crotalus

Summary

Summary: A genus of snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae, having a hollowed out pit in the maxillary bone between the eye and nostril. Most of the recognized species are found in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Several species are found as far north as Canada and east of the Mississippi, including southern Appalachia. They are named for the jointed rattle (Greek krotalon) at the tip of their tail. (Goin, Goin, and Zug: Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed; Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p335).

Top Publications

  1. Quintana J, Chacon A, Vargas L, Segura C, Gutierrez J, Alarcón J. Antiplasmodial effect of the venom of Crotalus durissus cumanensis, crotoxin complex and Crotoxin B. Acta Trop. 2012;124:126-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Plasmodium falciparum effect of a fraction containing crotoxin, Crotoxin B and whole venom of the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus cumanensis...
  2. Gibbs H, Rossiter W. Rapid evolution by positive selection and gene gain and loss: PLA(2) venom genes in closely related Sistrurus rattlesnakes with divergent diets. J Mol Evol. 2008;66:151-66 pubmed publisher
  3. Saravia P, Rojas E, Arce V, Guevara C, Lopez J, Chaves E, et al. Geographic and ontogenic variability in the venom of the neotropical rattlesnake Crotalus durissus: pathophysiological and therapeutic implications. Rev Biol Trop. 2002;50:337-46 pubmed
    A comparative study was performed on the venoms of adult specimens of the neotropical rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus, from Guatemala, Costa Rica, Venezuela and Brazil, together with the venom of newborn specimens of C. d...
  4. Romero Vargas F, Ponce Soto L, Martins de Souza D, Marangoni S. Biological and biochemical characterization of two new PLA2 isoforms Cdc-9 and Cdc-10 from Crotalus durissus cumanensis snake venom. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2010;151:66-74 pubmed publisher
    ..characterization and amino acid sequence of two new basic PLA(2) isoforms, Cdc-9 and Cdc-10, purified from the Crotalus durissus cumanensis venom by one step analytical chromatography reverse phase HPLC...
  5. Tsai I, Wang Y, Chen Y, Tu A. Geographic variations, cloning, and functional analyses of the venom acidic phospholipases A2 of Crotalus viridis viridis. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2003;411:289-96 pubmed
    Geographic venom samples of Crotalus viridis viridis were obtained from South Dakota, Wyoming, Colorado, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona...
  6. Faure G, Copic A, Le Porrier S, Gubensek F, Bon C, Krizaj I. Crotoxin acceptor protein isolated from Torpedo electric organ: binding properties to crotoxin by surface plasmon resonance. Toxicon. 2003;41:509-17 pubmed
    Crotoxin, a potent neurotoxin from the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, is a heterodimeric phospholipase A(2) (EC 3.1.1.4), which blocks the release of acetylcholine from peripheral neurons...
  7. Petricevich V, Mendonça R. Inhibitory potential of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom on measles virus growth. Toxicon. 2003;42:143-53 pubmed
    This paper presents the antiviral activity found in a snake with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (Cdt), studied by use of microplate inhibition assay, using measles virus (MV)...
  8. Yamasaki S, Villarroel J, Barone J, Zambotti Villela L, Silveira P. Aminopeptidase activities, oxidative stress and renal function in Crotalus durissus terrificus envenomation in mice. Toxicon. 2008;52:445-54 pubmed publisher
    Acute renal failure is a serious condition of Crotalus bites, which could be treated with statins...
  9. Pereañez J, Núñez V, Huancahuire Vega S, Marangoni S, Ponce Soto L. Biochemical and biological characterization of a PLA2 from crotoxin complex of Crotalus durissus cumanensis. Toxicon. 2009;53:534-42 pubmed
    A new PLA2 (Cdcum6) from crotoxin complex of Colombian Crotalus durissus cumanensis rattlesnake was purified using molecular exclusion chromatography and RP-HPLC...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Nascimento F, Sancey L, Pereira A, Rome C, Oliveira V, Oliveira E, et al. The natural cell-penetrating peptide crotamine targets tumor tissue in vivo and triggers a lethal calcium-dependent pathway in cultured cells. Mol Pharm. 2012;9:211-21 pubmed publisher
    ..vivo tumor specific accumulation of crotamine, a natural peptide from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, which has been characterized by our group as a cell penetrating peptide with a high ..
  2. Wüster W, Ferguson J, Quijada Mascareñas J, Pook C, Salomão M, Thorpe R. Tracing an invasion: landbridges, refugia, and the phylogeography of the Neotropical rattlesnake (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalus durissus). Mol Ecol. 2005;14:1095-108 pubmed
    ..genes to infer the phylogeography of one such trans-Amazonian vicariant, the Neotropical rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus), which occupies primarily seasonal formations from Mexico to Argentina, but avoids the rainforests of ..
  3. Bush S, Green S, Moynihan J, Hayes W, Cardwell M. Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine) antivenom is efficacious for envenomations by Southern Pacific rattlesnakes (Crotalus helleri). Ann Emerg Med. 2002;40:619-24 pubmed
    Southern Pacific rattlesnake (Crotalus helleri ) venom is not 1 of the 4 venoms used to produce Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine) (CroFab; FabAV)...
  4. Sampaio S, Brigatte P, Sousa e Silva M, dos Santos E, Rangel Santos A, Curi R, et al. Contribution of crotoxin for the inhibitory effect of Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom on macrophage function. Toxicon. 2003;41:899-907 pubmed
    Previous work of our group demonstrated that Crotalus durissus terrificus venom has a dual effect on macrophage function: it inhibits spreading and phagocytosis and stimulates hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide production, antimicrobial ..
  5. Konno K, Picolo G, Gutierrez V, Brigatte P, Zambelli V, Camargo A, et al. Crotalphine, a novel potent analgesic peptide from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. Peptides. 2008;29:1293-304 pubmed publisher
    We have shown that the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus induces a long-lasting antinociceptive effect mediated by activation of kappa- and delta-opioid receptors...
  6. Floriano R, Nogueira R, Sakate M, Laposy C, da Motta Y, Sangiorgio F, et al. Effect of Mikania glomerata (Asteraceae) leaf extract combined with anti-venom serum on experimental Crotalus durissus (Squamata: Viperidae) envenomation in rats. Rev Biol Trop. 2009;57:929-37 pubmed
    ..We evaluated the clinical and laboratory aspects of Crotalus durissus terrificus experimental envenomation in Wistar rats treated with antivenom and the aqueous extract of ..
  7. Panfoli I, Ravera S, Calzia D, Dazzi E, Gandolfo S, Pepe I, et al. Inactivation of phospholipase A2 and metalloproteinase from Crotalus atrox venom by direct current. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2007;21:7-12 pubmed
    ..aim of understanding the interactions between direct current and enzymes in solution, we exposed reconstituted Crotalus atrox venom to direct electric current by immersing two platinum thread electrodes connected to a voltage ..
  8. Kerkis A, Kerkis I, Radis Baptista G, Oliveira E, Vianna Morgante A, Pereira L, et al. Crotamine is a novel cell-penetrating protein from the venom of rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. FASEB J. 2004;18:1407-9 pubmed
    ..Crotamine in the micromolar range proved nontoxic to any of the cell cultures tested and did not affect the pluripotency of ES cells or the development of mouse embryos...
  9. Sampaio S, Hyslop S, Fontes M, Prado Franceschi J, Zambelli V, Magro A, et al. Crotoxin: novel activities for a classic beta-neurotoxin. Toxicon. 2010;55:1045-60 pubmed publisher
    Crotoxin, the main toxin of South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom, was the first snake venom protein to be purified and crystallized...
  10. Wang Y, Parmelee J, Guo Y, Tsai I. Absence of phospholipase A(2) in most Crotalus horridus venom due to translation blockage: comparison with Crotalus horridus atricaudatus venom. Toxicon. 2010;56:93-100 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the peculiar absence of phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)s) in most Crotalus horridus (CH) venom, we cloned and sequenced the venom PLA(2)s of three CH specimens from different regions...
  11. Chiucchi J, Gibbs H. Similarity of contemporary and historical gene flow among highly fragmented populations of an endangered rattlesnake. Mol Ecol. 2010;19:5345-58 pubmed publisher
  12. Calvete J, Sanz L, Cid P, De La Torre P, Flores Díaz M, Dos Santos M, et al. Snake venomics of the Central American rattlesnake Crotalus simus and the South American Crotalus durissus complex points to neurotoxicity as an adaptive paedomorphic trend along Crotalus dispersal in South America. J Proteome Res. 2010;9:528-44 pubmed publisher
    ..antivenomic characterization of the venoms of newborn and adult specimens of the Central American rattlesnake, Crotalus simus, and of the subspecies cumanensis, durissus, ruruima, and terrificus of South American Crotalus durissus...
  13. Calvete J, Moreno Murciano M, Sanz L, Jurgens M, Schrader M, Raida M, et al. The disulfide bond pattern of catrocollastatin C, a disintegrin-like/cysteine-rich protein isolated from Crotalus atrox venom. Protein Sci. 2000;9:1365-73 pubmed
    ..These results provide structural evidence for a redefinition of the disintegrin-like and cysteine-rich domain boundaries. An evolutionary pathway for ADAMs, PIII, and PII SVMPs based on disulfide bond engineering is also proposed...
  14. Hernandez Oliveira S, Toyama M, Toyama D, Marangoni S, Hyslop S, Rodrigues Simioni L. Biochemical, pharmacological and structural characterization of a new PLA2 from Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American rattlesnake) venom. Protein J. 2005;24:233-42 pubmed
    A new PLA2 (F16) was purified from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom by molecular exclusion chromatography followed by analytical reverse phase HPLC. The PLA2 (14...
  15. Murakami M, Zela S, Gava L, Michelan Duarte S, Cintra A, Arni R. Crystal structure of the platelet activator convulxin, a disulfide-linked alpha4beta4 cyclic tetramer from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;310:478-82 pubmed
    Convulxin (CVX), a C-type lectin, isolated from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, causes cardiovascular and respiratory disturbances and is a potent platelet activator which binds to platelet ..
  16. Galan J, Sanchez E, Rodriguez Acosta A, Perez J. Neutralization of venoms from two Southern Pacific Rattlesnakes (Crotalus helleri) with commercial antivenoms and endothermic animal sera. Toxicon. 2004;43:791-9 pubmed
    The Southern Pacific Rattlesnake (Crotalus helleri) is found in southwestern California (USA), southward through north Baja California (MX) into the northern part of southern Baja California (MX)...
  17. Soto J, White S, Reyes S, Regalado R, Sanchez E, Perez J. Molecular evolution of PIII-SVMP and RGD disintegrin genes from the genus Crotalus. Gene. 2007;389:66-72 pubmed
    Several types of disintegrins have been isolated from Crotalus spp rattlesnakes, including RGD disintegrins, and PIII-SVMPs. We isolated six cDNAs from snake venom glands using RT-PCR...
  18. Rangel Santos A, dos Santos E, Lopes Ferreira M, Lima C, Cardoso D, Mota I. A comparative study of biological activities of crotoxin and CB fraction of venoms from Crotalus durissus terrificus, Crotalus durissus cascavella and Crotalus durissus collilineatus. Toxicon. 2004;43:801-10 pubmed
    In Brazil, the Crotalus durissus terrificus subspecie is the most studied, particularly concerning its crotoxin. Crotoxin is the major toxic component of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus venom...
  19. French W, Hayes W, Bush S, Cardwell M, Bader J, Rael E. Mojave toxin in venom of Crotalus helleri (Southern Pacific Rattlesnake): molecular and geographic characterization. Toxicon. 2004;44:781-91 pubmed
    Mojave toxin (MT) was detected in five of 25 Crotalus helleri (Southern Pacific rattlesnake) sampled using anti-MT antibodies and nucleotide sequence analysis...
  20. Rokyta D, Wray K, Margres M. The genesis of an exceptionally lethal venom in the timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) revealed through comparative venom-gland transcriptomics. BMC Genomics. 2013;14:394 pubmed publisher
    ..Such shifts have occurred within species, most notably in Mojave (Crotalus scutulatus), South American (C. durissus), and timber (C...
  21. Wooldridge B, Pineda G, Banuelas Ornelas J, Dagda R, Gasanov S, Rael E, et al. Mojave rattlesnakes (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus) lacking the acidic subunit DNA sequence lack Mojave toxin in their venom. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2001;130:169-79 pubmed
    The venom composition of Mojave rattlesnakes (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus) differs in that some individuals have Mojave toxin and others do not...
  22. Sanz L, Gibbs H, Mackessy S, Calvete J. Venom proteomes of closely related Sistrurus rattlesnakes with divergent diets. J Proteome Res. 2006;5:2098-112 pubmed
  23. Lisle Gibbs H, Chiucchi J. Deconstructing a complex molecular phenotype: population-level variation in individual venom proteins in Eastern Massasauga Rattlesnakes (Sistrurus c. catenatus). J Mol Evol. 2011;72:383-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results identify particular classes of venom proteins and their associated genes as being fruitful targets for future studies of the molecular and functional basis for this complex adaptive phenotype...
  24. Soares A, Mancin A, Cecchini A, Arantes E, Franca S, Gutierrez J, et al. Effects of chemical modifications of crotoxin B, the phospholipase A(2) subunit of crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, on its enzymatic and pharmacological activities. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2001;33:877-88 pubmed
    Crotoxin B, the basic Asp49-PLA(2) subunit from crotoxin, the main component of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, displays myotoxic, edema-inducing, bactericidal (upon Escherichia coli), liposomal-disrupting and anticoagulant activities...
  25. Moreira V, Gutierrez J, Soares A, Zamuner S, Purgatto E, Teixeira C. Secretory phospholipases A(2) isolated from Bothrops asper and from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venoms induce distinct mechanisms for biosynthesis of prostaglandins E2 and D2 and expression of cyclooxygenases. Toxicon. 2008;52:428-39 pubmed publisher
    ..sPLA2) from Bothrops asper snake venom, and crotoxin B (CB), a neurotoxic and myotoxic sPLA2 from the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus, on cyclooxygenases (COXs) expression and biosynthesis of prostaglandins (PGs) were evaluated,..
  26. Dal Belo C, Colares A, Leite G, Ticli F, Sampaio S, Cintra A, et al. Antineurotoxic activity of Galactia glaucescens against Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. Fitoterapia. 2008;79:378-80 pubmed publisher
    Ethanolic extract of leaves of Galactia glauscescens (GGE) at concentration of 100 and 500 microg/ml prevented the neuromuscular paralysis induced by Crotalus durissus terrificus venom on mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation.
  27. Marchi Salvador D, Corrêa L, Magro A, Oliveira C, Soares A, Fontes M. Insights into the role of oligomeric state on the biological activities of crotoxin: crystal structure of a tetrameric phospholipase A2 formed by two isoforms of crotoxin B from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. Proteins. 2008;72:883-91 pubmed publisher
    Crotoxin B (CB or Cdt PLA(2)) is a basic Asp49-PLA(2) found in the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus and it is one of the subunits that constitute the crotoxin (Cro). This heterodimeric toxin, main component of the C. d...
  28. Monteiro H, da Silva I, Martins A, Fonteles M. Actions of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom and crotoxin on the isolated rat kidney. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2001;34:1347-52 pubmed
    ..The aim of the present investigation was to determine alterations in renal function produced by Crotalus durissus terrificus venom and crotoxin as well as the histological alterations induced by these venoms...
  29. Yount N, Kupferwasser D, Spisni A, Dutz S, Ramjan Z, Sharma S, et al. Selective reciprocity in antimicrobial activity versus cytotoxicity of hBD-2 and crotamine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:14972-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These insights may accelerate development of anti-infective or therapeutic peptides that selectively target microbial or abnormal host cells...
  30. McCue M. Prey envenomation does not improve digestive performance in western diamondback rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox). J Exp Zool A Ecol Genet Physiol. 2007;307:568-77 pubmed
    ..assimilation, gut passage time, and apparent assimilation efficiency (ASSIM) in western diamondback rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox), a species whose venom is recognized for its comparatively high proteolytic activities...
  31. Durbán J, Perez A, Sanz L, Gómez A, Bonilla F, Rodríguez S, et al. Integrated "omics" profiling indicates that miRNAs are modulators of the ontogenetic venom composition shift in the Central American rattlesnake, Crotalus simus simus. BMC Genomics. 2013;14:234 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we have explored the basis and level of regulation of the ontogenetic shift in the venom composition of the Central American rattlesnake, Crotalus s. simus using a combined proteomics and transcriptomics approach.
  32. Jurado J, Rael E, Lieb C, Nakayasu E, Hayes W, Bush S, et al. Complement inactivating proteins and intraspecies venom variation in Crotalus oreganus helleri. Toxicon. 2007;49:339-50 pubmed
    Complement inactivating properties were detected in venom from the southern California distribution of Crotalus oreganus helleri (Southern Pacific Rattlesnake)...
  33. Zhang H, Han R, Chen Z, Chen B, Gu Z, Reid P, et al. Opiate and acetylcholine-independent analgesic actions of crotoxin isolated from crotalus durissus terrificus venom. Toxicon. 2006;48:175-82 pubmed
    The venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus is reported to have analgesic activity and the administration of Crotoxin (Cro) to cancer patients is reported to reduce the consumption of analgesics...
  34. Fadel V, Bettendorff P, Herrmann T, De Azevedo W, Oliveira E, Yamane T, et al. Automated NMR structure determination and disulfide bond identification of the myotoxin crotamine from Crotalus durissus terrificus. Toxicon. 2005;46:759-67 pubmed
    Crotamine is one of four major components of the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. Similar to its counterparts in the family of the myotoxins, it induces myonecrosis of skeletal muscle cells...
  35. Muller V, Russo R, Cintra A, Sartim M, Alves Paiva R, Figueiredo L, et al. Crotoxin and phospholipases A? from Crotalus durissus terrificus showed antiviral activity against dengue and yellow fever viruses. Toxicon. 2012;59:507-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, it is a public health priority to develop antiviral agents for treatment of these virus infections. Crotalus durissus terrificus snake, a South American rattlesnake, presents venom with several biologically actives ..
  36. Pook C, McEwing R. Mitochondrial DNA sequences from dried snake venom: a DNA barcoding approach to the identification of venom samples. Toxicon. 2005;46:711-5 pubmed
    ..Our new method of DNA barcoding venoms ensures the identification of venoms even after future taxonomic changes...
  37. Clark R, Brown W, Stechert R, Greene H. Cryptic sociality in rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) detected by kinship analysis. Biol Lett. 2012;8:523-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We used microsatellite markers to characterize relatedness among aggregations of timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus), a putatively solitary reptile that relies heavily on chemical cues, and found that juveniles and ..
  38. Rokyta D, Lemmon A, Margres M, Aronow K. The venom-gland transcriptome of the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus). BMC Genomics. 2012;13:312 pubmed publisher
  39. da Silva J, Da Silva Soley B, Gris V, do Rocio Andrade Pires A, Caderia S, Eler G, et al. Effects of the Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom on hepatic metabolism and oxidative stress. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2011;25:195-203 pubmed publisher
    ..This work aimed to investigate the effects of the Crotalus durissus terrificus(Cdt) venom in the liver...
  40. Galan J, Sanchez E, Rodriguez Acosta A, Soto J, Bashir S, McLane M, et al. Inhibition of lung tumor colonization and cell migration with the disintegrin crotatroxin 2 isolated from the venom of Crotalus atrox. Toxicon. 2008;51:1186-96 pubmed publisher
    ..2, isolated by a three-step chromatography procedure from the venom of the Western diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox). The intact molecular mass for crotatroxin 2 was 7.384 kDa and 71 amino acids...
  41. Miyabara E, Baptista I, Lomonte B, Selistre de Araujo H, Gutierrez J, Moriscot A. Effect of calcineurin inhibitors on myotoxic activity of crotoxin and Bothrops asper phospholipase A2 myotoxins in vivo and in vitro. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2006;143:284-94 pubmed
    ..PLA(2) myotoxins. Alternatively, calcineurin dependent fast fiber type shift might render the muscle resistant to the action of CTX, without affecting its susceptibility to Bothrops sp. myotoxins...
  42. Adade C, Cons B, Melo P, Souto Padron T. Effect of Crotalus viridis viridis snake venom on the ultrastructure and intracellular survival of Trypanosoma cruzi. Parasitology. 2011;138:46-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Snake venoms are sources of natural compounds used in various medical treatments. We observed that Crotalus viridis viridis venom was effective against all developmental forms of T. cruzi...
  43. Jensen B, Abe A, Andrade D, Nyengaard J, Wang T. The heart of the South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus. J Morphol. 2010;271:1066-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we present a comprehensive study of the cardiac anatomy of the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus)...
  44. Toyama M, de Oliveira D, Beriam L, Novello J, Rodrigues Simioni L, Marangoni S. Structural, enzymatic and biological properties of new PLA(2) isoform from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. Toxicon. 2003;41:1033-8 pubmed
    We isolated a new PLA(2) from the Crotalus durissus terrificus venom that designated F15, which showed allosteric behavior with a V(max) of 8.5nmol/min/mg and a K(m) of 38.5 mM...
  45. Picolo G, Cury Y. Peripheral neuronal nitric oxide synthase activity mediates the antinociceptive effect of Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, a delta- and kappa-opioid receptor agonist. Life Sci. 2004;75:559-73 pubmed
    Previous work has shown that nitric oxide (NO) mediates the antinociceptive effect of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom on carrageenin-induced hyperalgesia...
  46. Taylor E, DeNardo D. Sexual size dimorphism and growth plasticity in snakes: an experiment on the Western Diamond-backed Rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox). J Exp Zool A Comp Exp Biol. 2005;303:598-607 pubmed
    ..and food intake on growth, mass gain, and attainment of sexual maturity in Western Diamond-backed Rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox)...
  47. Ponce Soto L, Martins de Souza D, Martins D, Novello J, Marangoni S. Structural and biological characterization of two crotamine isoforms IV-2 and IV-3 isolated from the Crotalus durissus cumanensis venom. Protein J. 2007;26:533-40 pubmed
    In this work, we isolated the two new crotamine isoforms from the Crotalus durissus cumanensis rattlesnake venom and its "in vitro" neurotoxic, myotoxic and lethality (DL(50)) intracerebroventricular (i.c.v...
  48. Santoro M, Sousa e Silva M, Gonçalves L, Almeida Santos S, Cardoso D, Laporta Ferreira I, et al. Comparison of the biological activities in venoms from three subspecies of the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus, C. durissus cascavella and C. durissus collilineatus). Comp Biochem Physiol C Pharmacol Toxicol Endocrinol. 1999;122:61-73 pubmed
    The subspecies of the South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus are classified according to their external morphological features and geographical distribution. We have determined some biological activities of C...
  49. Moreira V, Zamuner S, Wallace J, Teixeira C. Bothrops jararaca and Crotalus durissus terrificus venoms elicit distinct responses regarding to production of prostaglandins E2 and D2, and expression of cyclooxygenases. Toxicon. 2007;49:615-24 pubmed
    ..and PGD(2) production secondary to injection of Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV), with inflammatory activity or Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (CdtV), with anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties, into mice were evaluated,..
  50. Sanchez S, Bagatolli L, Gratton E, Hazlett T. A two-photon view of an enzyme at work: Crotalus atrox venom PLA2 interaction with single-lipid and mixed-lipid giant unilamellar vesicles. Biophys J. 2002;82:2232-43 pubmed
    We describe the interaction of Crotalus atrox-secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) with giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) composed of single and binary phospholipid mixtures visualized through two-photon excitation fluorescent microscopy...
  51. Komori Y, Sakai K, Masuda K, Nikai A. Isolation and biochemical characterization of rubelase, a non-hemorrhagic elastase from Crotalus ruber ruber (Red Rattlesnake) venom. Toxins (Basel). 2011;3:900-10 pubmed publisher
    A novel non-hemorrhagic basic metalloprotease, rubelase, was isolated from the venom of Crotalus ruber ruber...
  52. Toyama M, Toyama D, Joazeiro P, Carneiro E, Beriam L, Marangoni L, et al. Biological and structural characterization of a new PLA2 from the Crotalus durissus collilineatus venom. Protein J. 2005;24:103-12 pubmed
    ..the biological characterization and amino acid sequence of a new basic Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) isolated from the Crotalus durissus collilineatus venom (Cdcolli F6), which showed the presence of 122 amino acid residues with a pI value ..
  53. O Dwyer L, Moço T, Paduan K, Spenassatto C, da Silva R, Ribolla P. Description of three new species of Hepatozoon (Apicomplexa, Hepatozoidae) from Rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus terrificus) based on molecular, morphometric and morphologic characters. Exp Parasitol. 2013;135:200-7 pubmed publisher
    ..diversity on Crotalus durissus terrificus snakes using both molecular and morphological approaches...