoto N. Restriction fragment length polymorphism catalog for molecular identification of Japanese Tetranychus spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae). J Econ Entomol. 2008;101:1167-75 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we believe that the RFLP catalog will contribute to biosecurity as a practical diagnostic tool for species identification of spider mites...
  4. Tsagkarakou A, Van Leeuwen T, Khajehali J, Ilias A, Grispou M, Williamson M, et al. Identification of pyrethroid resistance associated mutations in the para sodium channel of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae). Insect Mol Biol. 2009;18:583-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Three transcripts were identified corresponding to the k and l alternative exons. The mode of inheritance of resistance was confirmed as incompletely recessive, which is consistent with a target site mechanism for pyrethroids...
  5. Esteves Filho A, de Oliveira J, Torres J, Gondim M. [Compared biology and behavior of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on Bollgard and non-transgenic isoline cotton]. Neotrop Entomol. 2010;39:338-44 pubmed
    ..97 times greater than that found in the Bt-cotton plants as determined using a ELISA test. Despite of the amount of toxin acquired by the prey (T. urticae), no detectable levels of Cry1Ac were found in the predatory mite P. macropilis...
  6. Kappers I, Verstappen F, Luckerhoff L, Bouwmeester H, Dicke M. Genetic variation in jasmonic acid- and spider mite-induced plant volatile emission of cucumber accessions and attraction of the predator Phytoseiulus persimilis. J Chem Ecol. 2010;36:500-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of genetic variation in induced plant volatile emission in cucumber shows that it is possible to breed for cucumber varieties that are more attractive to predatory mites and other biological control agents...
  7. Gotoh T, Sugasawa J, Noda H, Kitashima Y. Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility in Japanese populations of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae). Exp Appl Acarol. 2007;42:1-16 pubmed
    ..Thus, CI-Wolbachia strains are widespread in Japan, and no geographical trend was observed in the CI-Wolbachia. Although three red-form populations harbored other intracellular bacteria Cardinium, they did not affect host reproduction...
  8. Mo T, Liu T. Predation and life table of Feltiella acarisuga (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) preying on eggs of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae). Environ Entomol. 2007;36:369-75 pubmed
    ..69 eggs per female, 23.6 d, 6.0 d, and 1.1225/d, respectively. Because the r value of F. acarisuga is relatively lower than that of T. urticae, frequent release of F. acarisuga may be necessary to suppress populations of T. urticae...
  9. Gotoh T, Noda H, Ito S. Cardinium symbionts cause cytoplasmic incompatibility in spider mites. Heredity (Edinb). 2007;98:13-20 pubmed
    ..One species of spider mite, Tetranychus pueraricola, harbored both Cardinium and Wolbachia, but these symbionts seemed to have no effect on the reproduction of the host, even when the host was infected independently with each symbiont...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Miresmailli S, Bradbury R, Isman M. Comparative toxicity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil and blends of its major constituents against Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) on two different host plants. Pest Manag Sci. 2006;62:366-71 pubmed
    ..Toxicity of blends of selected constituents indicated a synergistic effect among the active and inactive constituents, with the presence of all constituents necessary to equal the toxicity of the natural oil...
  2. Khodayari S, Moharramipour S, Larvor V, Hidalgo K, Renault D. Deciphering the metabolic changes associated with diapause syndrome and cold acclimation in the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54025 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide novel information about biochemical events related to the cold hardening process in the two-spotted spider mite...
  3. Matsuda T, Fukumoto C, Hinomoto N, Gotoh T. DNA-based identification of spider mites: molecular evidence for cryptic species of the genus Tetranychus (Acari: Tetranychidae). J Econ Entomol. 2013;106:463-72 pubmed
    ..Although Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida and T. parakanzawai Ehara were identified by DNA sequences, they were clearly separated into two monophyletic clades each, indicating that a cryptic species existed in each species...
  4. Vala F, Egas M, Breeuwer J, Sabelis M. Wolbachia affects oviposition and mating behaviour of its spider mite host. J Evol Biol. 2004;17:692-700 pubmed
    ..Our data agrees with other results that hosts of Wolbachia do not necessarily behave as innocent bystanders - host mechanisms that avoid CI can evolve...
  5. Pakyari H, Fathipour Y, Enkegaard A. Effect of temperature on life table parameters of predatory thrips Scolothrips longicornis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) fed on twospotted spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae). J Econ Entomol. 2011;104:799-805 pubmed
    ..longicornis Priesner (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) fed on twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), at six constant temperatures: 15, 20, 26, 30, 35, and 37 degrees C...
  6. Gotoh T, Ishikawa Y, Kitashima Y. Life-history traits of the six Panonychus species from Japan (Acari: Tetranychidae). Exp Appl Acarol. 2003;29:241-52 pubmed
    ..thelytokus and P. osmanthi), considered non-pests. The only exception was P. bambusicola, an oligophagous non-pest species with R0- and r(m)-values closely resembling those of the three polyphagous species...
  7. Shimoda T, Kishimoto H, Takabayashi J, Amano H, Dicke M. Comparison of thread-cutting behavior in three specialist predatory mites to cope with complex webs of Tetranychus spider mites. Exp Appl Acarol. 2009;47:111-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These results and observations suggest that each predator species cut many sticky silken threads to move inside the complex web without suffering from serious obstruction...
  8. Yang L, Huang H, Wang J. Antioxidant responses of citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae), exposed to thermal stress. J Insect Physiol. 2010;56:1871-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that thermal stress leads to oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes play an important role in reducing oxidative damage in the citrus red mite...
  9. Lemos F, Sarmento R, Pallini A, Dias C, Sabelis M, Janssen A. Spider mite web mediates anti-predator behaviour. Exp Appl Acarol. 2010;52:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..longipes than eggs that were laid on the leaf surface under the web. Thus, by altering their oviposition behaviour in response to predator cues, females of T. evansi protect their offspring...
  10. Zhang P, Zheng S, van Loon J, Boland W, David A, Mumm R, et al. Whiteflies interfere with indirect plant defense against spider mites in Lima bean. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:21202-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore conclude that in dual-infested Lima bean plants the suppression of the JA signaling pathway by whitefly feeding is not due to enhanced SA levels...
  11. de Mendonça R, Navia D, Diniz I, Auger P, Navajas M. A critical review on some closely related species of Tetranychus sensu stricto (Acari: Tetranychidae) in the public DNA sequences databases. Exp Appl Acarol. 2011;55:1-23 pubmed publisher
    ..provides new evidence of misidentifications in molecular DNA public databases in phytophagous mites of the Tetranychidae family belonging to the group Tetranychus (Tetranychus)...
  12. Niu J, Dou W, Ding T, Yang L, Shen G, Wang J. Evaluation of suitable reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR during development and abiotic stress in Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae). Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:5841-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, this study will serve as a resource to screen reference genes for gene expression studies in any other spider mite species...
  13. Park Y, Lee J. Impact of twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) on growth and productivity of glasshouse cucumbers. J Econ Entomol. 2005;98:457-63 pubmed
    ..The economic yield of cucumber began to significantly decrease as early as 4 wk after heavy mite infestations. This study also showed the seasonal differences in T. urticae-cucumber damage interactions among mite infestation levels...
  14. Ament K, Van Schie C, Bouwmeester H, Haring M, Schuurink R. Induction of a leaf specific geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase and emission of (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene in tomato are dependent on both jasmonic acid and salicylic acid signaling pathways. Planta. 2006;224:1197-208 pubmed
    ..We show that there is an additional layer of regulation, because geranyllinalool synthase, catalyzing the first dedicated step in TMTT biosynthesis, was induced by JA but not by MeSA...
  15. van den Boom C, van Beek T, Posthumus M, de Groot A, Dicke M. Qualitative and quantitative variation among volatile profiles induced by Tetranychus urticae feeding on plants from various families. J Chem Ecol. 2004;30:69-89 pubmed
    ..When plant species of the Fabaceae were compared to plant species of the Solanaceae, qualitative differences in spider mite-induced volatile blends seemed to be more prominent in the Fabaceae than in the Solanaceae...
  16. Sato M, De Moraes G, Haddad M, Wekesa V. Effect of trichomes on the predation of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) by Phytoseiulus macropilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on tomato, and the interference of webbing. Exp Appl Acarol. 2011;54:21-32 pubmed publisher
    ..macropilis. The results suggest that the latter is a promising predator of T. urticae on tomato. Complementary studies are warranted, to further evaluate the potential of P. macropilis for use as a biological control agent of this pest...
  17. Ako M, Poehling H, Borgemeister C, Nauen R. Effect of imidacloprid on the reproduction of acaricide-resistant and susceptible strains of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). Pest Manag Sci. 2006;62:419-24 pubmed
    ..The viability of eggs was relatively high (from 82.9 (+/- 4.5)% for USA to 95.2 (+/- 1.2)% for GSS) and not affected by imidacloprid treatments...
  18. Miresmailli S, Isman M. Efficacy and persistence of rosemary oil as an acaricide against twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) on greenhouse tomato. J Econ Entomol. 2006;99:2015-23 pubmed
    ..essential oil was assessed against twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), as well as effects on the tomato, Lycopersicum esculatum Mill., host plant and biocontrol agents...
  19. Van Nieuwenhuyse P, Van Leeuwen T, Khajehali J, Vanholme B, Tirry L. Mutations in the mitochondrial cytochrome b of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) confer cross-resistance between bifenazate and acequinocyl. Pest Manag Sci. 2009;65:404-12 pubmed publisher
  20. Kant M, Ament K, Sabelis M, Haring M, Schuurink R. Differential timing of spider mite-induced direct and indirect defenses in tomato plants. Plant Physiol. 2004;135:483-95 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that tomato activates its indirect defenses (volatile production) to complement the direct defense response against spider mites...
  21. Kavousi A, Chi H, Talebi K, Bandani A, Ashouri A, Naveh V. Demographic traits of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) on leaf discs and whole leaves. J Econ Entomol. 2009;102:595-601 pubmed
    Life tables of twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), were studied on leaf discs and whole leaves of the common bean plant, Phaseolus vulgaris L...
  22. Tien N, Massourakis G, Sabelis M, Egas M. Mate choice promotes inbreeding avoidance in the two-spotted spider mite. Exp Appl Acarol. 2011;54:119-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These results imply that T. urticae (a) can recognize kin (via genetic and/or environmental similarity) and (b) has the potential to avoid inbreeding through mate choice...
  23. Tien N, Sabelis M, Egas M. The maintenance of genetic variation for oviposition rate in two-spotted spider mites: inferences from artificial selection. Evolution. 2010;64:2547-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, the standing variation for this trait does not appear to be indicative of its adaptive potential...
  24. Shrewsbury P, Hardin M. Evaluation of predatory mite (Acari: Phytoseiidae) releases to suppress spruce spider mites, Oligonychus ununguis (Acari: Tetranychidae), on juniper. J Econ Entomol. 2003;96:1675-84 pubmed
    ..for their potential as biological control agents of spruce spider mite, Oligonychus ununguis (Jacobi) (Acari: Tetranychidae)...
  25. Bernardi D, Botton M, da Cunha U, Bernardi O, Malausa T, Garcia M, et al. Effects of azadirachtin on Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and its compatibility with predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on strawberry. Pest Manag Sci. 2013;69:75-80 pubmed publisher
    ..urticae. In this work, the effects of azadirachtin on T. urticae and its compatibility with predatory mites Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus macropilis in the strawberry crop were evaluated...
  26. Mumm R, Posthumus M, Dicke M. Significance of terpenoids in induced indirect plant defence against herbivorous arthropods. Plant Cell Environ. 2008;31:575-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows an important role of terpenoids in the indirect defence of lima bean, which is discussed relative to the role of other HIPVs...
  27. Magalhães S, Blanchet E, Egas M, Olivieri I. Are adaptation costs necessary to build up a local adaptation pattern?. BMC Evol Biol. 2009;9:182 pubmed publisher
    ..The occurrence of such trade-offs is inferred by a pattern of local adaptation, i.e., a negative correlation between relative performance on different hosts...
  28. Steinmann K, Zhang M, Grant J. Does use of pesticides known to harm natural enemies of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) result in increased number of miticide applications? An examination of California walnut orchards. J Econ Entomol. 2011;104:1496-501 pubmed
    Integrated pest management (IPM) offers guidelines to reduce spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) outbreaks by avoiding pesticides known to be harmful to the natural enemies of spider mites...
  29. Khajehali J, Van Leeuwen T, Grispou M, Morou E, Alout H, Weill M, et al. Acetylcholinesterase point mutations in European strains of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) resistant to organophosphates. Pest Manag Sci. 2010;66:220-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Among them, F331W is probably the most important and the most common in T. urticae. It can be easily detected by the diagnostic PCR-RLFP assay developed in this study...
  30. Matsuda T, Hinomoto N, Singh R, Gotoh T. Molecular-based identification and phylogeny of Oligonychus species (Acari: Tetranychidae). J Econ Entomol. 2012;105:1043-50 pubmed
    ..Three Oligonychus species inhabiting gramineous plants formed clearly defined subclades...
  31. Kroon A, Veenendaal R, Egas M, Bruin J, Sabelis M. Diapause incidence in the two-spotted spider mite increases due to predator presence, not due to selective predation. Exp Appl Acarol. 2005;35:73-81 pubmed
    ..Why spider mites benefit from this response, remains an open question...
  32. Kroon A, Veenendaal R, Bruin J, Egas M, Sabelis M. Predation risk affects diapause induction in the spider mite Tetranychus urticae. Exp Appl Acarol. 2004;34:307-14 pubmed
    ..Given this diapause induction in response to predation risk, the question arises whether entering diapause helps spider mites to escape from predation and contribute more offspring to the spring generation next year...
  33. Wybouw N, Balabanidou V, Ballhorn D, Dermauw W, Grbic M, Vontas J, et al. A horizontally transferred cyanase gene in the spider mite Tetranychus urticae is involved in cyanate metabolism and is differentially expressed upon host plant change. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2012;42:881-9 pubmed publisher
    ..and Panonychus citri, suggesting that an ancient gene transfer occurred before the diversification within the Tetranychidae family...
  34. Szczepaniec A, Raupp M. Direct and indirect effects of imidacloprid on fecundity and abundance of Eurytetranychus buxi (Acari: Tetranychidae) on boxwoods. Exp Appl Acarol. 2013;59:307-18 pubmed publisher
    ..and direct impact of imidacloprid on fecundity and longevity of Eurytetranychus buxi Garman (Acari: Tetranychidae), feeding on boxwoods, Buxus sempervirens L. Moreover, we compared the abundance of E...
  35. Magalhaes S, Fayard J, Janssen A, Carbonell D, Olivieri I. Adaptation in a spider mite population after long-term evolution on a single host plant. J Evol Biol. 2007;20:2016-27 pubmed
    ..Hence, patterns of evolutionary changes generally matched those of genetic variation, and changes in some traits were not hindered by long-term evolution in a constant environment...
  36. Suzuki T, Watanabe M, Takeda M. UV tolerance in the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae. J Insect Physiol. 2009;55:649-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Diapausing females may overcome the deleterious effects of UV-B during winter in the absence of leaves by emigrating to UV-free environments and by accumulating carotenoids...
  37. Ros V, Breeuwer J. Spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) mitochondrial COI phylogeny reviewed: host plant relationships, phylogeography, reproductive parasites and barcoding. Exp Appl Acarol. 2007;42:239-62 pubmed
    ..of molecular studies that aimed to resolve issues of species delineation and phylogeny of mites in the family Tetranychidae. The central part of the mitochondrial COI region has frequently been used for investigating intra- and ..
  38. Choh Y, Takabayashi J. Predator avoidance in phytophagous mites: response to present danger depends on alternative host quality. Oecologia. 2007;151:262-7 pubmed
    ..urticae. From these results, we conclude that T. urticae change their antipredator response by evaluating the difference in host plant volatiles in the patch they inhabit...
  39. Ros V, Breeuwer J. The effects of, and interactions between, Cardinium and Wolbachia in the doubly infected spider mite Bryobia sarothamni. Heredity (Edinb). 2009;102:413-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We observed Wolbachia and Cardinium in the sexual spider mite Bryobia sarothamni (Acari: Tetranychidae) and investigated the effects of both bacteria on reproduction...
  40. Maniania N, Bugeme D, Wekesa V, Delalibera I, Knapp M. Role of entomopathogenic fungi in the control of Tetranychus evansi and Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), pests of horticultural crops. Exp Appl Acarol. 2008;46:259-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research should focus on development of efficient mass production systems, formulation, and delivery systems of fungal pathogens...
  41. Dermauw W, Wybouw N, Rombauts S, Menten B, Vontas J, Grbic M, et al. A link between host plant adaptation and pesticide resistance in the polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E113-22 pubmed publisher
    ..They also support a model whereby selection for the ability to mount a broad response to the diverse defense chemistry of plants predisposes the evolution of pesticide resistance in generalists...
  42. Bleeker P, Mirabella R, Diergaarde P, VanDoorn A, Tissier A, Kant M, et al. Improved herbivore resistance in cultivated tomato with the sesquiterpene biosynthetic pathway from a wild relative. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:20124-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These tomatoes gained resistance to several herbivores that are pests of tomato. Hence, introduction of this sesquiterpene biosynthetic pathway into cultivated tomatoes resulted in improved herbivore resistance...
  43. Altincicek B, Kovacs J, Gerardo N. Horizontally transferred fungal carotenoid genes in the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. Biol Lett. 2012;8:253-7 pubmed publisher
    ..As carotenoids are associated with diapause induction in these animals, our results add to recent findings highlighting the importance of eukaryotic horizontal gene transfer in the ecology and evolution of higher animals...
  44. Grbic M, Van Leeuwen T, Clark R, Rombauts S, Rouze P, Grbic V, et al. The genome of Tetranychus urticae reveals herbivorous pest adaptations. Nature. 2011;479:487-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The T. urticae genome thus offers new insights into arthropod evolution and plant-herbivore interactions, and provides unique opportunities for developing novel plant protection strategies...
  45. Furtado I, De Moraes G, Kreiter S, Knapp M. Search for effective natural enemies of Tetranychus evansi in south and southeast Brazil. Exp Appl Acarol. 2006;40:157-74 pubmed
    ..evansi on three different plant species and in two different periods of the year, when T. evansi was the only arthropod present on the leaves...
  46. Suzuki T, Kojima T, Takeda M, Sakuma M. Photo-orientation regulates seasonal habitat selection in the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae. J Exp Biol. 2013;216:977-83 pubmed publisher
    ..This seasonal polyphenism involves alterations in not only reproductive state and pigmentation, but also in photo-spectral responses...
  47. Zhang K, Niu J, Ding T, Dou W, Wang J. Molecular characterization of two carboxylesterase genes of the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae). Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2013;82:213-26 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that PCE1 and PCE2 may have distinct roles in different developmental stages and participate in the detoxification of acaricides...
  48. Arimoto M, Satoh M, Uesugi R, Osakabe M. PCR-RFLP analysis for identification of Tetranychus spider mite species (Acari: Tetranychidae). J Econ Entomol. 2013;106:661-8 pubmed
    ..This demonstrates the usefulness of the PCR-restriction fragment-length polymorphism method for the worldwide identification of Tetranychus species...
  49. Oku K. Is only the first mating effective for females in the Kanzawa spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawai (Acari: Tetranychidae)?. Exp Appl Acarol. 2008;45:53-7 pubmed publisher
    Although only the first mating is effective for females in Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), it remains unclear whether this is also true for closely related species, such as T. kanzawai...
  50. Zhang J, Wang J, Zhao Z, Chen Y, Dou W. [Effects of simulated acid rain on physiological and biochemical characters of eggplant, the host plant of Tetranychus cinnabarinus]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2005;16:450-4 pubmed
    ..0) inhibited the growth of both host plant and mite...
  51. Kim Y, Lee S, Lee S, Ahn Y. Fenpyroximate resistance in Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae): cross-resistance and biochemical resistance mechanisms. Pest Manag Sci. 2004;60:1001-6 pubmed
    ..These results suggested that enhanced activities of both mixed-function oxidases and esterases likely contribute to the fenpyroximate resistance of the FR-20 strain of T urticae...
  52. Yano S. Does Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) use flying insects as vectors for phoretic dispersal?. Exp Appl Acarol. 2004;32:243-8 pubmed
    ..Instances of dispersal were detected at extremely low frequency, suggesting that phoretic dispersal of T. urticae mediated by winged insects is probably rare in the wild...
  53. Castagnoli M, Caccia R, Liguori M, Simoni S, Marinari S, Soressi G. Tomato transgenic lines and Tetranychus urticae: changes in plant suitability and susceptibility. Exp Appl Acarol. 2003;31:177-89 pubmed
    ..urticae population increase, the glasshouse studies were not as conclusive and they only suggest the possibility of any real difference between the transgenic and non-transgenic genotypes...