dinosaurs

Summary

Summary: General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.

Top Publications

  1. Koehl M, Evangelista D, Yang K. Using physical models to study the gliding performance of extinct animals. Integr Comp Biol. 2011;51:1002-18 pubmed publisher
    ..gui make little difference to that aspect of aerodynamic performance. We found that body orientation relative to the movement of air past the animal determines whether it is difficult or easy to maneuver...
  2. Wilson J, D Emic M, Ikejiri T, Moacdieh E, Whitlock J. A nomenclature for vertebral fossae in sauropods and other saurischian dinosaurs. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17114 pubmed publisher
    The axial skeleton of extinct saurischian dinosaurs (i.e., theropods, sauropodomorphs), like living birds, was pneumatized by epithelial outpocketings of the respiratory system...
  3. Remes K, Ortega F, Fierro I, Joger U, Kosma R, Ferrer J, et al. A new basal sauropod dinosaur from the middle Jurassic of Niger and the early evolution of sauropoda. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6924 pubmed publisher
    The early evolution of sauropod dinosaurs is poorly understood because of a highly incomplete fossil record...
  4. Codron D, Carbone C, Müller D, Clauss M. Ontogenetic niche shifts in dinosaurs influenced size, diversity and extinction in terrestrial vertebrates. Biol Lett. 2012;8:620-3 pubmed publisher
    Given the physiological limits to egg size, large-bodied non-avian dinosaurs experienced some of the most extreme shifts in size during postnatal ontogeny found in terrestrial vertebrate systems...
  5. Klein N, Christian A, Sander P. Histology shows that elongated neck ribs in sauropod dinosaurs are ossified tendons. Biol Lett. 2012;8:1032-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This is contrary to the VBH, which requires compressive forces along the neck. Tension forces would allow important neck muscles to shift back to the trunk region, making the neck much lighter...
  6. Godefroit P, Golovneva L, Shchepetov S, Garcia G, Alekseev P. The last polar dinosaurs: high diversity of latest Cretaceous arctic dinosaurs in Russia. Naturwissenschaften. 2009;96:495-501 pubmed publisher
    ..million years ago) vertebrate microfossil assemblage discovered at Kakanaut in northeastern Russia reveals that dinosaurs were still highly diversified in Arctic regions just before the Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction event...
  7. Farke A. Anatomy and taxonomic status of the chasmosaurine ceratopsid Nedoceratops hatcheri from the upper Cretaceous Lance Formation of Wyoming, U.S.A. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16196 pubmed publisher
    ..hatcheri represents an intermediate ontogenetic stage between "young adult" and "old adult" forms of a single taxon previously split into Triceratops and Torosaurus...
  8. Wedel M. Evidence for bird-like air sacs in saurischian dinosaurs. J Exp Zool A Ecol Genet Physiol. 2009;311:611-28 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of postcranial pneumaticity in sauropod and theropod dinosaurs suggests that some form of air sac system was also present in the dinosaurian ancestors of birds...
  9. Knell R, Naish D, Tomkins J, Hone D. Sexual selection in prehistoric animals: detection and implications. Trends Ecol Evol. 2013;28:38-47 pubmed publisher
    ..In other cases, a careful study of features such as sexual dimorphism, ontogeny, and allometry, coupled with testing of alternative hypotheses, will be necessary to distinguish between possible explanations for exaggerated features...

Scientific Experts

More Information

Publications62

  1. Sellers W, Hepworth Bell J, Falkingham P, Bates K, Brassey C, Egerton V, et al. Minimum convex hull mass estimations of complete mounted skeletons. Biol Lett. 2012;8:842-5 pubmed publisher
    ..body mass where a mounted skeletal reconstruction is available and demonstrate its usage to predict the body mass of one of the largest, relatively complete sauropod dinosaurs: Giraffatitan brancai (previously Brachiosaurus) as 23200 kg.
  2. Stein K, Csiki Z, Rogers K, Weishampel D, Redelstorff R, Carballido J, et al. Small body size and extreme cortical bone remodeling indicate phyletic dwarfism in Magyarosaurus dacus (Sauropoda: Titanosauria). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:9258-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The diminutive M. dacus was a classical example of island dwarfism (phyletic nanism) in dinosaurs, but a recent study suggested that the small Romanian titanosaurs actually represent juveniles of a larger-..
  3. McDonald A, Kirkland J, DeBlieux D, Madsen S, Cavin J, Milner A, et al. New basal iguanodonts from the Cedar Mountain formation of Utah and the evolution of thumb-spiked dinosaurs. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14075 pubmed publisher
    Basal iguanodontian dinosaurs were extremely successful animals, found in great abundance and diversity almost worldwide during the Early Cretaceous...
  4. Wilson J, Mohabey D, Peters S, Head J. Predation upon hatchling dinosaurs by a new snake from the late Cretaceous of India. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000322 pubmed publisher
    ..direct evidence of feeding ecology in a Mesozoic snake and demonstrate predation risks for hatchling sauropod dinosaurs. Our results suggest that large body size and jaw mobility afforded some non-macrostomatan snakes a greater ..
  5. Milner A, Harris J, Lockley M, Kirkland J, Matthews N. Bird-like anatomy, posture, and behavior revealed by an early jurassic theropod dinosaur resting trace. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4591 pubmed publisher
    Fossil tracks made by non-avian theropod dinosaurs commonly reflect the habitual bipedal stance retained in living birds. Only rarely-captured behaviors, such as crouching, might create impressions made by the hands...
  6. Ibrahim N, Unwin D, Martill D, Baidder L, Zouhri S. A new pterosaur (Pterodactyloidea: Azhdarchidae) from the Upper Cretaceous of Morocco. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10875 pubmed publisher
    ..This, the relatively large size achieved by Alanqa, and the additional evidence of variable jaw morphology in azhdarchids provided by this taxon, indicates a longer and more complex history for this clade than previously suspected...
  7. Dececchi T, Larsson H. Assessing arboreal adaptations of bird antecedents: testing the ecological setting of the origin of the avian flight stroke. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22292 pubmed publisher
  8. Witmer L, Ridgely R. The paranasal air sinuses of predatory and armored dinosaurs (archosauria: theropoda and ankylosauria) and their contribution to cephalic structure. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2008;291:1362-88 pubmed publisher
    ..and nasal cavities were studied along with other cephalic spaces (brain cavity, paratympanic sinuses) in certain dinosaurs via CT scanning and 3D visualization to document the anatomy and examine the contribution of the sinuses to the ..
  9. Bell P, Snively E, Shychoski L. A comparison of the jaw mechanics in hadrosaurid and ceratopsid dinosaurs using finite element analysis. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2009;292:1338-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings corroborate previous interpretations and suggest complementary or alternative kinematics to maxillary pleurokinesis in hadrosaurs...
  10. Hieronymus T, Witmer L, Tanke D, Currie P. The facial integument of centrosaurine ceratopsids: morphological and histological correlates of novel skin structures. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2009;292:1370-96 pubmed publisher
    ..From this comparison we propose that the rugose bosses that replace horn cores in many centrosaurine dinosaurs, most notably Achelousaurus and Pachyrhinosaurus, were covered by a thick pad of cornified skin derived from the ..
  11. Vavrek M, Larsson H. Low beta diversity of Maastrichtian dinosaurs of North America. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:8265-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We present here an analysis of beta diversity of a Maastrichtian (71-65 million years old) assemblage of dinosaurs from the Western Interior of North America, a region that covers approximately 1...
  12. Kellner A. Comments on the Pteranodontidae (Pterosauria, Pterodactyloidea) with the description of two new species. An Acad Bras Cienc. 2010;82:1063-84 pubmed
    ..Although the present study has not eliminated the possibility to recognize such differences, caution is needed before models are generalized for pterosaurs...
  13. Bates K, Maidment S, Allen V, Barrett P. Computational modelling of locomotor muscle moment arms in the basal dinosaur Lesothosaurus diagnosticus: assessing convergence between birds and basal ornithischians. J Anat. 2012;220:212-32 pubmed publisher
    Ornithischia (the 'bird-hipped' dinosaurs) encompasses bipedal, facultative quadrupedal and quadrupedal taxa...
  14. Libby T, Moore T, Chang Siu E, Li D, Cohen D, Jusufi A, et al. Tail-assisted pitch control in lizards, robots and dinosaurs. Nature. 2012;481:181-4 pubmed publisher
    In 1969, a palaeontologist proposed that theropod dinosaurs used their tails as dynamic stabilizers during rapid or irregular movements, contributing to their depiction as active and agile predators...
  15. Vullo R, Marugán Lobón J, Kellner A, Buscalioni A, Gomez B, de la Fuente M, et al. A new crested pterosaur from the Early Cretaceous of Spain: the first European tapejarid (Pterodactyloidea: Azhdarchoidea). PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38900 pubmed publisher
    ..So far, the presence of these intriguing flying reptiles has been unambiguously documented from Early Cretaceous sites in China and Brazil, where pterosaur fossils are less rare and fragmentary than in similarly-aged European strata...
  16. Vila B, Oms O, Galobart A, Bates K, Egerton V, Manning P. Dynamic similarity in titanosaur sauropods: ichnological evidence from the Fumanya dinosaur tracksite (southern Pyrenees). PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e57408 pubmed publisher
    ..These results strengthen the hypothesis that titanosaurs possessed a distinctive suite of anatomical characteristics that are well reflected in their tracks and trackways...
  17. Yates A, Bonnan M, Neveling J, Chinsamy A, Blackbeard M. A new transitional sauropodomorph dinosaur from the Early Jurassic of South Africa and the evolution of sauropod feeding and quadrupedalism. Proc Biol Sci. 2010;277:787-94 pubmed publisher
  18. Li Q, Gao K, Vinther J, Shawkey M, Clarke J, D Alba L, et al. Plumage color patterns of an extinct dinosaur. Science. 2010;327:1369-72 pubmed publisher
    For as long as dinosaurs have been known to exist, there has been speculation about their appearance...
  19. Kohler M, Marín Moratalla N, Jordana X, Aanes R. Seasonal bone growth and physiology in endotherms shed light on dinosaur physiology. Nature. 2012;487:358-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The ruminant annual cycle provides an extant model on which to base inferences regarding the thermophysiology of dinosaurs and other extinct taxa.
  20. Young M, Rayfield E, Holliday C, Witmer L, Button D, Upchurch P, et al. Cranial biomechanics of Diplodocus (Dinosauria, Sauropoda): testing hypotheses of feeding behaviour in an extinct megaherbivore. Naturwissenschaften. 2012;99:637-43 pubmed publisher
    Sauropod dinosaurs were the largest terrestrial herbivores and pushed at the limits of vertebrate biomechanics and physiology...
  21. Whitlock J. Inferences of diplodocoid (Sauropoda: Dinosauria) feeding behavior from snout shape and microwear analyses. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18304 pubmed publisher
    As gigantic herbivores, sauropod dinosaurs were among the most important members of Mesozoic communities. Understanding their ecology is fundamental to developing a complete picture of Jurassic and Cretaceous food webs...
  22. Zhang F, Zhou Z, Xu X, Wang X, Sullivan C. A bizarre Jurassic maniraptoran from China with elongate ribbon-like feathers. Nature. 2008;455:1105-8 pubmed publisher
    Recent coelurosaurian discoveries have greatly enriched our knowledge of the transition from dinosaurs to birds, but all reported taxa close to this transition are from relatively well known coelurosaurian groups...
  23. Sampson S, Loewen M, Farke A, Roberts E, Forster C, Smith J, et al. New horned dinosaurs from Utah provide evidence for intracontinental dinosaur endemism. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12292 pubmed publisher
    ..western landmass, known as Laramidia, although diminutive in size, witnessed a major evolutionary radiation of dinosaurs. Other than hadrosaurs (duck-billed dinosaurs), the most common dinosaurs were ceratopsids (large-bodied horned ..
  24. Barrett P, Benson R, Rich T, Vickers Rich P. First spinosaurid dinosaur from Australia and the cosmopolitanism of Cretaceous dinosaur faunas. Biol Lett. 2011;7:933-6 pubmed publisher
  25. Mallon J, Anderson J. Skull ecomorphology of megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the dinosaur park formation (upper campanian) of Alberta, Canada. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e67182 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we apply traditional morphometric methods to the skulls of megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta to infer the ecomorphology of these animals and to ..
  26. Arbour V. Estimating impact forces of tail club strikes by ankylosaurid dinosaurs. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6738 pubmed publisher
    It has been assumed that the unusual tail club of ankylosaurid dinosaurs was used actively as a weapon, but the biological feasibility of this behaviour has not been examined in detail...
  27. Zelenitsky D, Therrien F, Kobayashi Y. Olfactory acuity in theropods: palaeobiological and evolutionary implications. Proc Biol Sci. 2009;276:667-73 pubmed publisher
    This research presents the first quantitative evaluation of the olfactory acuity in extinct theropod dinosaurs. Olfactory ratios (i.e...
  28. Evans D, Ridgely R, Witmer L. Endocranial anatomy of lambeosaurine hadrosaurids (Dinosauria: Ornithischia): a sensorineural perspective on cranial crest function. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2009;292:1315-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The brain is relatively large in lambeosaurines compared with many other large dinosaurs, and the cerebrum is relatively larger than that of all non-hadrosaurian ornithischians and large theropods, but ..
  29. Zelenitsky D, Therrien F, Ridgely R, McGee A, Witmer L. Evolution of olfaction in non-avian theropod dinosaurs and birds. Proc Biol Sci. 2011;278:3625-34 pubmed publisher
  30. Wang X, Kellner A, Jiang S, Cheng X. New toothed flying reptile from Asia: close similarities between early Cretaceous pterosaur faunas from China and Brazil. Naturwissenschaften. 2012;99:249-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The association of the new specimen with coprolites and the cranial morphology suggest that G. venator preyed on fish...
  31. Lü J, Currie P, Xu L, Zhang X, Pu H, Jia S. Chicken-sized oviraptorid dinosaurs from central China and their ontogenetic implications. Naturwissenschaften. 2013;100:165-75 pubmed publisher
    Oviraptorids are a group of specialized non-avian theropod dinosaurs that were generally one to 8 m in body length. New specimens of baby oviraptorids from the Late Cretaceous of Henan Province are some of the smallest individuals known...
  32. Vila B, Jackson F, Fortuny J, Sellés A, Galobart A. 3-D modelling of megaloolithid clutches: insights about nest construction and dinosaur behaviour. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10362 pubmed publisher
    Megaloolithid eggs have long been associated with sauropod dinosaurs. Despite their extensive and worldwide fossil record, interpretations of egg size and shape, clutch morphology, and incubation strategy vary...
  33. Brown C, Russell A. Homology and architecture of the caudal basket of Pachycephalosauria (Dinosauria: Ornithischia): the first occurrence of myorhabdoi in Tetrapoda. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30212 pubmed publisher
    ..The homology and functional significance of these structures have remained elusive as they were originally interpreted to be abdominal ribs or gastralia, and more recently have been interpreted as de novo structures in the tail...
  34. Bates K, Manning P, Hodgetts D, Sellers W. Estimating mass properties of dinosaurs using laser imaging and 3D computer modelling. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4532 pubmed publisher
  35. Sereno P, Xijin Z, Lin T. A new psittacosaur from Inner Mongolia and the parrot-like structure and function of the psittacosaur skull. Proc Biol Sci. 2010;277:199-209 pubmed publisher
    ..With this jaw mechanism, psittacosaurs were able to maintain oblique shearing occlusion in an akinetic skull designed to resist high bite forces...
  36. Seymour R. Raising the sauropod neck: it costs more to get less. Biol Lett. 2009;5:317-9 pubmed publisher
    The long necks of gigantic sauropod dinosaurs are commonly assumed to have been used for high browsing to obtain enough food. However, this analysis questions whether such a posture was reasonable from the standpoint of energetics...
  37. Zheng X, You H, Xu X, Dong Z. An Early Cretaceous heterodontosaurid dinosaur with filamentous integumentary structures. Nature. 2009;458:333-6 pubmed publisher
    Ornithischia is one of the two major groups of dinosaurs, with heterodontosauridae as one of its major clades. Heterodontosauridae is characterized by small, gracile bodies and a problematic phylogenetic position...
  38. Knoll F, Ridgely R, Ortega F, Sanz J, Witmer L. Neurocranial osteology and neuroanatomy of a late Cretaceous titanosaurian sauropod from Spain (Ampelosaurus sp.). PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54991 pubmed publisher
    Titanosaurians were a flourishing group of sauropod dinosaurs during Cretaceous times. Fossils of titanosaurians have been found on all continents and their remains are abundant in a number of Late Cretaceous sites...
  39. Noto C, Grossman A. Broad-scale patterns of late jurassic dinosaur paleoecology. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12553 pubmed publisher
    ..However, these distribution data have not yet been applied to ecological questions. Ecological studies of dinosaurs have tended to focus on reconstructing individual taxa, usually through comparisons to modern analogs...
  40. Organ C, Schweitzer M, Zheng W, Freimark L, Cantley L, Asara J. Molecular phylogenetics of mastodon and Tyrannosaurus rex. Science. 2008;320:499 pubmed publisher
    ..report a molecular phylogeny for a nonavian dinosaur, extending our knowledge of trait evolution within nonavian dinosaurs into the macromolecular level of biological organization...
  41. Li D, Norell M, Gao K, Smith N, Makovicky P. A longirostrine tyrannosauroid from the Early Cretaceous of China. Proc Biol Sci. 2010;277:183-90 pubmed publisher
  42. Buckley M, Walker A, Ho S, Yang Y, Smith C, Ashton P, et al. Comment on "Protein sequences from mastodon and Tyrannosaurus rex revealed by mass spectrometry". Science. 2008;319:33; author reply 33 pubmed publisher
    ..rex does not...
  43. Wilson G, Evans A, Corfe I, Smits P, Fortelius M, Jernvall J. Adaptive radiation of multituberculate mammals before the extinction of dinosaurs. Nature. 2012;483:457-60 pubmed publisher
    ..to roles as generalized, small-bodied, nocturnal insectivores, presumably under selection pressures from dinosaurs. Release from these pressures, by extinction of non-avian dinosaurs at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary, ..
  44. Horner J, Goodwin M. Extreme cranial ontogeny in the upper cretaceous dinosaur pachycephalosaurus. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7626 pubmed publisher
    ..neoteny and late stage allometric growth increase morphological disparity between growth stages in at least some dinosaurs. Coupled with relatively low dinosaur density in the Upper Cretaceous of North America, ontogenetic ..
  45. Langer M, Ezcurra M, Bittencourt J, Novas F. The origin and early evolution of dinosaurs. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 2010;85:55-110 pubmed publisher
    ..a possibly monophyletic group composed of Mid-Late Triassic forms that may represent immediate sister taxa to dinosaurs. The first phylogenetic definition to fit the current understanding of Dinosauria as a node-based taxon solely ..
  46. Senter P. Using creation science to demonstrate evolution: application of a creationist method for visualizing gaps in the fossil record to a phylogenetic study of coelurosaurian dinosaurs. J Evol Biol. 2010;23:1732-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, I apply CMDS to a phylogenetic analysis of coelurosaurian dinosaurs and show that it reveals morphological continuity between Archaeopteryx, other early birds, and a wide range of ..
  47. Arbour V, Currie P. Analyzing taphonomic deformation of ankylosaur skulls using retrodeformation and finite element analysis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e39323 pubmed publisher
  48. Brusatte S, Sakamoto M, Montanari S, Harcourt Smith W. The evolution of cranial form and function in theropod dinosaurs: insights from geometric morphometrics. J Evol Biol. 2012;25:365-77 pubmed publisher
    Theropod dinosaurs, an iconic clade of fossil species including Tyrannosaurus and Velociraptor, developed a great diversity of body size, skull form and feeding habits over their 160+ million year evolutionary history...
  49. Birn Jeffery A, Miller C, Naish D, Rayfield E, Hone D. Pedal claw curvature in birds, lizards and mesozoic dinosaurs--complicated categories and compensating for mass-specific and phylogenetic control. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50555 pubmed publisher
    ..Ground-dweller' claws are less curved and relatively dorsoventrally deep relative to those of other behavioural categories; beyond this it is difficult to assign an explicit category to a claw based purely on geometry...
  50. Xu X, You H, Du K, Han F. An Archaeopteryx-like theropod from China and the origin of Avialae. Nature. 2011;475:465-70 pubmed publisher
    ..If this new phylogenetic hypothesis can be confirmed by further investigation, current assumptions regarding the avialan ancestral condition will need to be re-evaluated...
  51. Osi A, Butler R, Weishampel D. A Late Cretaceous ceratopsian dinosaur from Europe with Asian affinities. Nature. 2010;465:466-8 pubmed publisher
    Ceratopsians (horned dinosaurs) represent a highly diverse and abundant radiation of non-avian dinosaurs known primarily from the Cretaceous period (65-145 million years ago)...
  52. Kellner A, Rubilar Rogers D, Vargas A, Suárez M. A new titanosaur sauropod from the Atacama Desert, Chile. An Acad Bras Cienc. 2011;83:211-9 pubmed
    ..The new specimen represents the most complete dinosaur reported for this region and one of the most complete titanosaur known from Chile and the pacific margin of South America so far...
  53. Kellner A, Wang X, Tischlinger H, de Almeida Campos D, Hone D, Meng X. The soft tissue of Jeholopterus (Pterosauria, Anurognathidae, Batrachognathinae) and the structure of the pterosaur wing membrane. Proc Biol Sci. 2010;277:321-9 pubmed publisher