leeches

Summary

Summary: Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (HIRUDO MEDICINALIS) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.

Top Publications

  1. Dykes I, Macagno E. Molecular characterization and embryonic expression of innexins in the leech Hirudo medicinalis. Dev Genes Evol. 2006;216:185-97 pubmed
    ..Two other innexins also show highly restricted expressions in neurons and may be developmentally regulated...
  2. Hayes P, Smit N, Seddon A, Wertheim D, Davies A. A new fish haemogregarine from South Africa and its suspected dual transmission with trypanosomes by a marine leech. Folia Parasitol (Praha). 2006;53:241-8 pubmed
    ..Also at Koppie Alleen, squash and histological preparations of 9/10 leeches, Zeylanicobdella arugamensis De Silva, 1963, taken from infected C. cottoides and P...
  3. Swiatek P, Bielecki A, Klag J. Structure of the vector tissue in piscicolid leeches (Annelida, Hirudinea, Rhynchobdellida, Piscicolidae). J Morphol. 2007;268:64-73 pubmed
    Hypodermic insemination occurs in piscicolid leeches (Hirudinea, Rhynchobdellida, Piscicolidae). The spermatophore is implanted in a specialized region of the leech body, the copulatory area...
  4. Bely A, Weisblat D. Lessons from leeches: a call for DNA barcoding in the lab. Evol Dev. 2006;8:491-501 pubmed
    ..b>Leeches in the genus Helobdella have been a workhorse of annelid developmental biology for 30 years...
  5. Lohr C, Deitmer J. Calcium signaling in invertebrate glial cells. Glia. 2006;54:642-9 pubmed
  6. Pilcher H. Medicinal leeches: stuck on you. Nature. 2004;432:10-1 pubmed
  7. Kikuchi Y, Graf J. Spatial and temporal population dynamics of a naturally occurring two-species microbial community inside the digestive tract of the medicinal leech. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:1984-91 pubmed
    ..The simplicity, symbiont-symbiont interaction, and mixed microcolonies of this naturally occurring, digestive-tract symbiosis lay the foundation for understanding the more complex communities residing in most animals...
  8. Weisblat D. Asymmetric cell divisions in the early embryo of the leech Helobdella robusta. Prog Mol Subcell Biol. 2007;45:79-95 pubmed
  9. Tobin A, Van Hooser S, Calabrese R. Creation and reduction of a morphologically detailed model of a leech heart interneuron. J Neurophysiol. 2006;96:2107-20 pubmed
    ..Thus our computationally efficient reduced morphology model can be used as a tool for exploring the parameter space of the Full Model and in network simulations...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Grimaldi A, Bianchi C, Greco G, Tettamanti G, Noonan D, Valvassori R, et al. In vivo isolation and characterization of stem cells with diverse phenotypes using growth factor impregnated biomatrices. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e1910 pubmed publisher
    ..Potential answers concerning the problems could be derived from the studies of stem cells in culture...
  2. Montazeri F, Bedayat A, Jamali L, Salehian M, Montazeri G. Leech endoparasitism: report of a case and review of the literature. Eur J Pediatr. 2009;168:39-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This mass was determined to be a live engorged leech. Leech endoparasitism is caused by aquatic leeches that attach themselves to mucus membranes of body cavities after the host has swum in bodies of fresh water or ..
  3. Schulz C, Faisal M. The bacterial community associated with the leech Myzobdella lugubris Leidy 1851 (Hirudinea: Piscicolidae) from Lake Erie, Michigan, USA. Parasite. 2010;17:113-21 pubmed
    b>Leeches are widespread in the Great Lakes Basin, yet their potential to harbor disease-causing agents has not been investigated...
  4. Laguerre M, Veenstra J. Ecdysone receptor homologs from mollusks, leeches and a polychaete worm. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:4458-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, ecdysone receptors are not limited to arthropods and nematodes...
  5. Mullins O, Hackett J, Buchanan J, Friesen W. Neuronal control of swimming behavior: comparison of vertebrate and invertebrate model systems. Prog Neurobiol. 2011;93:244-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparative studies between species highlight mechanisms that optimize behavior and allow us a broader understanding of nervous system function...
  6. Heukelbach J, Hengge U. Bed bugs, leeches and hookworm larvae in the skin. Clin Dermatol. 2009;27:285-90 pubmed publisher
    Bed bugs, leeches, and hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans are skin infestations that are usually considered of minor importance because they produce discomfort rather than cause or transmit disease...
  7. Cymbalyuk G, Shilnikov A. Coexistence of tonic spiking oscillations in a leech neuron model. J Comput Neurosci. 2005;18:255-63 pubmed
    ..Thus, the system can demonstrate co-existence of a periodic tonic spiking with either periodic or chaotic tonic spiking. Pontryagin's averaging technique is used to locate the periodic orbits in the phase space...
  8. Norris B, Weaver A, Wenning A, Garcia P, Calabrese R. A central pattern generator producing alternative outputs: pattern, strength, and dynamics of premotor synaptic input to leech heart motor neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2007;98:2992-3005 pubmed
    The central pattern generator (CPG) for heartbeat in medicinal leeches consists of seven identified pairs of segmental heart interneurons and one unidentified pair...
  9. Roffman R, Norris B, Calabrese R. Animal-to-animal variability of connection strength in the leech heartbeat central pattern generator. J Neurophysiol. 2012;107:1681-93 pubmed publisher
    The heartbeat central pattern generator (CPG) in medicinal leeches controls blood flow within a closed circulatory by programming the constrictions of two parallel heart tubes...
  10. Nowak G, Schror K. Hirudin--the long and stony way from an anticoagulant peptide in the saliva of medicinal leech to a recombinant drug and beyond. A historical piece. Thromb Haemost. 2007;98:116-9 pubmed
  11. Briggman K, Abarbanel H, Kristan W. Optical imaging of neuronal populations during decision-making. Science. 2005;307:896-901 pubmed
    ..The analysis highlighted the neuron cell 208. Hyperpolarizing cell 208 during a stimulus biases the leech to swim; depolarizing it biases the leech to crawl or to delay swimming...
  12. Cherniack E. Bugs as drugs, part two: worms, leeches, scorpions, snails, ticks, centipedes, and spiders. Altern Med Rev. 2011;16:50-8 pubmed
    ..the evidence for the use of organisms as medicine, the use of a number of different "bugs" (worms, leeches, snails, ticks, centipedes, and spiders) is detailed...
  13. White T, Berny M, Robinson D, Yin H, Degrado W, Hanson S, et al. The leech product saratin is a potent inhibitor of platelet integrin alpha2beta1 and von Willebrand factor binding to collagen. FEBS J. 2007;274:1481-91 pubmed
    ..b>Leeches, have evolved a number of inhibitors directed towards platelet-collagen interactions so as to prevent hemostasis ..
  14. Ngu E, Sahley C, Muller K. Reduced axon sprouting after treatment that diminishes microglia accumulation at lesions in the leech CNS. J Comp Neurol. 2007;503:101-9 pubmed
    ..There was a significant reduction in total sprout lengths compared with controls when microglial accumulation was reduced. The results suggest that microglial cells are necessary for the usual sprouting of injured axons...
  15. Norris B, Weaver A, Wenning A, Garcia P, Calabrese R. A central pattern generator producing alternative outputs: phase relations of leech heart motor neurons with respect to premotor synaptic input. J Neurophysiol. 2007;98:2983-91 pubmed
    The central pattern generator (CPG) for heartbeat in leeches consists of seven identified pairs of segmental heart interneurons and one unidentified pair...
  16. Tawatsin A, Thavara U, Chansang U, Chavalittumrong P, Boonruad T, Wongsinkongman P, et al. Field evaluation of deet, Repel Care, and three plant based essential oil repellents against mosquitoes, black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) and land leeches (Arhynchobdellida: Haemadipsidae) in Thailand. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2006;22:306-13 pubmed
    ..were evaluated in the field on human volunteers against hematophagous mosquitoes, black flies, and land leeches in Thailand...
  17. Kikuchi Y, Fukatsu T. Rickettsia infection in natural leech populations. Microb Ecol. 2005;49:265-71 pubmed
    Field-collected specimens of glossiphoniid leeches, Torix tagoi, Torix tukubana, Hemiclepsis marginata, and Hemiclepsis japonica, were surveyed for Rickettsia infection by using a diagnostic PCR assay...
  18. Tsuji L, Martin I. The use of leeches to monitor aquatic PCB contamination at Mid-Canada Radar Line site 050: four years post-remediation. Environ Monit Assess. 2009;153:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..aquatic environment surrounding MCRL Site 050 has returned to background levels four years post-remediation using leeches (Haemopis spp.) as bioindicators...
  19. Kristan W, Calabrese R, Friesen W. Neuronal control of leech behavior. Prog Neurobiol. 2005;76:279-327 pubmed
    ..Neuroethological studies in leeches are particularly tractable because the CNS is distributed and metameric, with only 400 identifiable, mostly ..
  20. Bao L, Samuels S, Locovei S, Macagno E, Muller K, Dahl G. Innexins form two types of channels. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:5703-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, carbenoxolone reversibly blocked the loss of carboxyfluorescein dye into the bath from the giant glial cells in the connectives of the leech nerve cord, which are known to express the innexins we assayed...
  21. Kose A, Zengin S, Kose B, Gunay N, Yildirim C, Kilinc H, et al. Leech bites: massive bleeding, coagulation profile disorders, and severe anemia. Am J Emerg Med. 2008;26:1067.e3-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Leeches have been in use for centuries, especially in plastic and reconstructive surgery wound and flap healing, in venous insufficiencies, and in the treatment of many disorders such as hemorrhoids and varicosity...
  22. McCreanor L, Tsuji L, Wainman B, Martin I, Weber J. The use of leeches and logit log-linear contingency models to assess and monitor aquatic PCB contamination originating from mid-Canada radar line site 050. Environ Monit Assess. 2008;140:211-22 pubmed
    ..the remediation process to determine if the cleanup itself further contaminated the aquatic compartment, using leeches (Haemopis spp.) as bioindicators...
  23. Hamilton P, Stevens J, Gidley J, Holz P, Gibson W. A new lineage of trypanosomes from Australian vertebrates and terrestrial bloodsucking leeches (Haemadipsidae). Int J Parasitol. 2005;35:431-43 pubmed
    ..screened were negative for trypanosomes both by microscopy and PCR, except for specimens of terrestrial leeches (Haemadipsidae). Of the latter, two Micobdella sp. specimens from Victoria and 18 Philaemon sp...
  24. Wright T, Calabrese R. Patterns of presynaptic activity and synaptic strength interact to produce motor output. J Neurosci. 2011;31:17555-71 pubmed publisher
    ..For peristaltic motor patterns, the staggered premotor temporal pattern determines the phase range over which segmental motor neurons can fire while synaptic strength profiles define the intersegmental motor phase progression realized...
  25. Lemke S, Muller C, Lipke E, Uhl G, Hildebrandt J. May salivary gland secretory proteins from hematophagous leeches (Hirudo verbana) reach pharmacologically relevant concentrations in the vertebrate host?. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e73809 pubmed publisher
    Saliva of hematophagous leeches (Hirudo sp.) contains bioactive proteins which allow the leech proper feeding and storage of ingested blood, but may also exert effects in the host...
  26. Bisson G, Torre V. Statistical characterization of social interactions and collective behavior in medicinal leeches. J Neurophysiol. 2011;106:78-90 pubmed publisher
    In the present study we analyzed the behavior and interactions among leeches in the same observation tank. Colored beads were glued onto their skin so that their behavior could be followed and quantified...
  27. Al Khleif A, Roth M, Menge C, Heuser J, Baljer G, Herbst W. Tenacity of mammalian viruses in the gut of leeches fed with porcine blood. J Med Microbiol. 2011;60:787-92 pubmed publisher
    Leech therapy is currently considered to be of high therapeutic value in medicine. However, feeding leeches with fresh animal blood during the maintenance and reproduction phase bears the risk of transmission of zoonotic viruses to the ..
  28. Petersen A, Chin W, Feilich K, Jung G, Quist J, Wang J, et al. Leeches run cold, then hot. Biol Lett. 2011;7:941-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Sanguivorous leeches ingest large blood meals that are costly to process and limit mobility until excess fluid can actively be ..
  29. Wagenaar D, Hamilton M, Huang T, Kristan W, French K. A hormone-activated central pattern generator for courtship. Curr Biol. 2010;20:487-95 pubmed publisher
    Medicinal leeches (Hirudo spp.) are simultaneous hermaphrodites...
  30. Garcia P, Wright T, Cunningham I, Calabrese R. Using a model to assess the role of the spatiotemporal pattern of inhibitory input and intrasegmental electrical coupling in the intersegmental and side-to-side coordination of motor neurons by the leech heartbeat central pattern generator. J Neurophysiol. 2008;100:1354-71 pubmed publisher
  31. Siddall M, Worthen P, Johnson M, Graf J. Novel role for Aeromonas jandaei as a digestive tract symbiont of the North American medicinal leech. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:655-8 pubmed
    ..Biochemical tests and DNA sequences indicated that Aeromonas jandaei is the dominant culturable symbiont in leeches from a broad geographic area. In this work we identified a new habitat for A...
  32. Spałek Wołczyńska A, Klag J, Bielecki A, Swiatek P. Oogenesis in four species of Piscicola (Hirudinea, Rhynchobdellida). J Morphol. 2008;269:18-28 pubmed
    ..In the present article we point out many differences in the course of oogenesis in two related families of rhynchobdellids: piscicolids and glossiphoniids...
  33. Thomson E, Kristan W. Encoding and decoding touch location in the leech CNS. J Neurosci. 2006;26:8009-16 pubmed
    ..Although both variables are important determinants of leech behavior, the decoding mechanisms are more sensitive to changes in relative spike count than changes in relative latency...
  34. Ardehali B, Hand K, Nduka C, Holmes A, Wood S. Delayed leech-borne infection with Aeromonas hydrophilia in escharotic flap wound. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2006;59:94-5 pubmed
    Medicinal leeches (Hirudo medicinalis) are commonly used in plastic surgery for the salvage of congested flaps and replanted parts compromised by venous congestion...
  35. Alam S, Das Choudhary M, Islam K. Leech in urinary bladder causing hematuria. J Pediatr Urol. 2008;4:70-3 pubmed publisher
    ..To estimate efficacy of normal saline in the management of hematuria caused by accidental entry of a leech per urethra into the urinary bladder...
  36. Wright T, Calabrese R. Contribution of motoneuron intrinsic properties to fictive motor pattern generation. J Neurophysiol. 2011;106:538-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These experiments provide a direct assessment of how motoneuron intrinsic properties interact with their premotor pattern of synaptic drive to produce rhythmic output...
  37. Duan Y, Sahley C, Muller K. ATP and NO dually control migration of microglia to nerve lesions. Dev Neurobiol. 2009;69:60-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the experiments support the hypothesis that ATP released directly or indirectly by injury activates microglia to move, whereas NO that activates sGC directs migration of microglia to CNS lesions...
  38. Min G, Sarkar I, Siddall M. Salivary transcriptome of the North American medicinal leech, Macrobdella decora. J Parasitol. 2010;96:1211-21 pubmed publisher
    A variety of bioactive proteins from medicinal leeches, like species of Hirudo , have been characterized and evaluated for their potential therapeutic biomedical properties...
  39. Duan Y, Panoff J, Burrell B, Sahley C, Muller K. Repair and regeneration of functional synaptic connections: cellular and molecular interactions in the leech. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2005;25:441-50 pubmed
    ..The cGMP produced remains elevated for hours after injury. The relationship of microglial migration to axon outgrowth is discussed...
  40. Granzow J, Armstrong M, Panthaki Z. A simple method for the control of medicinal leeches. J Reconstr Microsurg. 2004;20:461-2 pubmed
    ..The authors report a simple method of limiting the movement of medicinal leeches from the surgical site, namely, affixing one end of a surgical suture to the leech and tying the free end to a ..
  41. Baca S, Marin Burgin A, Wagenaar D, Kristan W. Widespread inhibition proportional to excitation controls the gain of a leech behavioral circuit. Neuron. 2008;57:276-289 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that the gain of the neuronal network underlying local bending behavior in leeches depends on widespread inhibition...
  42. Siddall M, Trontelj P, Utevsky S, Nkamany M, MacDonald K. Diverse molecular data demonstrate that commercially available medicinal leeches are not Hirudo medicinalis. Proc Biol Sci. 2007;274:1481-7 pubmed
    ..and nuclear microsatellites, that there are at least three species of European medicinal leech, and that leeches marketed as H. medicinalis are actually Hirudo verbana...
  43. Norris B, Wenning A, Wright T, Calabrese R. Constancy and variability in the output of a central pattern generator. J Neurosci. 2011;31:4663-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesize that each animal arrives at a unique solution for how the network produces functional output...
  44. Graf J, Kikuchi Y, Rio R. Leeches and their microbiota: naturally simple symbiosis models. Trends Microbiol. 2006;14:365-71 pubmed
    Strictly blood-feeding leeches and their limited microbiota provide natural and powerful model systems to examine symbiosis. Blood is devoid of essential nutrients and it is thought that symbiotic bacteria synthesize these for the host...
  45. Phillips A, Siddall M. Poly-paraphyly of Hirudinidae: many lineages of medicinal leeches. BMC Evol Biol. 2009;9:246 pubmed publisher
    Medicinal leeches became infamous for their utility in bloodletting popularized in the 19th century, and have seen a recent resurgence in post-operative treatments for flap and replantation surgeries, and in terms of characterization of ..
  46. Rio R, Maltz M, McCormick B, Reiss A, Graf J. Symbiont succession during embryonic development of the European medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:6890-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Symbiont species displayed diversity in temporal establishment and proliferation through leech development...
  47. Perkins S, Budinoff R, Siddall M. New gammaproteobacteria associated with blood-feeding leeches and a broad phylogenetic analysis of leech endosymbionts. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:5219-24 pubmed
    ..Here we report three new lineages of bacterial symbionts of blood-feeding leeches, one from the giant Amazonian leech, Haementeria ghilianii, and two others from Placobdelloides species...
  48. Laufer A, Siddall M, Graf J. Characterization of the digestive-tract microbiota of Hirudo orientalis, a european medicinal leech. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:6151-4 pubmed publisher
    FDA-approved, postoperative use of leeches can lead to bacterial infections. In this study, we used culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches to characterize the digestive-tract microbiota of Hirudo orientalis...
  49. Hemmingsen W, Jansen P, Mackenzie K. Crabs, leeches and trypanosomes: an unholy trinity?. Mar Pollut Bull. 2005;50:336-9 pubmed
    ..We propose the hypothesis that the burgeoning population of red king crabs in this area is indirectly responsible for increased transmission of trypanosomes to cod by promoting an increase in the population of the leech vector...
  50. Doherty S. History of evidence-based medicine. Oranges, chloride of lime and leeches: barriers to teaching old dogs new tricks. Emerg Med Australas. 2005;17:314-21 pubmed
    ..Finally, I will offer a list of criteria that clinicians might choose to consider when deciding on whether or not to adopt a new practice, treatment or concept...
  51. Worthen P, Gode C, Graf J. Culture-independent characterization of the digestive-tract microbiota of the medicinal leech reveals a tripartite symbiosis. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:4775-81 pubmed
    ..The identities of these transients varied greatly between individual leeches. Neither time after feeding nor feeding on defibrinated blood caused a change in identity of the dominant members ..
  52. Olypher A, Cymbalyuk G, Calabrese R. Hybrid systems analysis of the control of burst duration by low-voltage-activated calcium current in leech heart interneurons. J Neurophysiol. 2006;96:2857-67 pubmed
  53. Wenning A, Norris B, Doloc Mihu A, Calabrese R. Bringing up the rear: new premotor interneurons add regional complexity to a segmentally distributed motor pattern. J Neurophysiol. 2011;106:2201-15 pubmed publisher
    ..We have uncovered a new module in the heartbeat CPG of leeches that creates a regional difference in this segmentally distributed motor pattern...