viperidae

Summary

Summary: A family of snakes comprising four subfamilies: Azemiopinae (the mountain viper, the sole member of this subfamily), Viperinae (true vipers), Crotalinae (pit vipers) and Causinae. They are widespread throughout the world, being found in the United States, Central and South America, Europe, Asia and Africa. Their venoms act on the blood (hemotoxic) as compared to the venom of elapids which act on the nervous system (neurotoxic). (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp333-36)

Top Publications

  1. Pook C, Joger U, Stümpel N, Wüster W. When continents collide: phylogeny, historical biogeography and systematics of the medically important viper genus Echis (Squamata: Serpentes: Viperidae). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2009;53:792-807 pubmed publisher
    ..jogeri, for the presence of unsuspected genetic diversity within the E. pyramidum complex in eastern Africa, and for the conspecificity of E. carinatus and E. multisquamatus. The status of E. leucogaster remains to be confirmed...
  2. Barlow A, Pook C, Harrison R, Wüster W. Coevolution of diet and prey-specific venom activity supports the role of selection in snake venom evolution. Proc Biol Sci. 2009;276:2443-9 pubmed publisher
  3. Goto C, Feng S. Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab for the treatment of pediatric crotaline envenomation. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2009;25:273-9; quiz 280-2 pubmed publisher
    ..This article will review the use of FabAV for the treatment of pediatric crotaline envenomation...
  4. Maduwage K, Kularatne K, Wazil A, Gawarammana I. Coagulopthy, acute kidney injury and death following Hypnale zara envenoming: the first case report from Sri Lanka. Toxicon. 2011;58:641-3 pubmed publisher
    ..This report describes an authenticated fatal case of a 47 years old male due to coagulopthy and acute kidney injury following envenoming by H. zara in Sri Lanka...
  5. Khanum S, Murari S, Vishwanth B, Shashikanth S. Synthesis of benzoyl phenyl benzoates as effective inhibitors for phospholipase A2 and hyaluronidase enzymes. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2005;15:4100-4 pubmed
    ..The in vitro PLA2 enzyme inhibitory activity and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity studies of benzoyl phenyl benzoates are illustrated...
  6. Calvete J, Escolano J, Sanz L. Snake venomics of Bitis species reveals large intragenus venom toxin composition variation: application to taxonomy of congeneric taxa. J Proteome Res. 2007;6:2732-45 pubmed
    ..g. rhinoceros as a separate species, Bitis rhinoceros. Moreover, our proteomic data fit better to a weighted phylogram based on overall genetic distances than to an unweighted maximum-parsimony tree...
  7. Juárez P, Wagstaff S, Sanz L, Harrison R, Calvete J. Molecular cloning of Echis ocellatus disintegrins reveals non-venom-secreted proteins and a pathway for the evolution of ocellatusin. J Mol Evol. 2006;63:183-93 pubmed
  8. Campos V, Abreu P, Castro H, Rodrigues C, Jordão A, Ferreira V, et al. Synthesis, biological, and theoretical evaluations of new 1,2,3-triazoles against the hemolytic profile of the Lachesis muta snake venom. Bioorg Med Chem. 2009;17:7429-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The elucidation of this new series may help on designing new and more efficient antiophidian molecules...
  9. Abubakar I, Abubakar S, Habib A, Nasidi A, Durfa N, Yusuf P, et al. Randomised controlled double-blind non-inferiority trial of two antivenoms for saw-scaled or carpet viper (Echis ocellatus) envenoming in Nigeria. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e767 pubmed publisher
    ..In West Africa, envenoming by saw-scaled or carpet vipers (Echis ocellatus) causes great morbidity and mortality, but there is a crisis in supply of effective and affordable antivenom (ISRCTN01257358)...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Calvete J, Juárez P, Sanz L. Snake venomics. Strategy and applications. J Mass Spectrom. 2007;42:1405-14 pubmed
    ..The combined strategy allows us to assign unambiguously all the isolated venom toxins representing over 0.05% of the total venom proteins to known protein families. Protocols and applications of snake venomics are reviewed and discussed...
  2. Bakken G, Krochmal A. The imaging properties and sensitivity of the facial pits of pitvipers as determined by optical and heat-transfer analysis. J Exp Biol. 2007;210:2801-10 pubmed
    ..As the ancestral facial pit was likely less sensitive than the current organ, objects with strong thermal signals, such as habitat features, were needed to drive the evolution of this remarkable sense...
  3. Lavonas E, Kokko J, Schaeffer T, Mlynarchek S, Bogdan G, Dart R. Short-term outcomes after Fab antivenom therapy for severe crotaline snakebite. Ann Emerg Med. 2011;57:128-137.e3 pubmed publisher
  4. Staniszewska I, Walsh E, Rothman V, Gaathon A, Tuszynski G, Calvete J, et al. Effect of VP12 and viperistatin on inhibition of collagen-receptor-dependent melanoma metastasis. Cancer Biol Ther. 2009;8:1507-16 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that collagen receptors may be an interesting target for development of new anti-metastatic therapies...
  5. Sales P, Santoro M. Nucleotidase and DNase activities in Brazilian snake venoms. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2008;147:85-95 pubmed
    ..The omnipresence of nucleotidase and DNase activities in viperid venoms implies a role for them within the repertoire of enzymes involved in immobilization and death of preys...
  6. Arlinghaus F, Eble J. C-type lectin-like proteins from snake venoms. Toxicon. 2012;60:512-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Along with EMS16 and VP12, rhodocetin inhibits collagen-binding to the ?2A-domain. These integrin-specific antagonists are lead structures for the development of antimetastatic and antiangiogenic drugs...
  7. Ariaratnam C, Thuraisingam V, Kularatne S, Sheriff M, Theakston R, de Silva A, et al. Frequent and potentially fatal envenoming by hump-nosed pit vipers (Hypnale hypnale and H. nepa) in Sri Lanka: lack of effective antivenom. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2008;102:1120-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In Sri Lanka and southwestern India where bites by these snakes are common, the only available antivenoms (raised against cobra, krait, Russell's viper and saw-scaled viper venoms) are ineffective and carry a high risk of reactions...
  8. Pilorget A, Conesa M, Sarray S, Michaud Levesque J, Daoud S, Kim K, et al. Lebectin, a Macrovipera lebetina venom-derived C-type lectin, inhibits angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. J Cell Physiol. 2007;211:307-15 pubmed
    ..Lebectin thus represents a new C-type lectin with anti-angiogenic properties with great potential for the treatment of angiogenesis-related diseases...
  9. Lomonte B, Angulo Y, Sasa M, Gutierrez J. The phospholipase A2 homologues of snake venoms: biological activities and their possible adaptive roles. Protein Pept Lett. 2009;16:860-76 pubmed
    ..structure, but devoid of this enzymatic activity, is commonly found in the venoms of snakes of the family Viperidae, and known as the PLA(2) homologues...
  10. Segura A, Villalta M, Herrera M, León G, Harrison R, Durfa N, et al. Preclinical assessment of the efficacy of a new antivenom (EchiTAb-Plus-ICP) for the treatment of viper envenoming in sub-Saharan Africa. Toxicon. 2010;55:369-74 pubmed publisher
    ..It therefore constitutes a promising therapeutic option for the treatment of snakebite envenoming in this region...
  11. Carneiro S, Fernandes W, Sant Anna S, Yamanouye N. Microvesicles in the venom of Crotalus durissus terrificus (Serpentes, Viperidae). Toxicon. 2007;49:106-10 pubmed
    ..A fine fuzzy coat surrounded each microvesicle. The function of these venom vesicles is still unknown, but they may contribute to inactivation of stored venom components, or their activation after the venom is released...
  12. Perumal Samy R, Gopalakrishnakone P, Bow H, Puspharaj P, Chow V. Identification and characterization of a phospholipase A2 from the venom of the Saw-scaled viper: Novel bactericidal and membrane damaging activities. Biochimie. 2010;92:1854-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, EcTx-I displays a heparin binding C-terminal region, which is probably responsible for the cytotoxic and bactericidal effects...
  13. Junqueira de Azevedo I, Ching A, Carvalho E, Faria F, Nishiyama M, Ho P, et al. Lachesis muta (Viperidae) cDNAs reveal diverging pit viper molecules and scaffolds typical of cobra (Elapidae) venoms: implications for snake toxin repertoire evolution. Genetics. 2006;173:877-89 pubmed
    Efforts to describe toxins from the two major families of venomous snakes (Viperidae and Elapidae) usually reveal proteins belonging to few structural types, particular of each family...
  14. Jonebring A, Lange U, Bucha E, Deinum J, Elg M, Lövgren A. Expression and characterization of recombinant ecarin. Protein J. 2012;31:353-8 pubmed publisher
    ..9 ?M. In conclusion, r-ecarin was identified as a promising candidate for replacement of native ecarin in assays utilizing conversion of prothrombin to thrombin...
  15. Faure G, Saul F. Crystallographic characterization of functional sites of crotoxin and ammodytoxin, potent ?-neurotoxins from Viperidae venom. Toxicon. 2012;60:531-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose future research directions based on knowledge of the recently reported 3D structures of crotoxin and ammodytoxin...
  16. Dollé J, Rezvan A, Allen F, Lazarovici P, Lelkes P. Nerve growth factor-induced migration of endothelial cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005;315:1220-7 pubmed
    ..The ability of NGF to stimulate migration of HAEC cells in vitro implies that this factor may play an important role in the cardiovascular system besides its well known effects in the nervous system...
  17. Lavonas E, Schaeffer T, Kokko J, Mlynarchek S, Bogdan G. Crotaline Fab antivenom appears to be effective in cases of severe North American pit viper envenomation: an integrative review. BMC Emerg Med. 2009;9:13 pubmed publisher
    ..No clinical trial data are available concerning the effectiveness of FabAV for treatment of severe snakebite, but several published articles describe its use in this setting...
  18. Tsai I, Wang Y, Cheng A, Starkov V, Osipov A, Nikitin I, et al. cDNA cloning, structural, and functional analyses of venom phospholipases A? and a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor from steppe viper Vipera ursinii renardi. Toxicon. 2011;57:332-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Vur-PL2B was weakly cytotoxic to rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells and showed both strong anticoagulant and anti-platelet activities. This is the first case of a strong anticoagulating ammodytin I analog in Vipera venom...
  19. Wüster W, Peppin L, Pook C, Walker D. A nesting of vipers: Phylogeny and historical biogeography of the Viperidae (Squamata: Serpentes). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2008;49:445-59 pubmed publisher
    Despite their medical interest, the phylogeny of the snake family Viperidae remains inadequately understood...
  20. Castoe T, Sasa M, Parkinson C. Modeling nucleotide evolution at the mesoscale: the phylogeny of the neotropical pitvipers of the Porthidium group (viperidae: crotalinae). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2005;37:881-98 pubmed
  21. Ogawa Y, Kanai Azuma M, Akimoto Y, Kawakami H, Yanoshita R. Exosome-like vesicles in Gloydius blomhoffii blomhoffii venom. Toxicon. 2008;51:984-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of these vesicles is still unknown, but they may affect blood pressure and glucose homeostasis following envenomation...
  22. Olfa K, José L, Salma D, Amine B, Najet S, Nicolas A, et al. Lebestatin, a disintegrin from Macrovipera venom, inhibits integrin-mediated cell adhesion, migration and angiogenesis. Lab Invest. 2005;85:1507-16 pubmed
    ..This disintegrin also affected adhesion and migration of endothelial cells and exhibited an anti-angiogenic effect in vivo when using the 8-day-old embryo chick chorioallantoic membrane model...
  23. Bazaa A, Marrakchi N, El Ayeb M, Sanz L, Calvete J. Snake venomics: comparative analysis of the venom proteomes of the Tunisian snakes Cerastes cerastes, Cerastes vipera and Macrovipera lebetina. Proteomics. 2005;5:4223-35 pubmed
  24. Harrison R, Ibison F, Wilbraham D, Wagstaff S. Identification of cDNAs encoding viper venom hyaluronidases: cross-generic sequence conservation of full-length and unusually short variant transcripts. Gene. 2007;392:22-33 pubmed
  25. Huang S, He S, Peng Z, Zhao K, Zhao E. Molecular phylogeography of endangered sharp-snouted pitviper (Deinagkistrodon acutus; Reptilia, Viperidae) in Mainland China. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2007;44:942-52 pubmed
    ..acutus population is a young population with low genetic diversity. Based on the data, the first priority for conservation action should be given to the Huangshan unit...
  26. Doley R, Pahari S, Mackessy S, Kini R. Accelerated exchange of exon segments in Viperid three-finger toxin genes (Sistrurus catenatus edwardsii; Desert Massasauga). BMC Evol Biol. 2008;8:196 pubmed publisher
    ..Venom proteins are encoded by multigene families that have evolved through a process of gene duplication followed by accelerated evolution in the protein coding region...
  27. Zhong S, Jin Y, Wu J, Chen R, Jia Y, Wang W, et al. Characterization and molecular cloning of dabocetin, a potent antiplatelet C-type lectin-like protein from Daboia russellii siamensis venom. Toxicon. 2006;47:104-12 pubmed
  28. Castoe T, Parkinson C. Bayesian mixed models and the phylogeny of pitvipers (Viperidae: Serpentes). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2006;39:91-110 pubmed
    ..While a majority of nodes were resolved, we could not confidently estimate the basal relationships among New World genera and which lineage of Old World species is most closely related to this New World group...
  29. Vaiyapuri S, Wagstaff S, Watson K, Harrison R, Gibbins J, Hutchinson E. Purification and functional characterisation of rhiminopeptidase A, a novel aminopeptidase from the venom of Bitis gabonica rhinoceros. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e796 pubmed publisher
  30. Lomonte B, Angulo Y, Moreno E. Synthetic peptides derived from the C-terminal region of Lys49 phospholipase A2 homologues from viperidae snake venoms: biomimetic activities and potential applications. Curr Pharm Des. 2010;16:3224-30 pubmed
    ..This review presents an updated summary on the biomimetic actions exerted by such peptides, and highlights their potential value as molecular tools or as drug leads in diverse biomedical areas. ..
  31. Zhang B, Liu Q, Yin W, Zhang X, Huang Y, Luo Y, et al. Transcriptome analysis of Deinagkistrodon acutus venomous gland focusing on cellular structure and functional aspects using expressed sequence tags. BMC Genomics. 2006;7:152 pubmed
    ..As far as the molecular mechanism of toxin secretion and metabolism is concerned, we still knew a little. Therefore, a fundamental question being arisen is what genes are expressed in the snake venom glands besides many toxin components?..
  32. Zouari Kessentini R, Luis J, Karray A, Kallech Ziri O, Srairi Abid N, Bazaa A, et al. Two purified and characterized phospholipases A2 from Cerastes cerastes venom, that inhibit cancerous cell adhesion and migration. Toxicon. 2009;53:444-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, both CC-PLA2-1 and CC-PLA2-2 abolished HT1080 cell migration towards fibrinogen and fibronectin. This activity is reported for the first time for PLA2 enzymes...
  33. Warrell D. Unscrupulous marketing of snake bite antivenoms in Africa and Papua New Guinea: choosing the right product--'what's in a name?'. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2008;102:397-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A major source of confusion is labelling antivenom with ambiguous snake names that fail to distinguish the Asian species whose venoms are used in their production from the local snakes whose venoms are antigenically dissimilar...
  34. Visser L, Kyei Faried S, Belcher D, Geelhoed D, van Leeuwen J, van Roosmalen J. Failure of a new antivenom to treat Echis ocellatus snake bite in rural Ghana: the importance of quality surveillance. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2008;102:445-50 pubmed publisher
    ..ocellatus snake venom. This illustrates the absolute need for regional pilot tests to assess the effectiveness of a new antivenom against local snake venoms before its sole and general distribution in a region is initiated...
  35. Bazaa A, Luis J, Srairi Abid N, Kallech Ziri O, Kessentini Zouari R, Defilles C, et al. MVL-PLA2, a phospholipase A2 from Macrovipera lebetina transmediterranea venom, inhibits tumor cells adhesion and migration. Matrix Biol. 2009;28:188-93 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding may serve as starting point for structure-function relationship studies leading to design a new generation of specific anti-cancer drugs...
  36. O Brien N, DeMott M, Suchard J, Clark R, Peterson B. Recurrent coagulopathy with delayed significant bleeding after crotaline envenomation. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2009;25:457-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Report of delayed significant coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia, and bleeding after Crotaline envenomation...
  37. Vija H, Samel M, Siigur E, Aaspõllu A, Trummal K, Tõnismägi K, et al. Purification, characterization, and cDNA cloning of acidic platelet aggregation inhibiting phospholipases A(2) from the snake venom of Vipera lebetina (Levantine viper). Toxicon. 2009;54:429-39 pubmed publisher
    ..The phylogenetic analysis on the basis of the amino acid sequence homology demonstrates that VLPLA(2)s grouped with other Asp49 PLA(2)s and they appear to share a close evolutionary relationship with the European vipers...
  38. Faure G, Gowda V, Maroun R. Characterization of a human coagulation factor Xa-binding site on Viperidae snake venom phospholipases A2 by affinity binding studies and molecular bioinformatics. BMC Struct Biol. 2007;7:82 pubmed
    The snake venom group IIA secreted phospholipases A2 (SVPLA2), present in the Viperidae snake family exhibit a wide range of toxic and pharmacological effects...
  39. Vaiyapuri S, Harrison R, Bicknell A, Gibbins J, Hutchinson G. Purification and functional characterisation of rhinocerase, a novel serine protease from the venom of Bitis gabonica rhinoceros. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9687 pubmed publisher
  40. Wagstaff S, Sanz L, Juárez P, Harrison R, Calvete J. Combined snake venomics and venom gland transcriptomic analysis of the ocellated carpet viper, Echis ocellatus. J Proteomics. 2009;71:609-23 pubmed publisher
  41. Karlson Stiber C, Salmonson H, Persson H. A nationwide study of Vipera berus bites during one year-epidemiology and morbidity of 231 cases. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2006;44:25-30 pubmed
    ..Design. Retrospective case review study...
  42. Juárez P, Comas I, Gonzalez Candelas F, Calvete J. Evolution of snake venom disintegrins by positive Darwinian selection. Mol Biol Evol. 2008;25:2391-407 pubmed publisher
    ..PII-disintegrins evolved in Viperidae by neofunctionalization of disintegrin-like domains of duplicated PIII-snake venom hemorrhagic metalloproteinase ..
  43. Corneille M, Larson S, Stewart R, Dent D, Myers J, Lopez P, et al. A large single-center experience with treatment of patients with crotalid envenomations: outcomes with and evolution of antivenin therapy. Am J Surg. 2006;192:848-52 pubmed
    ..Allergic reactions are fewer with ovine Fab antivenin (FabAV). This study describes the management of crotalid envenomations in patients treated with FabAV or ACP, and without antivenin...
  44. Eble J, Niland S, Bracht T, Mormann M, Peter Katalinic J, Pohlentz G, et al. The alpha2beta1 integrin-specific antagonist rhodocetin is a cruciform, heterotetrameric molecule. FASEB J. 2009;23:2917-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Being the first heterotetrameric CLP to be crystallized, rhodocetin provides not only the prototypic molecular structure for heterotetrameric CLPs, but also a lead structure for pharmaceutical alpha2beta1 integrin antagonists...
  45. Wagstaff S, Harrison R. Venom gland EST analysis of the saw-scaled viper, Echis ocellatus, reveals novel alpha9beta1 integrin-binding motifs in venom metalloproteinases and a new group of putative toxins, renin-like aspartic proteases. Gene. 2006;377:21-32 pubmed
    ..Most significantly, we identified for the first time a conserved alpha(9)beta(1) integrin-binding motif in several SVMPs, and a new group of putative venom toxins, renin-like aspartic proteases...
  46. Munawar A, Trusch M, Georgieva D, Spencer P, Frochaux V, Harder S, et al. Venom peptide analysis of Vipera ammodytes meridionalis (Viperinae) and Bothrops jararacussu (Crotalinae) demonstrates subfamily-specificity of the peptidome in the family Viperidae. Mol Biosyst. 2011;7:3298-307 pubmed publisher
    ..The data obtained so far show a subfamily specificity of the venom peptidome in the Viperidae family: BPPs are the major peptide component of the Crotalinae venom peptidome lacking Kunitz-type inhibitors (..
  47. Einterz E, Bates M. Snakebite in northern Cameroon: 134 victims of bites by the saw-scaled or carpet viper, Echis ocellatus. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2003;97:693-6 pubmed
  48. Tan C, Leong P, Fung S, Sim S, Ponnudurai G, Ariaratnam C, et al. Cross neutralization of Hypnale hypnale (hump-nosed pit viper) venom by polyvalent and monovalent Malayan pit viper antivenoms in vitro and in a rodent model. Acta Trop. 2011;117:119-24 pubmed publisher
    ..50mgvenom/mL antivenom), another common cause of snake bites in Sri Lanka and South India. These findings suggested that the Hemato polyvalent antivenom may be beneficial in the antivenom treatment of H. hypnale envenoming...
  49. Casewell N, Harrison R, Wüster W, Wagstaff S. Comparative venom gland transcriptome surveys of the saw-scaled vipers (Viperidae: Echis) reveal substantial intra-family gene diversity and novel venom transcripts. BMC Genomics. 2009;10:564 pubmed publisher
    ..We adopt a venom gland transcriptome approach in order to investigate the diversity of toxins in the genus and elucidate the mechanisms which result in prey-specific adaptations of venom composition...
  50. BROWN M, Calvete J, Staniszewska I, Walsh E, Perez Liz G, Del Valle L, et al. VEGF-related protein isolated from Vipera palestinae venom, promotes angiogenesis. Growth Factors. 2007;25:108-17 pubmed
    ..The experiments with dHMVEC, as well as angiogenesis in vivo suggest that the pro-angiogenic effect of vpVEGF is related to its interaction with VEGFR-2 (flk-1)...
  51. Carbajo R, Sanz L, Mosulén S, Perez A, Marcinkiewicz C, Pineda Lucena A, et al. NMR structure and dynamics of recombinant wild type and mutated jerdostatin, a selective inhibitor of integrin ?1?1. Proteins. 2011;79:2530-42 pubmed publisher
    ..A decrease in the ?s-ms time scale may impair the binding affinity by reducing the rate of possible conformations that the rJerK21 can adopt in this time scale...
  52. Wagstaff S, Laing G, Theakston R, Papaspyridis C, Harrison R. Bioinformatics and multiepitope DNA immunization to design rational snake antivenom. PLoS Med. 2006;3:e184 pubmed
    ..Here we exploit recent molecular sequence analysis and DNA immunization tools to design more rational toxin-targeted antivenom...
  53. Ogawa Y, Murayama N, Fujita Y, Yanoshita R. Characterization and cDNA cloning of aminopeptidase A from the venom of Gloydius blomhoffi brevicaudus. Toxicon. 2007;49:1172-81 pubmed
    ..The deduced amino acid sequence shows approximately 60% sequence identity to mammalian APA sequences. This is the first study to report the primary structure of APA from a reptile...