Summary: Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.

Top Publications

  1. Wesener T, Raupach M, Decker P. Mountain refugia play a role in soil arthropod speciation on Madagascar: a case study of the endemic giant fire-millipede genus Aphistogoniulus. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28035 pubmed publisher
    ..models, mountain refugia and ecotone shift, were discovered to play a role in the speciation of soil arthropods on Madagascar. Mountain refugia were important in the speciation of the A...
  2. Andersen J. Structure and mechanism in salivary proteins from blood-feeding arthropods. Toxicon. 2010;56:1120-9 pubmed publisher
    The saliva of blood-feeding arthropods contains rich mixtures of ligand binding proteins targeted at inhibiting hemostasis and inflammation in the host...
  3. Richmond D, Oates A. The segmentation clock: inherited trait or universal design principle?. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2012;22:600-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent evidence of a segmentation clock acting in arthropods indicates that this mechanism may be a widely used strategy for generating serial anatomy in animals...
  4. Matsuura Y, Kikuchi Y, Meng X, Koga R, Fukatsu T. Novel clade of alphaproteobacterial endosymbionts associated with stinkbugs and other arthropods. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:4149-56 pubmed publisher
    Here we report a novel clade of secondary endosymbionts associated with insects and other arthropods. Seed bugs of the genus Nysius (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) harbor the primary gammaproteobacterial symbiont Schneideria nysicola within a pair ..
  5. Janssen R, Damen W, Budd G. Expression of pair rule gene orthologs in the blastoderm of a myriapod: evidence for pair rule-like mechanisms?. BMC Dev Biol. 2012;12:15 pubmed publisher
    ..Drosophila development, however, is derived, and in most other arthropods only the anterior body is patterned (almost) simultaneously from a pre-existing field of cells; posterior ..
  6. Martinson H, Fagan W, Denno R. Critical patch sizes for food-web modules. Ecology. 2012;93:1779-86 pubmed
    ..Here, we identify whether food-web interactions among salt-marsh-inhabiting arthropods vary with patch size and connectivity, and how such changes in trophic structure might feed back to influence ..
  7. Ortega Hernández J, Brena C. Ancestral patterning of tergite formation in a centipede suggests derived mode of trunk segmentation in trilobites. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e52623 pubmed publisher
    ..of the fundamental genetic processes for constructing the trunk segments are remarkably conserved among living arthropods. One example is the expression of the segment polarity gene engrailed, which at embryonic and early ..
  8. Holmquist J, Schmidt Gengenbach J, Haultain S. Effects of a long-term disturbance on arthropods and vegetation in subalpine wetlands: manifestations of pack stock grazing in early versus mid-season. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54109 pubmed publisher
    ..The study was thus effectively a landscape-scale, long-term manipulation of wetland grazing. We sampled arthropods at these remote sites and collected data on associated vegetation structure...
  9. Grigorian M, Hartenstein V. Hematopoiesis and hematopoietic organs in arthropods. Dev Genes Evol. 2013;223:103-15 pubmed publisher
    ..that are apparent when comparing the development of blood cells in hematopoietic organs of vertebrates and arthropods. Our comparative review is intended to elucidate aspects of the biology of blood stem cells that are more easily ..

More Information


  1. Collin C, Hauser F, González de Valdivia E, de Valdivia E, Li S, Reisenberger J, et al. Two types of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in Drosophila and other arthropods. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2013;70:3231-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Using bioinformatics, one orthologue of the A-type and one of the B-type mAChRs could also be found in all other arthropods with a sequenced genome...
  2. Brites D, Brena C, Ebert D, Du Pasquier L. More than one way to produce protein diversity: duplication and limited alternative splicing of an adhesion molecule gene in basal arthropods. Evolution. 2013;67:2999-3011 pubmed publisher
    ..To elucidate the evolutionary history of this extraordinary gene, we investigated Dscam homologs in two basal arthropods, the myriapod Strigamia maritima and the chelicerate Ixodes scapularis...
  3. Comas J, Lumbierres B, Pons X, Albajes R. Ex-ante determination of the capacity of field tests to detect effects of genetically modified corn on nontarget arthropods. J Econ Entomol. 2013;106:1659-68 pubmed
    Field trials may be required to assess risks of genetically modified crops (GMCs) for nontarget arthropods. One critical point of these trials is their capacity to detect differences between the density of one taxon in the GMC and that in ..
  4. Konstantinides N, Averof M. A common cellular basis for muscle regeneration in arthropods and vertebrates. Science. 2014;343:788-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These similarities point to a common cellular basis of regeneration, dating back to the common ancestors of bilaterians. ..
  5. van Ommen Kloeke A, Van Gestel C, Styrishave B, Hansen M, Ellers J, Roelofs D. Molecular and life-history effects of a natural toxin on herbivorous and non-target soil arthropods. Ecotoxicology. 2012;21:1084-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The regulation of a gene encoding a precursor of follistatin, furthermore, implied the inhibition of reproduction and may be an important molecular target that can be linked to the observed adverse effect of life-history traits...
  6. Armitage S, Freiburg R, Kurtz J, Bravo I. The evolution of Dscam genes across the arthropods. BMC Evol Biol. 2012;12:53 pubmed publisher
  7. Eriksson M, Terfelt F. Exceptionally preserved Cambrian trilobite digestive system revealed in 3D by synchrotron-radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35625 pubmed publisher
    The Cambrian 'Orsten' fauna comprises exceptionally preserved and phosphatised microscopic arthropods. The external morphology of these fossils is well known, but their internal soft-tissue anatomy has remained virtually unknown...
  8. Brewer M, Sierwald P, Bond J. Millipede taxonomy after 250 years: classification and taxonomic practices in a mega-diverse yet understudied arthropod group. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37240 pubmed publisher
  9. Tabadkani S, Nozari J, Lihoreau M. Inbreeding and the evolution of sociality in arthropods. Naturwissenschaften. 2012;99:779-88 pubmed
    ..Here, we consider how selection for inbreeding avoidance fashions the social behavior of arthropods, a phylum exhibiting an unparalleled richness of social lifestyles...
  10. Janssen R. Diplosegmentation in the pill millipede Glomeris marginata is the result of dorsal fusion. Evol Dev. 2011;13:477-87 pubmed publisher
    ..If the former is the case, my work may provide an impressive example of Haeckel's recapitulation theory...
  11. Schoenemann B. The eyes of a tiny 'Orsten' crustacean - a compound eye at receptor level?. Vision Res. 2013;76:89-93 pubmed publisher
    ..tiny, often meiobenthic organsisms (Haug, Maas, & Waloszek, 2009) smaller than 2mm, which mainly were arthropods, especially crustaceans close to the stemline...
  12. Haug J, Briggs D, Haug C. Morphology and function in the Cambrian Burgess Shale megacheiran arthropod Leanchoilia superlata and the application of a descriptive matrix. BMC Evol Biol. 2012;12:162 pubmed publisher
    Leanchoilia superlata is one of the best known arthropods from the middle Cambrian Burgess Shale of British Columbia. Here we re-describe the morphology of L. superlata and discuss its possible autecology...
  13. Fattorini S, Cardoso P, Rigal F, Borges P. Use of arthropod rarity for area prioritisation: insights from the Azorean Islands. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33995 pubmed publisher
    ..This result suggests that protecting marginal non-natural areas which are however reservoirs of vulnerable species may also be important, especially when areas with well preserved primary habitats are scarce...
  14. Brena C, Akam M. An analysis of segmentation dynamics throughout embryogenesis in the centipede Strigamia maritima. BMC Biol. 2013;11:112 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it remains unclear whether cyclic gene activity is widespread across arthropods, and possibly ancestral among segmented animals...
  15. Brewer M, Swafford L, Spruill C, Bond J. Arthropod phylogenetics in light of three novel millipede (myriapoda: diplopoda) mitochondrial genomes with comments on the appropriateness of mitochondrial genome sequence data for inferring deep level relationships. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e68005 pubmed publisher
    b>Arthropods are the most diverse group of eukaryotic organisms, but their phylogenetic relationships are poorly understood...
  16. Vollmer J, Schiefer A, Schneider T, Jülicher K, Johnston K, Taylor M, et al. Requirement of lipid II biosynthesis for cell division in cell wall-less Wolbachia, endobacteria of arthropods and filarial nematodes. Int J Med Microbiol. 2013;303:140-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that lipid II is essential for Wolbachia cell division and that this function is potentially conserved in the Gram-negative bacteria...
  17. Naggan Perl T, Schmid B, Schwirz J, Chipman A. The evolution of the knirps family of transcription factors in arthropods. Mol Biol Evol. 2013;30:1348-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Within the insects, the knirps-related gene underwent further lineage-specific duplications, giving rise to--among others--the Drosophila gap gene knirps...
  18. Sasaki G, Ishiwata K, Machida R, Miyata T, Su Z. Molecular phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of Hexapoda and suggest the paraphyly of Entognatha. BMC Evol Biol. 2013;13:236 pubmed publisher
    ..of DNA polymerase delta and the largest and second largest subunits of RNA polymerase II from 64 species of arthropods, including representatives of all hexapod orders. ..
  19. Levitt A, Singh R, Cox Foster D, Rajotte E, Hoover K, Ostiguy N, et al. Cross-species transmission of honey bee viruses in associated arthropods. Virus Res. 2013;176:232-40 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined managed A. mellifera colonies, nearby non-Apis hymenopteran pollinators, and other associated arthropods for the presence of five commonly occurring picorna-like RNA viruses of honey bees - black queen cell virus, ..
  20. Abascal F, Posada D, Zardoya R. The evolution of the mitochondrial genetic code in arthropods revisited. Mitochondrial DNA. 2012;23:84-91 pubmed publisher
    A variant of the invertebrate mitochondrial genetic code was previously identified in arthropods (Abascal et al...
  21. Lerosey Aubril R, Hegna T, Kier C, Bonino E, Habersetzer J, Carré M. Controls on gut phosphatisation: the trilobites from the Weeks Formation Lagerstätte (Cambrian; Utah). PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32934 pubmed publisher
    ..This is particularly true with arthropods--typically the most diverse fossilised organisms in Cambrian ecosystems--where digestive structures represent an ..
  22. Mohamed Aly S, Wen J, Wang X, Cai J, Liu Q, Zhong M. Identification of forensically important arthropods on exposed remains during summer season in northeastern Egypt. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2013;38:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To document the arthropod succession pattern and to identify forensically important species in northeastern Egypt (32° 15' E and 30° 36' N) for the first time...
  23. Wojcieszek J, Simmons L. Evidence for stabilizing selection and slow divergent evolution of male genitalia in a millipede (Antichiropus variabilis). Evolution. 2012;66:1138-53 pubmed publisher
  24. Biondi A, Mommaerts V, Smagghe G, Viñuela E, Zappalà L, Desneux N. The non-target impact of spinosyns on beneficial arthropods. Pest Manag Sci. 2012;68:1523-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies are primarily related to the risk assessment of spinosad towards beneficial arthropods. This review takes into account recent data with the aim of (i) highlighting potentially adverse effects of ..
  25. Ma X, Hou X, Edgecombe G, Strausfeld N. Complex brain and optic lobes in an early Cambrian arthropod. Nature. 2012;490:258-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Fossil arthropods rarely preserve neural tissue...
  26. Liu Q, Eremeeva M, Li D. Bartonella and Bartonella infections in China: from the clinic to the laboratory. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012;35:93-102 pubmed publisher
    ..Detection and isolation of Bartonella species from arthropods, pets and small wild animals is commonplace; this includes a variety of known and emerging Bartonella pathogens...
  27. Junglen S, Drosten C. Virus discovery and recent insights into virus diversity in arthropods. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2013;16:507-13 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the current focusing of studies on blood-feeding arthropods has restricted the range of arthropod hosts analyzed for viruses so far...
  28. Zug R, Hammerstein P. Still a host of hosts for Wolbachia: analysis of recent data suggests that 40% of terrestrial arthropod species are infected. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38544 pubmed publisher be around 40% which is lower than the previous estimate but still points to a surprisingly high number of arthropods harboring the bacteria...
  29. Hering L, Henze M, Kohler M, Kelber A, Bleidorn C, Leschke M, et al. Opsins in onychophora (velvet worms) suggest a single origin and subsequent diversification of visual pigments in arthropods. Mol Biol Evol. 2012;29:3451-8 pubmed publisher
    Multiple visual pigments, prerequisites for color vision, are found in arthropods, but the evolutionary origin of their diversity remains obscure...
  30. Fusco G, Garland T, Hunt G, Hughes N. Developmental trait evolution in trilobites. Evolution. 2012;66:314-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Growth rates are within the normal range with respect to other arthropods and show overall conformity to Dyar's rule...
  31. Van Leeuwen T, Demaeght P, Osborne E, Dermauw W, Gohlke S, Nauen R, et al. Population bulk segregant mapping uncovers resistance mutations and the mode of action of a chitin synthesis inhibitor in arthropods. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:4407-12 pubmed publisher
    ..More generally, our genetic mapping approach should be powerful for high-resolution mapping of simple traits (resistance or otherwise) in arthropods.
  32. Lee M, Jago J, García Bellido D, Edgecombe G, Gehling J, Paterson J. Modern optics in exceptionally preserved eyes of Early Cambrian arthropods from Australia. Nature. 2011;474:631-4 pubmed publisher
    ..because Cambrian Burgess-Shale-type deposits are replete with exquisitely preserved animals, especially arthropods, that possess eyes...
  33. Purać J, Burns G, Thorne M, Grubor Lajsić G, Worland M, Clark M. Cold hardening processes in the Antarctic springtail, Cryptopygus antarcticus: clues from a microarray. J Insect Physiol. 2008;54:1356-62 pubmed publisher
    ..These structural proteins mainly comprised cuticle proteins and provide support for the recent theory that summer SCP variation within Collembola species could be a consequence of moulting, with moulting population having lowered SCPs...
  34. Murienne J, Edgecombe G, Giribet G. Including secondary structure, fossils and molecular dating in the centipede tree of life. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2010;57:301-13 pubmed publisher
  35. Malagoli D, Abdalla F, Cao Y, Feng Q, Fujisaki K, Gregorc A, et al. Autophagy and its physiological relevance in arthropods: current knowledge and perspectives. Autophagy. 2010;6:575-88 pubmed publisher
    ..e., survival or death, at least at cellular levels. Arthropods encompass a wide variety of invertebrates such as insects, crustaceans and spiders, and thus represent the taxon ..
  36. Shear W, Edgecombe G. The geological record and phylogeny of the Myriapoda. Arthropod Struct Dev. 2010;39:174-90 pubmed publisher
    We review issues of myriapod phylogeny, from the position of the Myriapoda amongst arthropods to the relationships of the orders of the classes Chilopoda and Diplopoda...
  37. Wolfenbarger L, Naranjo S, Lundgren J, Bitzer R, Watrud L. Bt crop effects on functional guilds of non-target arthropods: a meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2118 pubmed publisher
    ..We performed meta-analyses on a modified public database to synthesize current knowledge about the effects of Bt cotton, maize and potato on the abundance and interactions of arthropod non-target functional guilds...
  38. Rota Stabelli O, Telford M. A multi criterion approach for the selection of optimal outgroups in phylogeny: recovering some support for Mandibulata over Myriochelata using mitogenomics. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2008;48:103-11 pubmed publisher
    ..compositional heterogeneity and genetic distance in mtDNA sequences of several different outgroups to the arthropods, selected from deuterostomes, lophotrochozoans and ecdysozoans, and have used them to root a phylogenetically ..
  39. Edgecombe G. Arthropod phylogeny: an overview from the perspectives of morphology, molecular data and the fossil record. Arthropod Struct Dev. 2010;39:74-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent work finds Onychophora rather than Tardigrada to be the closest relatives of arthropods. The status of tardigrades as panarthropods (rather than cycloneuralians) is contentious from the perspective of ..
  40. Lee C, Kim N, Roy M, Graveley B. Massive expansions of Dscam splicing diversity via staggered homologous recombination during arthropod evolution. RNA. 2010;16:91-105 pubmed publisher
    ..We have performed extensive phylogenetic analyses of Dscam from 20 arthropods (each containing between 46 and 96 alternative exons) to reconstruct the detailed history of exon duplication ..
  41. Hanrahan S, Johnston J. New genome size estimates of 134 species of arthropods. Chromosome Res. 2011;19:809-23 pubmed publisher
    ..range from 91 to 7,752 Mb and provide a broader picture of genome size variation within Insecta and among all Arthropods. Proposed developmental constraints for holometabolous insect genome sizes are supported, with the majority of ..
  42. Regier J, Zwick A. Sources of signal in 62 protein-coding nuclear genes for higher-level phylogenetics of arthropods. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23408 pubmed publisher
  43. Regier J, Shultz J, Zwick A, Hussey A, Ball B, Wetzer R, et al. Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences. Nature. 2010;463:1079-83 pubmed publisher
    The remarkable antiquity, diversity and ecological significance of arthropods have inspired numerous attempts to resolve their deep phylogenetic history, but the results of two decades of intensive molecular phylogenetics have been mixed...
  44. Roller L, Zitnanova I, Dai L, Simo L, Park Y, Satake H, et al. Ecdysis triggering hormone signaling in arthropods. Peptides. 2010;31:429-41 pubmed publisher
    ..molecular and BLAST search techniques to detect these signaling molecules in representatives of diverse arthropods. Using peptide isolation from tracheal extracts, cDNA cloning or homology searches, we identified ETHs in a ..
  45. Williams Guillén K, Perfecto I, Vandermeer J. Bats limit insects in a neotropical agroforestry system. Science. 2008;320:70 pubmed publisher
    Exclosure experiments have demonstrated the effects of bird predation on arthropods. In a Mexican coffee plantation, we excluded foliage-gleaning bird and bat predators from coffee plants. Effects of bats and birds were additive...
  46. Bastian F, Alabouvette C, Saiz Jimenez C. The impact of arthropods on fungal community structure in Lascaux Cave. J Appl Microbiol. 2009;106:1456-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The ceiling, walls, sediments and soil were colonized by Fusarium solani in 2001 and later, in 2006, black stains appeared. However, the origin of the successive fungal invasions is unknown as well as the ecology of the cave...
  47. George J. The effects of global change on the threat of exotic arthropods and arthropod-borne pathogens to livestock in the United States. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1149:249-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Selected examples of arthropod-borne diseases of importance are discussed in terms of their potential for introduction, spread, and impact on livestock and human health in the United States...
  48. Vanhoutteghem A, Bouche C, Maciejewski Duval A, Hervé F, Djian P. Basonuclins and disco: Orthologous zinc finger proteins essential for development in vertebrates and arthropods. Biochimie. 2011;93:127-33 pubmed publisher
    ..All these proteins are thought to be transcription factors, and it will have to be determined to what extent they share similar targets...
  49. Broerse M, Van Gestel C. Chlorpyrifos reduces nickel-induced growth retardation of the soil dwelling Collembolan Folsomia candida. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2010;73:1051-6 pubmed publisher
  50. Rehm P, Borner J, Meusemann K, von Reumont B, Simon S, Hadrys H, et al. Dating the arthropod tree based on large-scale transcriptome data. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2011;61:880-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Sequence Tags and genomes comprising 129genes (37,476 amino acid positions) and 117 taxa, including 101 arthropods. We obtained consistent divergence time estimates applying relaxed Bayesian clock models with different priors ..
  51. Giribet G, Edgecombe G. Reevaluating the arthropod tree of life. Annu Rev Entomol. 2012;57:167-86 pubmed publisher
    b>Arthropods are the most diverse group of animals and have been so since the Cambrian radiation...
  52. Ma X, Hou X, Bergstrom J. Morphology of Luolishania longicruris (Lower Cambrian, Chengjiang Lagerstätte, SW China) and the phylogenetic relationships within lobopodians. Arthropod Struct Dev. 2009;38:271-91 pubmed publisher
    ..A new cladistic analysis suggests that fossil lobopodians are paraphyletic or even polyphyletic and L. longicruris may be an important representative of the stem lineage leading to arthropods.
  53. Meusemann K, von Reumont B, Simon S, Roeding F, Strauss S, Kück P, et al. A phylogenomic approach to resolve the arthropod tree of life. Mol Biol Evol. 2010;27:2451-64 pubmed publisher
    b>Arthropods were the first animals to conquer land and air. They encompass more than three quarters of all described living species...
  54. Michels J, Gorb S. Detailed three-dimensional visualization of resilin in the exoskeleton of arthropods using confocal laser scanning microscopy. J Microsc. 2012;245:1-16 pubmed publisher
    Resilin is a rubber-like protein found in the exoskeleton of arthropods. It often contributes large proportions to the material of certain structures in movement systems...
  55. Bortolin F, Benna C, Fusco G. Gene expression during postembryonic segmentation in the centipede Lithobius peregrinus (Chilopoda, Lithobiomorpha). Dev Genes Evol. 2011;221:105-11 pubmed publisher
    Postembryonic segmentation (anamorphosis) is widespread among arthropods, but only partially known as for its developmental mechanics and control...