agkistrodon

Summary

Summary: A genus of venomous snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae. Twelve species of this genus are found in North and Central America and Asia. Agkistrodon contortrix is the copperhead, A. piscivorus, the cottonmouth. The former is named for its russet or orange-brown color, the latter for the white interior of its mouth. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336; Moore, Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p75)

Top Publications

  1. Zhang L, Wei L. ACTX-8, a cytotoxic L-amino acid oxidase isolated from Agkistrodon acutus snake venom, induces apoptosis in Hela cervical cancer cells. Life Sci. 2007;80:1189-97 pubmed
    ACTX-8 is a protein isolated from Agkistrodon acutus snake venom in our laboratory. It demonstrates cytotoxic activity on various carcinoma cell lines in vitro...
  2. Wei X, Wei J, Li T, Qiao L, Liu Y, Huang T, et al. Purification, characterization and potent lung lesion activity of an L-amino acid oxidase from Agkistrodon blomhoffii ussurensis snake venom. Toxicon. 2007;50:1126-39 pubmed
    ..However, little is known of the influence of LAOs on organ lesions. In the present study, a unique LAO from Agkistrodon blomhoffii ussurensis snake venom named ABU-LAO was purified by Heparin-Sepharose FF chromatography followed by ..
  3. Zhang L, Wu W. Isolation and characterization of ACTX-6: a cytotoxic L-amino acid oxidase from Agkistrodon acutus snake venom. Nat Prod Res. 2008;22:554-63 pubmed publisher
    The characterization of an L-amino acid oxidase purified from Agkistrodon acutus snake venom was investigated. An L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) was purified from A. acutus snake venom through DEAE Sepharose F.F...
  4. Komori Y, Nikai T, Tohkai T, Sugihara H. Primary structure and biological activity of snake venom lectin (APL) from Agkistrodon p. piscivorus (Eastern cottonmouth). Toxicon. 1999;37:1053-64 pubmed
    A lectin (APL) was purified from the venom of Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus (Eastern cottonmouth moccasin). APL is a disulfide-linked, homodimeric protein consisting of identical monomers of molecular weight 16,200...
  5. Zhu Z, Gong P, Teng M, Niu L. Purification, N-terminal sequencing, partial characterization, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of two glycosylated serine proteinases from Agkistrodon acutus venom. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2003;59:547-50 pubmed
    AaV-SP-I and AaV-SP-II, two glycosylated serine proteinases from Agkistrodon acutus venom with fibrinogenolysis and esterolysis activities, have been purified to homogeneity by three-step ion-exchange chromatography...
  6. Jensen L, Burgess N, Gonda D, Spencer E, Wilson Ashworth H, Driscoll E, et al. Mechanisms governing the level of susceptibility of erythrocyte membranes to secretory phospholipase A2. Biophys J. 2005;88:2692-705 pubmed
  7. Zha X, Liu J, Xu K. cDNA cloning, sequence analysis, and recombinant expression of akitonin beta, a C-type lectin-like protein from Agkistrodon acutus. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2004;25:372-7 pubmed
    ..To clone the cDNA of a new member of snake venom C-type lectin-like proteins, to study its structure-function relationships and to achieve its recombinant production...
  8. Zhang L, Cui L. A cytotoxin isolated from Agkistrodon acutus snake venom induces apoptosis via Fas pathway in A549 cells. Toxicol In Vitro. 2007;21:1095-103 pubmed
    ACTX-6 is a protein isolated from Agkistrodon acutus snake venom and demonstrated cytotoxic activity to various cancer cells in vitro...
  9. Amiconi G, Amoresano A, Boumis G, Brancaccio A, De Cristofaro R, De Pascalis A, et al. A novel venombin B from agkistrodon contortrix contortrix: evidence for recognition properties in the surface around the primary specificity pocket different from thrombin. Biochemistry. 2000;39:10294-308 pubmed
    A novel thrombin-like enzyme (named contortrixobin) has been purified to homogeneity from the venom of Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix by affinity chromatography on arginine-Sepharose, anionic exchange chromatography, and HPLC...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Wang W, Huang T. A novel tetrameric venom protein, agglucetin from Agkistrodon acutus, acts as a glycoprotein Ib agonist. Thromb Haemost. 2001;86:1077-86 pubmed
    A novel platelet agglutination inducer, agglucetin, was purified from the Formosan Agkistrodon acutus snake venom. It migrated as a single band with an apparent molecular mass of 58.8 kDa and two distinct bands of 16.2/14...
  2. Moiseeva N, Bau R, Swenson S, Markland F, Choe J, Liu Z, et al. Structure of acostatin, a dimeric disintegrin from Southern copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix), at 1.7 A resolution. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2008;64:466-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Acostatin, an alphabeta heterodimeric disintegrin, has been isolated from the venom of Southern copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix)...
  3. Murakami M, Arni R. Thrombomodulin-independent activation of protein C and specificity of hemostatically active snake venom serine proteinases: crystal structures of native and inhibited Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix protein C activator. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:39309-15 pubmed
    ..b>Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix protein C activator, a glycosylated single-chain serine proteinase, activates protein C ..
  4. Nikai T, Taniguchi K, Komori Y, Masuda K, Fox J, Sugihara H. Primary structure and functional characterization of bilitoxin-1, a novel dimeric P-II snake venom metalloproteinase from Agkistrodon bilineatus venom. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2000;378:6-15 pubmed
    The amino acid sequence of the hemorrhagic toxin, bilitoxin-1, isolated from the venom of Agkistrodon bilineatus was determined by the Edman sequencing procedure of peptides derived from digests utilizing cyanogen bromide, clostripain, ..
  5. Liu J, Chai M, Du X, Song J, Zhou Y. [Purification and characterization of L-amino acid oxidase from Agkistrodon halys pallas venom]. Sheng Wu Hua Xue Yu Sheng Wu Wu Li Xue Bao (Shanghai). 2002;34:305-10 pubmed
    ..Superose 12 chromatography, a protein with L-amino acid oxidase activity was purified and characterized from Agkistrodon haly Pallas venom...
  6. Wang W. Purification and functional characterization of AAV1, a novel P-III metalloproteinase, from Formosan Agkistrodon acutus venom. Biochimie. 2007;89:105-15 pubmed
    AAV1, an alkaline glycoprotein (GP), was purified from Agkistrodon acutus venom by two chromatographic steps on successive DEAE-Sephadex A-50 and Superdex 75 FPLC columns...
  7. Salvini T, Belluzzo S, Selistre de Araujo H, Souza D. Regeneration and change of muscle fiber types after injury induced by a hemorrhagic fraction isolated from Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus venom. Toxicon. 2001;39:641-9 pubmed
    ..intramuscular injection of ACL hemorrhagic toxin I (ACLHT-I, 5mg/kg), partially purified from the venom of Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus. Contralateral muscles were injected with saline...
  8. Samy R, Gopalakrishnakone P, Chow V, Ho B. Viper metalloproteinase (Agkistrodon halys pallas) with antimicrobial activity against multi-drug resistant human pathogens. J Cell Physiol. 2008;216:54-68 pubmed publisher
    ..A 23.1 kDa protein was isolated from Agkistrodon halys (pallas, Chinese viper) snake venom...
  9. Sakurai Y, Shima M, Matsumoto T, Takatsuka H, Nishiya K, Kasuda S, et al. Anticoagulant activity of M-LAO, L-amino acid oxidase purified from Agkistrodon halys blomhoffii, through selective inhibition of factor IX. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003;1649:51-7 pubmed
    ..The present study demonstrated, for the first time, that M-LAO, LAO purified from the venom of Agkistrodon halys blomhoffii (Japanese mamushi), possesses an anticoagulant activity...
  10. Zhong X, Jiao H, Fan L, Wu X, Zhou Y. Functionally important residues for the anticoagulant activity of a basic phospholipase A(2) from the Agkistrodon halys pallas. Protein Pept Lett. 2002;9:427-34 pubmed
    To identify the anticoagulant region of the phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) from the Agkistrodon halys Pallas (class II), four mutants E53G, W70M, T56K, and D67K were produced according to the prediction from the crystal structure and the ..
  11. Perumal Samy R, Gopalakrishnakone P, Ho B, Chow V. Purification, characterization and bactericidal activities of basic phospholipase A2 from the venom of Agkistrodon halys (Chinese pallas). Biochimie. 2008;90:1372-88 pubmed publisher
    b>Agkistrodon snake venoms contain a variety of phospholipases (PLA2), some of which are myotoxic. In this study, we used reverse-phase HPLC to purify PLA2 from the venom of Agkistrodon halys...
  12. Li S, Wang J, Zhang X, Ren Y, Wang N, Zhao K, et al. Proteomic characterization of two snake venoms: Naja naja atra and Agkistrodon halys. Biochem J. 2004;384:119-27 pubmed
    ..To assess the venom proteomic profiles from Naja naja atra and Agkistrodon halys, snakes common to southern China, we used a combination strategy, which included the following four ..
  13. Takatsuka H, Sakurai Y, Yoshioka A, Kokubo T, Usami Y, Suzuki M, et al. Molecular characterization of L-amino acid oxidase from Agkistrodon halys blomhoffii with special reference to platelet aggregation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001;1544:267-77 pubmed
    ..We purified M (mamushi)-LAO, a single-chain glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 60 kDa and a pI of 4.9, from Agkistrodon halys blomhoffii (Japanese mamushi) venom, and determined the N-terminal and several internal amino acid ..
  14. Zhang S, Ma B, Sakai J, Shiono H, Matsui T, Sugie I, et al. Characterization of a thrombin-like serine protease, Kangshuanmei, isolated from the venom of a Chinese snake, Agkistrodon halys brevicaudus stejneger. J Nat Toxins. 2001;10:221-38 pubmed
    An enzyme, referred to as Kangshuanmei, was isolated from the venom of the Chinese snake Agkistrodon halys brevicaudus stejneger by gel filtration chromatography followed by affinity chromatography...
  15. McCleary R, Heard D. Venom extraction from anesthetized Florida cottonmouths, Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti, using a portable nerve stimulator. Toxicon. 2010;55:250-5 pubmed publisher
    Florida cottonmouth snakes (Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti) were anesthetized with the injectable anesthetic propofol, and venom expulsion was induced with a commercially available human nerve stimulator...
  16. Zeng F, Shen B, Zhu Z, Zhang P, Ji Y, Niu L, et al. Crystal structure and activating effect on RyRs of AhV_TL-I, a glycosylated thrombin-like enzyme from Agkistrodon halys snake venom. Arch Toxicol. 2013;87:535-45 pubmed publisher
    A snake venom thrombin-like enzyme (SVTLE) from Agkistrodon halys pallas venom was isolated by means of a two-step chromatographic procedure...
  17. Qinghua L, Xiaowei Z, Wei Y, Chenji L, Yijun H, Pengxin Q, et al. A catalog for transcripts in the venom gland of the Agkistrodon acutus: identification of the toxins potentially involved in coagulopathy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;341:522-31 pubmed
    b>Agkistrodon acutus is a special agkistrodon halys, only distributed in Southern China, with a few exceptions in Vietnam. It is a cherished element used in traditional Chinese medicine...
  18. Wang W, Shih C, Huang T. Primary structure and antiplatelet mechanism of a snake venom metalloproteinase, acurhagin, from Agkistrodon acutus venom. Biochimie. 2005;87:1065-77 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that all the three domains in mature acurhagin may cooperatively contribute to its biological function...
  19. Song J, Xu X, Zhang Y, Guo M, Yan X, Wang S, et al. Purification and characterization of AHPM, a novel non-hemorrhagic P-IIIc metalloproteinase with ?-fibrinogenolytic and platelet aggregation-inhibition activities, from Agkistrodon halys pallas venom. Biochimie. 2013;95:709-18 pubmed publisher
    A novel non-hemorrhagic metalloproteinase, AHPM, was purified from the venom of Agkistrodon halys pallas by a combination of ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. AHPM is a dimeric glycoprotein with multiple pIs around pH 7...
  20. Jia Y, Cantu B, Sanchez E, Perez J. Complementary DNA sequencing and identification of mRNAs from the venomous gland of Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma. Toxicon. 2008;51:1457-66 pubmed publisher
    ..expressed in venom gland at the molecular level, we constructed a cDNA library from the venom gland of Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma for the generation of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) database...
  21. Liu S, Sun M, Sun C, Zhao B, Greenaway F, Zheng Q. A novel serine protease from the snake venom of Agkistrodon blomhoffii ussurensis. Toxicon. 2008;52:760-8 pubmed publisher
    A novel serine protease, ABUSV-SPase, was isolated to homogeneity for the first time from Chinese Agkistrodon blomhoffii ussurensis snake venom, and its enzymatic and structural properties were characterized by multiple techniques...
  22. Graham S, Earley R, Hoss S, Schuett G, Grober M. The reproductive biology of male cottonmouths (Agkistrodon piscivorus): do plasma steroid hormones predict the mating season?. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2008;159:226-35 pubmed publisher
    ..types of mating seasons described for North American pitvipers, we conducted a field study of the cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus) in Georgia from September 2003 to May 2005 that included an extensive observational regime and ..
  23. Kong Y, Huo J, Xu W, Xiong J, Li Y, Wu W. A novel anti-platelet aggregation tripeptide from Agkistrodon acutus venom: isolation and characterization. Toxicon. 2009;54:103-9 pubmed publisher
    AAP, a tripeptide that inhibited rabbit platelet aggregation, was isolated from Agkistrodon acutus venom by ion-exchange, gel filtration and reverse-phase chromatography...
  24. Nunez C, Angulo Y, Lomonte B. Identification of the myotoxic site of the Lys49 phospholipase A(2) from Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus snake venom: synthetic C-terminal peptides from Lys49, but not from Asp49 myotoxins, exert membrane-damaging activities. Toxicon. 2001;39:1587-94 pubmed
    ..asper myotoxin III (Asp49), Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus Asp49 PLA(2) and Lys49 PLA(2), were studied to determine the possible functional ..
  25. Wang J, Wu Y, Ren F, Lu L, Zhao B. Cloning and characterization of Adinbitor, a novel disintegrin from the snake venom of Agkistrodon halys brevicaudus stejneger. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2004;36:425-9 pubmed
    Adinbitor was cloned from Agkistrodon halys brevicaudus stejneger and characterized as a novel disintegrin. In this study, total RNA was extracted from venom gland and used in RT-PCR to generate a cDNA which is 219 bp long...
  26. Zang J, Zhu Z, Yu Y, Teng M, Niu L, Huang Q, et al. Purification, partial characterization and crystallization of acucetin, a protein containing both disintegrin-like and cysteine-rich domains released by auto-proteolysis of a P-III-type metalloproteinase AaH-IV from Agkistrodon acutus venom. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2003;59:2310-2 pubmed
    AaH-IV, a P-III-type metalloproteinase found in Agkistrodon acutus venom, readily cleaves itself to release a stable protein named acucetin at 310 K under neutral and weakly alkaline conditions...
  27. Liu Q, Huang Q, Teng M, Weeks C, Jelsch C, Zhang R, et al. The crystal structure of a novel, inactive, lysine 49 PLA2 from Agkistrodon acutus venom: an ultrahigh resolution, AB initio structure determination. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:41400-8 pubmed
  28. Okamoto O, Oishi M, Hatano Y, Kai Y, Goto M, Kato A, et al. Severity factors of Mamushi (Agkistrodon blomhoffii) bite. J Dermatol. 2009;36:277-83 pubmed publisher
    The factors determining the severity of a Mamushi (Agkistrodon blomhoffii) bite were analyzed based on the findings of our 34 cases and those appearing in the published work...
  29. Sun M, Guo C, Tian Y, Chen D, Greenaway F, Liu S. Biochemical, functional and structural characterization of Akbu-LAAO: a novel snake venom L-amino acid oxidase from Agkistrodon blomhoffii ussurensis. Biochimie. 2010;92:343-9 pubmed publisher
    An L-amino acid oxidase (Akbu-LAAO) was isolated from the venom of Agkistrodon blomhoffii ussurensis snake using DEAE Sephadex A-50 ion-exchange, Sephadex G-75 gel filtration, and high performance liquid chromatographies...
  30. Chen J, Liang X, Qiu P, Yan G. Thrombolysis effect with FIIa from Agkistrodon acutus venom in different thrombosis model. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2001;22:420-2 pubmed
    A fibrinolytic enzyme from Agkistrodon acutus venom, called FIIa, was tested for thrombolytic activity in animals.
  31. Greenbaum E, Galeva N, Jorgensen M. Venom variation and chemoreception of the viperid Agkistrodon contortrix: evidence for adaptation?. J Chem Ecol. 2003;29:1741-55 pubmed
    ..The North American copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) varies geographically in diet and venom biochemistry; snakes were collected from three populations (..
  32. Wang W, Shih C, Huang T. A novel P-I class metalloproteinase with broad substrate-cleaving activity, agkislysin, from Agkistrodon acutus venom. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;324:224-30 pubmed
    ..Recently, we purified a novel proteinase from Formosan Agkistrodon acutus venom using DEAE-Sephadex A-50 and Mono-Q HR 5/5 column chromatography...
  33. Leite R, Giuliani C, Lomonte B, Franco W, Selistre de Araujo H. Effect of a recombinant Lys49PLA2 myotoxin and Lys49PLA2-derived synthetic peptides from Agkistrodon species on membrane permeability to water. Toxicon. 2004;44:157-9 pubmed
    The aim of this work was to study the effect of recombinant ACL myotoxin, a Lys49PLA2 from Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus snake venom and Lys49PLA2-derived synthetic peptides corresponding to the region 115-129 of venom of the two ..
  34. Lathrop B, Gadd M, Biltonen R, Rule G. Changes in Ca2+ affinity upon activation of Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus phospholipase A2. Biochemistry. 2001;40:3264-72 pubmed
    Changes in the affinity of calcium for phospholipase A2 from Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus during activation of the enzyme on the surface of phosphatidylcholine vesicles have been investigated by site-directed mutagenesis and ..
  35. Igari R, Iseki K, Abe S, Syoji M, Sato M, Shimomura K, et al. [Binocular diplopia and ptosis due to snakebite (Agkistrodon blomhoffi "mamushi")--a case report]. Brain Nerve. 2010;62:273-7 pubmed
    We treated a patient who developed binocular diplopia and ptosis after being bitten by an Agkistrodon blomhoffi (mamushi)...
  36. Soto J, Powell R, Reyes S, Wolana L, Swanson L, Sanchez E, et al. Genetic variation of a disintegrin gene found in the American copperhead snake (Agkistrodon contortrix). Gene. 2006;373:1-7 pubmed
    ..PCR and DNA sequencing analysis of genomic DNA for all subspecies of the copperhead snake (Agkistrodon contortrix) were analyzed for the presence of a disintegrin gene. Four samples each of the subspecies: A. c...
  37. Liang X, Zhou Y, Chen J, Qiu P, Chen H, Sun H, et al. Enzymological characterization of FII(a), a fibrinolytic enzyme from Agkistrodon acutus venom. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2005;26:1474-8 pubmed
    To study the enzymological characterization of a fibrinolytic enzyme (FII(a)) from Agkistrodon acutus venom.
  38. Park D, Kim H, Chung K, Kim D, Yun Y. Expression and characterization of a novel plasminogen activator from Agkistrodon halys venom. Toxicon. 1998;36:1807-19 pubmed
    A venom gland cDNA library of Agkistrodon halys was constructed and screened with a probe based on the consensus sequence of venomic serine proteases...
  39. Karbovs kyÄ­ V, Savchuk O, Volkov H, Zaichko N, Bykhan T. [Characterization of platelets aggregation inhibitor from Agkistrodon blomhoffii ussuriensis snake venom]. Ukr Biokhim Zh (1999). 2006;78:130-5 pubmed
    Platelet aggregation inhibitor--"Blomus-B" from Agkistrodon blomhoffii ussuriensis venom has been isolated by affinity and ion-exchange chromatography...
  40. Xu X, Liu Q, Yu H, Xie Y. Ca(II)- and Tb(III)-induced stabilization and refolding of anticoagulation factor I from the venom of Agkistrodon acutus. Protein Sci. 2002;11:944-56 pubmed
    Anticoagulation factor I (ACF I) isolated from the venom of Agkistrodon acutus is an activated coagulation factor X-binding protein in a Ca(2+)-dependent fashion with marked anticoagulant activity...
  41. Wu H, Xu X, Zhang L, Shen D, Peng L, Zhang Y, et al. Mg(II)-induced binding of factor IX-binding protein from the venom of Agkistrodon Halys Pallas with factor Xa. Toxicon. 2010;55:1358-64 pubmed publisher
    Factor IX-binding protein (AHP IX-bp), a Ca2+- and Zn2+-binding protein from the venom of Agkistrodon Halys Pallas was reported to bind specifically with factor IX in a Zn2+-dependent manner...
  42. Nelson J, Barlow K, Beck D, Berbert A, Eshenroder N, Francom L, et al. Synergistic effects of secretory phospholipase A2 from the venom of Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus with cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:565287 pubmed publisher
    ..The data also argue that the snake venom enzyme is not only capable of clearing cell corpses but can aid in the demise of tumor cells that have initiated but not yet completed the death process...
  43. Walter F, Stolz U, French R, Chase P, McNally J, Shirazi F. Epidemiology of the reported severity of cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus) snakebite. South Med J. 2014;107:150-6 pubmed publisher
    The goal of this study was to analyze trends in the annual rates of reported medical outcomes of cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus) snakebites in the United States, published in the annual reports of the American Association of Poison ..
  44. Chen S, Liu Q, Zhang Y, Chen J, Li H, Chen Y, et al. Multi-host model-based identification of Armillifer agkistrodontis (Pentastomida), a new zoonotic parasite from China. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e647 pubmed publisher
    ..However, their systematic position is not uncontested and historically, they have been considered as a separate phylum...
  45. Jia Y, Perez J. Molecular cloning and characterization of cDNAs encoding metalloproteinases from snake venom glands. Toxicon. 2010;55:462-9 pubmed publisher
    ..nine cDNAs encoding different classes of metalloproteinases from glands of four different snake species (Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus, Crotalus atrox, Crotalus viridis viridis and Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma) by RT-..
  46. Quincampoix J, Legarff M, Rittling C, Andiva S, Toulon P. Modification of the ProC Global assay using dilution of patient plasma in factor V-depleted plasma as a screening assay for factor V Leiden mutation. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2001;12:569-76 pubmed
    ..It is based on the ability of endogenous APC, generated by activation of protein C by an extract from Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix venom, to prolong an activated partial thromboplastin time...
  47. Bolger M, Swenson S, Markland F. Three-dimensional structure of fibrolase, the fibrinolytic enzyme from southern copperhead venom, modeled from the X-ray structure of adamalysin II and atrolysin C. AAPS PharmSci. 2001;3:E16 pubmed
  48. Zaidan F. Variation in cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma) resting metabolic rates. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2003;134:511-23 pubmed
    ..In a study of range-limiting factors, variation in resting metabolic rates of cottonmouths (Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma) was investigated along a latitudinal gradient in southern populations and in populations ..
  49. Sever D, Siegel D, Bagwill A, Eckstut M, Alexander L, Camus A, et al. Renal sexual segment of the Cottonmouth snake, Agkistrodon piscivorous (Reptilia, Squamata, Viperidae). J Morphol. 2008;269:640-53 pubmed
    The seasonal variation of the renal sexual segment (RSS) of males of the Cottonmouth snake, Agkistrodon piscivorous, is described using light and electron microscopy...
  50. Wu S, Liu Y, Xu X, Zhu Z. Purification of NAD glycohydrolase from Agkistrodon acutus venom. Protein Expr Purif. 2002;25:319-22 pubmed
    NAD glycohydrolase (NADase) from Agkistrodon acutus venom was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by a fast, reproducible 3-step procedure including Q Sepharose Fast Flow, Superdex 75, and Mono S column chromatography...
  51. Mizuno H, Fujimoto Z, Atoda H, Morita T. Crystal structure of an anticoagulant protein in complex with the Gla domain of factor X. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:7230-4 pubmed
    ..The Gla domain thus is expected to be a new target of anticoagulant drugs, and X-bp provides a basis for designing them. This structure also provides a membrane-bound model of factor X...
  52. Gornitskaia O, Rovinskaya I, Platonova T. [Purification and characterization of the fibrinolytic enzyme from Agkistrodon halys halys venom]. Ukr Biokhim Zh (1999). 2002;74:42-9 pubmed
    ..alkyl-sepharose column hydrophobic chromatography the purified fibrinogenolytic enzyme was obtained from Agkistrodon halys halys venom. It is a single peptide-chain with molecular weight about 28 kDa...
  53. Kravitz J, Gerardo C. Copperhead snakebite treated with crotalidae polyvalent immune fab (ovine) antivenom in third trimester pregnancy. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2006;44:353-4 pubmed